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معلومات بسيطة حول الوقود البترولي ((البنزين)) الكاسولين ** Gasoline

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    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي
    حسن هادي
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    عضو متميز

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    معلومات بسيطة حول الوقود البترولي ((البنزين)) الكاسولين ** Gasoline

    بعد الاتكال على الله دفعتنا الرغبة في تسليط الضوء حول ما وجدناه من ملفات تتضمن معلومات حول الوقود البترولي بصورةعامة والبنزين خاصة فارتايت ان ادرج الموضوع في قسم هندسة البترول * مع فائق الاحترام اخوكم حسن الطائي /


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  2. [2]
    حسن هادي
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    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    ومن خلال موسوعة الويكابيديا

    Gasoline

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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    "Petrol" redirects here. For other uses, see Petrol (disambiguation).

    A container for storing gasoline used in the United States; red containers are typically used.


    Gasoline (gas) or petroleum spirit (petrol) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting mostly of aliphatic hydrocarbons, enhanced with iso-octane or the aromatic hydrocarbons toluene and benzene to increase its octane rating, and is primarily used as fuel in internal combustion engines.
    Most Commonwealth countries or former Commonwealth countries (with the exception of Canada) use the term "petrol" (abbreviated from petroleum spirit). The term "gasoline" is commonly used in North America where it is often shortened in colloquial usage to "gas." This should be distinguished in usage from genuinely gaseous fuels used in internal combustion engines such as liquefied petroleum gas (which is stored pressurised as a liquid but is allowed to return naturally to a gaseous state before combustion).
    The term mogas, short for motor gasoline, distinguishes automobile fuel from aviation gasoline, or avgas. The word "gasoline" can also be used in British English to refer to a different petroleum derivative historically used in lamps, but this use is now uncommon.
    *******s

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    [edit] History

    Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons, although some may contain significant quantities of ethanol and some may contain small quantities of additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether as anti-knock agents to increase the octane rating. The hydrocarbons consist of a mixture of n-paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. Naphthenes, olefins and aromatics increase the octane rating of the gasoline whereas the n-paraffins have the opposite effect.[1]

    [edit] Early uses

    Before gasoline was used as fuel for engines, it was sold in small bottles as a treatment against lice and their eggs. At that time, the word Petrol was a trade name. This treatment method is no longer common, because of the inherent fire hazard and the risk of dermatitis.
    In the U.S., gasoline was also sold as a cleaning fluid to remove grease stains from clothing. Before dedicated filling stations were established, early motorists would buy gasoline in cans to fill their tanks.
    The name gasoline is similar to that of other petroleum products of the day, most notably petroleum jelly, a highly purified heavy distillate, which was branded Vaseline. The trademark Gasoline, however, was never registered, and thus became generic. Gasoline was also used in kitchen ranges and for lighting, and is still available in a highly purified form, known as camping fuel or white gas, for use in lanterns and portable stoves.
    During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), pétrole was stockpiled in Paris for use against a possible German-Prussian attack on the city. Later in 1871, during the revolutionary Paris Commune, rumours spread around the city of pétroleuses, women using bottles of petrol to commit arson against city buildings.

    [edit] Etymology

    The word "gasolene" was coined in 1865 from the word gas and the chemical suffix -ine/-ene. The modern spelling was first used in 1871. The shortened form "gas" was first recorded in American English in 1905.[2] Gasoline originally referred to any liquid used as the fuel for a gasoline-powered engine, other than diesel fuel or liquefied gas; methanol racing fuel would have been classed as a type of gasoline.[3]
    The word "petrol" was first used in reference to the refined substance as early as 1892 (it was previously used to refer to unrefined petroleum), and was registered as a trade name by British wholesaler Carless, Capel & Leonard at the suggestion of Frederick Richard Simms.[4] Although it was never officially registered as a trademark, Carless's competitors used the term "Motor Spirit" until the 1930s.[2][5] It has also been suggested that the word was coined by Edward Butler in 1887.[6]
    In Germany and some other European countries, gasoline is called Benzin (German and Danish), Bensin (Swedish and Norwegian), Benzyna (Polish), Benzina (Catalan), Benzină (Romanian), Бензин (Russian), and other variants of this word. The usage does not derive from Bertha Benz, who used chemist shops to purchase the gasoline for her famous drive from Mannheim to Pforzheim in 1888, but from the chemical benzene.

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  3. [3]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    Chemical analysis and production

    Petrol pumps


    Gasoline is produced in oil refineries. Material that is separated from crude oil via distillation, called virgin or straight-run gasoline, does not meet the required specifications for modern engines (in particular octane rating; see below), but will form part of the blend.
    The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of hydrocarbons with between 5 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule.
    Many of these hydrocarbons are considered hazardous substances and are regulated in the United States by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The Material Safety Data Sheet for unleaded gasoline shows at least fifteen hazardous chemicals occurring in various amounts. These include benzene (up to 5% by volume), toluene (up to 35% by volume), naphthalene (up to 1% by volume), trimethylbenzene (up to 7% by volume), MTBE (up to 18% by volume) and about 10 others.[7]
    The various refinery streams blended together to make gasoline all have different characteristics. Some important streams are:
    • Reformate, produced in a catalytic reformer with a high octane rating and high aromatic *******, and very low olefins (alkenes).
    • Cat Cracked Gasoline or Cat Cracked Naphtha, produced from a catalytic cracker, with a moderate octane rating, high olefins (alkene) *******, and moderate aromatics level. Here, "cat" is short for "catalytic".
    • Hydrocrackate (Heavy, Mid, and Light), produced from a hydrocracker, with medium to low octane rating and moderate aromatic levels.
    • Virgin or Straight-run Naphtha (has many names), directly from crude oil with low octane rating, low aromatics (depending on the crude oil), some naphthenes (cycloalkanes) and no olefins (alkenes).
    • Alkylate, produced in an alkylation unit, with a high octane rating and which is pure paraffin (alkane), mainly branched chains.
    • Isomerate (various names) which is obtained by isomerising the pentane and hexane in light virgin naphthas to yield their higher octane isomers.
    (The terms used here are not always the correct chemical terms. They are the jargon normally used in the oil industry. The exact terminology for these streams varies by refinery and by country.)
    Overall a typical gasoline is predominantly a mixture of paraffins (alkanes), naphthenes (cycloalkanes), and olefins (alkenes). The exact ratios can depend on
    • the oil refinery that makes the gasoline, as not all refineries have the same set of processing units.
    • the crude oil feed used by the refinery.
    • the grade of gasoline, in particular the octane rating.
    Currently many countries set tight limits on gasoline aromatics in general, benzene in particular, and olefin (alkene) *******. This is increasing the demand for high octane pure paraffin (alkane) components, such as alkylate, and is forcing refineries to add processing units to reduce the benzene *******.
    Gasoline can also contain some other organic compounds: such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular sulfur compounds such as disulfides and thiophenes. Some contaminants, in particular thiols and hydrogen sulfide, must be removed because they cause corrosion in engines. Sulfur compounds are usually removed by hydrotreating, yielding hydrogen sulfide which can then be transformed into elemental sulfur via the Claus process.
    The density of gasoline is approx. 0.784 gm/cc, which means it floats on water. This may be advantageous in the event of a spill. It is flammable and can burn while floating over water.

    [edit] Volatility


    A container for storing gasoline used in Germany


    Gasoline is more volatile than diesel oil, Jet-A or kerosene, not only because of the base constituents, but because of the additives that are put into it. The final control of volatility is often achieved by blending with butane. The Reid Vapor Pressure test is used to measure the volatility of gasoline. The desired volatility depends on the ambient temperature: in hotter climates, gasoline components of higher molecular weight and thus lower volatility are used. In cold climates, too little volatility results in cars failing to start. In hot climates, excessive volatility results in what is known as "vapour lock" where combustion fails to occur, because the liquid fuel has changed to a gaseous fuel in the fuel lines.
    In the United States, volatility is regulated in large urban centers to reduce the emission of unburned hydrocarbons. In large cities, so-called reformulated gasoline that is less prone to evaporation, among other properties, is required. In Australia summer petrol volatility limits are set by State Governments and vary between capital cities. Most countries simply have a summer, winter and perhaps intermediate limit.
    Volatility standards may be relaxed (allowing more gasoline components into the atmosphere) during emergency anticipated gasoline shortages. For example, on 31 August 2005 in response to Hurricane Katrina, the United States permitted the sale of non-reformulated gasoline in some urban areas, which effectively permitted an early switch from summer to winter-grade gasoline. As mandated by EPA administrator Stephen L. Johnson, this "fuel waiver" was made effective through 15 September 2005.[8] Though relaxed volatility standards may increase the atmospheric concentration of volatile organic compounds in warm weather, higher volatility gasoline effectively increases a nation's gasoline supply because the amount of butane in the gasoline pool is allowed to increase.[citation needed]

    [edit] Octane rating

    For more details on this topic, see octane rating.
    An important characteristic of gasoline is its octane rating, which is a measure of how resistant gasoline is to the abnormal combustion phenomenon known as detonation (also known as knocking, pinging, spark knock, and other names). Deflagration is the normal type of combustion. Octane rating is measured relative to a mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (an isomer of octane) and n-heptane. There are a number of different conventions for expressing the octane rating; therefore, the same fuel may be labeled with a different number, depending upon the system used.

    [edit] World War II and octane ratings


    This article needs additional citations for verification.
    Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2007)
    During World War II, Germany received much of its oil from Romania. From 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m³) in 1938, Romania’s exports to Germany increased to 13 million barrels (2,100,000 m³) by 1941, a level that was essentially maintained through 1942 and 1943, before dropping by half, due to Allied bombing and mining of the Danube. Although these exports were almost half of Romania’s total production, they were considerably less than what the Germans expected. Even with the addition of the Romanian deliveries, overland oil imports after 1939 could not make up for the loss of overseas shipments. In order to become less dependent on outside sources, the Germans undertook a sizable expansion program of their own meager domestic oil pumping. After 1938, the Austrian oil fields were made available, and the expansion of Nazi crude oil output was chiefly concentrated there. Primarily as a result of this expansion, the Reich's domestic output of crude oil increased from approximately 3.8 million barrels (600,000 m³) in 1938 to almost 12 million barrels (1,900,000 m³) in 1944. Even this was not enough.
    Instead, Germany had developed a synthetic fuel capacity that was intended to replace imported or captured oil. Fuels were generated from coal, using either the Bergius process or the Fischer-Tropsch process. Between 1938 and 1943, synthetic fuel output underwent a respectable growth from 10 million barrels (1,600,000 m³) to 36 million. The percentage of synthetic fuels compared with the yield from all sources grew from 22 percent to more than 50 percent by 1943. The total oil supplies available from all sources for the same period rose from 45 million barrels (7,200,000 m³) in 1938 to 71 million barrels (11,300,000 m³) in 1943.
    By the early 1930s, automobile gasoline had an octane reading of 40 and aviation gasoline of 75-80. Aviation gasoline with such high octane numbers could only be refined through a process of distillation of high-grade petroleum. Germany’s domestic oil was not of this quality. Only the additive tetra-ethyl lead could raise the octane to a maximum of 87. The license for the production of this additive was acquired in 1935 from the American holder of the patents, but without high-grade Romanian oil even this additive was not very effective. 100 octane fuel, designated either 'C-2' (natural) or 'C-3' (synthethic) was introduced in late 1939 with the Daimler-Benz DB 601N engine, used in certain of the Luftwaffe`s Bf 109E and Bf 109F single-engined fighters, Bf 110C twin-engined fighters, and several bomber types. Some later combat types, most notably the BMW 801D-powered Fw 190A, F and G series, and later war Bf 109G and K models, used C-3 as well. The nominally 87 octane aviation fuel, designated 'B-4' was produced in parallel during the war.
    In the US the oil was not "as good," and the oil industry had to invest heavily in various expensive boosting systems. This turned out to have benefits: the US industry started delivering fuels of increasing octane ratings by adding more of the boosting agents, and the infrastructure was in place for a post-war octane-agents additive industry. Good crude oil was no longer a factor during wartime, and by war's end, American aviation fuel was commonly 130 octane, and 150 octane was available in limited quantities for fighters from the summer of 1944. This high octane could easily be used in existing engines to deliver much more power by increasing the pressure delivered by the superchargers.
    In late 1942, the Germans increased to octane rating of their high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel to 150 octane. The relative volumes of production of the two grades B-4 and C-3 cannot be accurately given, but in the last war years perhaps two-thirds of the total was C-3. Every effort was being made toward the end of the war to increase isoparaffin production; more isoparaffin meant more C-3 available for fighter plane use.
    A common misapprehension exists concerning wartime fuel octane numbers. There are two octane numbers for each fuel, one for lean mix and one for rich mix, rich being greater. The misunderstanding that German fuels had a lower octane number (and thus a poorer quality) arose because the Germans quoted the lean mix octane number for their fuels while the Allies quoted the rich mix number. Standard German high-grade 'C-3' aviation fuel used in the later part of the war had lean/rich octane numbers of 100/130. The Germans would list this as a 100 octane fuel while the Allies would list it as 130 octane.
    After the war the US Navy sent a Technical Mission to Germany to interview German petrochemists and examine German fuel quality. Their report entitled “Technical Report 145-45 Manufacture of Aviation Gasoline in Germany” chemically analyzed the different fuels, and concluded that “Toward the end of the war the quality of fuel being used by the German fighter planes was quite similar to that being used by the Allies.”

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    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    اليكم الرابط http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline

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