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  1. [71]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    UltraSonic Radar


    General Description
    This is a very interesting project with many practical applications in security and alarm systems for homes, shops and cars. It consists of a set of ultrasonic receiver and transmitter which operate at the same frequency. When something moves in the area covered by the circuit the circuit’s fine balance is disturbed and the alarm is triggered. The circuit is very sensitive and can be adjusted to reset itself automatically or to stay triggered till it is reset manually after an alarm.


    Technical Specifications - Characteristics

    Working voltage: 12V DC

    Current: 30 mA


    How it Works

    As it has already been stated the circuit consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and a receiver both of which work at the same frequency. They use ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers as output and input devices respectively and their frequency of operation is determined by the particular devices in use.
    The transmitter is built around two NAND gates of the four found in IC3 which are used here wired as inverters and in the particular circuit they form a multivibrator the output of which drives the transducer. The trimmer P2 adjusts the output frequency of the transmitter and for greater efficiency it should be made the same as the frequency of resonance of the transducers in use. The receiver similarly uses a transducer to receive the signals that are reflected back to it the output of which is amplified by the transistor TR3, and IC1 which is a 741 op-amp. The output of IC1 is taken to the non inverting input of IC2 the amplification factor of which is adjusted by means of P1. The circuit is adjusted in such a way as to stay in balance as long the same as the output frequency of the transmitter. If there is some movement in the area covered by the ultrasonic emission the signal
    that is reflected back to the receiver becomes distorted and the circuit is thrown out of balance. The output of IC2 changes abruptly and the Schmitt trigger circuit which is built around the remaining two gates in IC3 is triggered. This drives the output transistors TR1,2 which in turn give a signal to the alarm system or if there is a relay connected to the circuit, in series with the collector of TR1, it becomes activated. The circuit works from 9-12 VDC and can be used with batteries or a power supply.



    Construction
    First of all let us consider a few basics in building electronic circuits on a printed circuit board. The board is made of a thin insulating material clad with a thin layer of conductive copper that is shaped in such a way as to form the necessary conductors between the various components of the circuit. The use of a properly designed printed circuit board is very desirable as it speeds construction up considerably and reduces the possibility of making errors. Smart Kit boards also come pre-drilled and with the outline of the components and their identification printed on the component side to make construction easier. To protect the board during storage from oxidation and assure it gets to you in perfect condition the copper is tinned during manufacturing and covered with a special varnish that protects it from getting oxidised and also makes soldering easier. Soldering the components to the board is the only way to build your circuit and from the way you do it depends greatly your success or failure. This work is not very difficult and if you stick to a few rules you should have no problems. The soldering iron that you use must be light and its power should not exceed the 25 Watts. The tip should be fine and must be kept clean at all times. For this purpose come very handy specially made sponges that are kept wet and from time to time you can wipe the hot tip on them to remove all the residues that tend to accumulate on it. DO NOT file or sandpaper a dirty or worn out tip. If the tip cannot be cleaned, replace it. There are many different types of solder in the market and you should choose a good quality one that contains the necessary flux in its core, to assure a perfect joint every time. DO NOT use soldering flux apart from that which is already included in your solder. Too much flux can cause many problems and is one of the main causes of circuit malfunction. If nevertheless you have to use extra flux, as it is the case when you have to tin copper wires, clean it very thoroughly after you finish your work. In order to solder a component correctly you should do the following:
    @Clean the component leads with a small piece of emery paper.
    @Bend them at the correct distance from the component’s body and insert the component in its place on the board.
    @You may find sometimes a component with heavier gauge leads than usual, that are too thick to enter in the holes of the p.c. board.
    @In this case use a mini drill to enlarge the holes slightly. Do not make the holes too large as this is going to make soldering difficult afterwards.
    @Take the hot iron and place its tip on the component lead while holding the end of the solder wire at the point where the lead emerges from the board. The iron tip must touch the lead slightly above the p.c. board.
    @When the solder starts to melt and flow wait till it covers evenly the area around the hole and the flux boils and gets out from underneath the solder. The whole operation should not take more than 5 seconds. Remove the iron and allow the solder to cool naturally without blowing on it or moving the component. If everything was done properly the surface of the joint must have a bright metallic finish and its edges should be smoothly ended on the component lead and the board track. If the solder looks dull, cracked,or has the shape of a blob then you have made a dry joint and you should remove the solder (with a pump, or a solder wick) and redo it.
    @Take care not to overheat the tracks as it is very easy to lift them from the board and break them.
    @When you are soldering a sensitive component it is good practice to hold the lead from the component side of the board with a pair of long-nose pliers to divert any heat that could possibly damage the component.
    @Make sure that you do not use more solder than it is necessary as you are running the risk of short-circuiting adjacent tracks on the board, especially if they are very close together.
    @When you finish your work cut off the excess of the component leads and clean the board thoroughly with a suitable solvent to remove all flux residues that may still remain on it.
    @There are quite a few components in the circuit and you should be careful to avoid mistakes that will be difficult to trace and repair afterwards. Solder first the pins and the IC sockets and then following if that is possible the parts list the resistors the trimmers and the capacitors paying particular attention to the correct orientation of the electrolytic.
    @Solder then the transistors and the diodes taking care not to overheat them during soldering. The transducers should be positioned in such a way as they do not affect each other directly because this will reduce the efficiency of the circuit. When you finish soldering, check your work to make sure that you have done everything properly, and then insert the IC’s in their sockets paying attention to their correct orientation and handling IC3 with great care as it is of the CMOS type and can be damaged quite easily by static discharges. Do not take it out of its aluminium foil wrapper till it is time to insert it in its socket, ground the board and your body to discharge static electricity and then insert the IC carefully in its socket. In the kit you will find a LED and a resistor of 560 — which will help you to make the necessary adjustments to the circuit. Connect the resistor in series with the LED and then connect them between point 9 of the circuit and the positive supply rail (point 1).
    Connect the power supply across points 1 (+) and 2 (-) of the p.c. board and put P1 at roughly its middle position. Turn then P2 slowly till the LED lights when you move your fingers slightly in front of the transducers. If you have a frequency counter then you can make a much more accurate adjustment of the circuit. Connect the frequency counter across the transducer and adjust P2 till the frequency of the oscillator is exactly the same as the resonant frequency of the transducer. Adjust then P1 for maximum sensitivity. Connecting together pins 7 & 8 on the p.c. board will make the circuit to stay triggered till it is manually reset after an alarm. This can be very useful if you want to know that there was an attempt to enter in the place which are protected by the radar.





    Adjustments
    This kit does not need any adjustments, if you follow the building instructions.
    Warning
    If they are used as part of a larger assembly and any damage is caused, our company bears no responsibility.
    While using electrical parts, handle power supply and equipment with great care, following safety standards as described by international specs and regulations.
    If it does not work
    Check your work for possible dry joints, bridges across adjacent tracks or soldering flux residues that usually cause problems. Check again all the external connections to and from the circuit to see if there is a mistake there.
    See that there are no components missing or inserted in the wrong places.
    Make sure that all the polarised components have been soldered the right way round. Make sure that the supply has the correct voltage and is connected the right way round to your circuit. Check your project for faulty or damaged components.
    If everything checks and your project still fails to work, please contact your retailer and the Smart Kit Service will repair it for you.
    Componets

    R1 = 180 KOhmC1, 6 = 10uF/16VTR1, 2, 3 = BC547 , BC548R2 = 12 KOhmC2 = 47uF/16VP1 = 10 KOhm trimmerR3, 8 = 47 KOhmC3 = 4,7 pFP2 = 47 KOhm trimmerR4 = 3,9 KOhmC4, 7 = 1 nFIC1, 2 = 741 OP-AMP R5, 6, 16 = 10 KOhmC5 = 10nFIC3 = 4093 C-MOSR7, 10, 12, 14, 17 = 100 KΩ C8, 11 = 4,7 uF/16VR = TRANSDUCER 40KHzR9, 11 = 1 MOhmC9 = 22uF/16VT = TRANSDUCER 40KHzR13, 15 = 3,3 KOhmC10 = 100 nFD1, 2, 3, 4 = 1N4148C12 = 2,2 uF/16VC13 = 3,3nF C14 = 47nF



    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  2. [72]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    bell Controller






    Description



    This circuit is a church bell controller. Basic component is an ATmega32 microcontroller. At the circuit 1 24LC32 eeprom memories is being used.

    As control I created a menu who will be appeared on 4x20 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). The menu browsing can be done by 6 buttons at the face of the circuit's box (Menu, Up, Down, Enter, Start, Stop). The all firmware binds about 30Kbytes flash memory and can be increased by adding new features-functions. This program has been written in C with CVAVR compiler.

    The idea of this circuit is being given by a friend of mine who has an foundry and he is building bells. I have made the PCB by my self.

    Features

    1. More 75 different melodies (ADAM, PANYGJRJKO, AGJORJKO, etc)
    2. Control of electrometrical clock of church with the production of pulse of duration 1Sec each one minute.
    3. Automatic correction in case of power loss.
    4. Percussion of clock each half but also entire hours, with possibility of choice of hours of silence (for tourist regions and hours of common quietness).
    5. Manual correction of electromechanical clock.
    6. All regulations become with the help of guidance (menu, up, down, enter, start, stop)
    7. When it runs a rhythm we have the possibility of increase or decrease her speed, the information will stored in memory 24LC32.
    8. Display time (DS1307), with backup battery.
    9. All the in formations are displayed on 4X20 LCD.
    10. Control up to 5 bells and 1 clock.
    11. The user create his own program



    Schematic




    PCB




    Photos






    Downloads

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  3. [73]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    The 60 mm rotor diameter Picoflyer is the smallest RC helicopter ever
    presented, it is a one-off prototype and it is not intended for sale.


    The Picoflyer had it's first flight on 7. August 2005.


    Picoflyer - Pictures

    Picoflyer - Video

    Descriptions

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  4. [74]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Servo tester



    This servo tester can control two servos independently. It can analyse the servo signal quality from your receiver. It measures voltage and current under servo load. It can be used as a tachometer, and with a later software upgrade it can also be remote controlled from a PC.It uses a rotary encoder for fast and intuitive navigation of the menus, which make it even more simple to use than the old 4-button tester.
    Servo tester - [Link]

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  5. [75]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    SIM Card Reader


    This project details how to build a Smart/SIM card reader/writer for experimentation and investigation of SIM & Smart cards.Once the reader design is built, the open source software can be used to read from and write to the card. Together they can be used to backup/restore stored SIM card data, recover deleted SMS’s and phone contacts, examine the last phone numbers dialed, etc.
    Sim Card Reader Writer Project link

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  6. [76]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Windmeter / Anemometer




    The Windmeter is an anemometer designed to measure and record wind speed distribution from 0 to 17+ meters per second. It was designed for high reliability, ease of construction, and for a wide environmental range. Data is logged over a period of 30.46 days (1/12 of a year), and then saved for 11 months. The data can be retrieved with a laptop computer any time within the 12 months of logging. The Windmeter is self-powered by a solar panel and battery. Calibration of the Windmeter can be done against a car’s speedometer or better yet a GPS receiver. The Windmeter should cost you under $300 Can. to make. [via]
    Windmeter / Anemometer - [Link]

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  7. [77]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Remote control using telephone Click here for the circuit diagram
    Here is a teleremote circuit which enables switching ‘on’ and ‘off’ of appliances through telephone lines. It can be used to switch appliances from any distance, overcoming the limited range of infrared and radio remote controls.
    The circuit described here can be used to switch up to nine appliances (corresponding to the digits 1 through 9 of the telephone key-pad). The DTMF signals on telephone instrument are used as control signals. The digit ‘0’ in DTMF mode is used to toggle between the appliance mode and normal telephone operation mode. Thus the telephone can be used to switch on or switch off the appliances also while being used for normal conversation.
    The circuit uses IC KT3170 (DTMF-to-BCD converter), 74154 (4-to-16-line demult-iplexer), and five CD4013 (D flip-flop) ICs. The working of the circuit is as follows.
    Once a call is established (after hearing ring-back tone), dial ‘0’ in DTMF mode. IC1 decodes this as ‘1010,’ which is further demultiplexed by IC2 as output O10 (at pin 11) of IC2 (74154). The active low output of IC2, after inversion by an inverter gate of IC3 (CD4049), becomes logic 1. This is used to toggle flip-flop-1 (F/F-1) and relay RL1 is energised. Relay RL1 has two changeover contacts, RL1(a) and RL1(b). The energised RL1(a) contacts provide a 220-ohm loop across the telephone line while RL1(b) contacts inject a 10kHz tone on the line, which indicates to the caller that appliance mode has been selected. The 220-ohm loop on telephone line disconnects the ringer from the telephone line in the exchange. The line is now connected for appliance mode of operation.
    If digit ‘0’ is not dialed (in DTMF) after establishing the call, the ring continues and the telephone can be used for normal conversation. After selection of the appliance mode of operation, if digit ‘1’ is dialed, it is decoded by IC1 and its output is ‘0001’. This BCD code is then demultiplexed by 4-to-16-line demultiplexer IC2 whose corresponding output, after inversion by a CD4049 inverter gate, goes to logic 1 state. This pulse toggles the corresponding flip-flop to alternate state. The flip-flop output is used to drive a relay (RL2) which can switch on or switch off the appliance connected through its contacts. By dialing other digits in a similar way, other appliances can also be switched ‘on’ or ‘off.’
    Once the switching operation is over, the 220-ohm loop resistance and 10kHz tone needs to be removed from the telephone line. To achieve this, digit ‘0’ (in DTMF mode) is dialed again to toggle flip-flop-1 to de-energise relay RL1, which terminates the loop on line and the 10kHz tone is also disconnected. The telephone line is thus again set free to receive normal calls.This circuit is to be connected in parallel to the telephone instrument

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  8. [78]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Infrared beam barrier/ proximity sensor -Naveen P N Click here for Circuit Diagram.
    This circuit can be used as an Infrared beam barrier as well as a proximity detector.
    The circuit uses the very popular Sharp IR module (Vishay module can also be used). The pin nos. shown in the circuit are for the Sharp & VIshay modules. For other modules please refer to their respective datasheets.
    The receiver consists of a 555 timer IC working as an oscillator at about 38Khz (also works from 36kHz to 40kHz) which has to be adjusted using the 10K preset. The duty cycle of the IR beam is about 10%. This allows us to pass more current through the LEDS thus achieving a longer range.
    The receiver uses a sharp IR module. When the IR beam from the transmitter falls on the IR module, the output is activated which activates the relay and de-activated when the beam is obstructed. The relay contacts can be used to turn ON/OFF alarms, lights etc. The 10K preset should be adjusted until the receiver detects the IR beam.

    The circuit can also be used as a proximity sensor, i.e to detect objects in front of the device without obstructing a IR beam. For this the LEDs should be pointed in the same direction as the IR module and at the same level. The suggested arrangement is shown in the circuit diagram. The LEDs should be properly covered with a reflective material like glass or aluminum foils on the sides to avoid the spreading of the IR beam and to get a sharp focus of the beam.
    When there is nothing in front of them, the IR beam is not reflected onto the module and hence the circuit is not activated. When an object comes near the device, the IR light from the LEDs is reflected by the object onto the module and hence the circuit gets activated.

    If there still a lot of mis-triggering, use a 1uF or higher capacitor instead of the 0.47uF.

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  9. [79]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Police Siren Click here for Circuit Diagram.
    This circuit produces a sound similar to the police siren.
    It makes use of two 555 timer ICs used as astable multivibrators. The frequency is controlled by the pin 5 of the IC.
    The first IC (left) is wired to work around 1Hz. The 47uF capacitor is charged and discharged periodically and the voltage across it gradually increases and decreases periodically.
    This varying voltage modulates the frequency of the 2nd IC. This process repeats and what you hear is the sound remarkably similar to the police siren.

    Two presets VR1 and VR2 are provided to vary the siren period of repetition and the tone of the siren.
    By varying VR1 you can set how fast the siren changes from high freq. to low freq.
    VR2 sets the siren frequency. Adjust VR1 and VR2 to suit your taste.

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  10. [80]
    فلسطين والنضال
    فلسطين والنضال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية فلسطين والنضال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
    المشاركات: 895

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Car anti theft wireless alarm. Click here for Circuit Diagram.
    This FM radio-controlled anti- theft alarm can be used with any vehicle having 6- to 12-volt DC supply system. The mini VHF, FM transmitter is fitted in the vehicle at night when it is parked in the car porch or car park. The receiver unit with CXA1019, a single IC-based FM radio module, which is freely available in the market at reasonable rate, is kept inside. Receiver is tuned to the transmitter's frequency. When the transmitter is on and the signals are being received by FM radio receiver, no hissing noise is available at the output of receiver. Thus transistor T2 (BC548) does not conduct. This results in the relay driver transistor T3 getting its forward base bias via 10k resistor R5 and the relay gets energised. When an intruder tries to drive the car and takes it a few metres away from the car porch, the radio link between the car (transmitter) and alarm (receiver) is broken. As a result FM radio module gene-rates hissing noise. Hissing AC signals are coupled to relay switching circ- uit via audio transformer. These AC signals are rectified and filtered by diode D1 and capacitor C8, and the resulting positive DC voltage provides a forward bias to transistor T2. Thus transistor T2 conducts, and it pulls the base of relay driver transistor T3 to ground level. The relay thus gets de-activated and the alarm connected via N/C contacts of relay is switched on. If, by chance, the intruder finds out about the wireless alarm and disconnects the transmitter from battery, still remote alarm remains activated because in the absence of signal, the receiver continues to produce hissing noise at its output. So the burglar alarm is fool-proof and highly reliable.

    0 Not allowed!




    سوف نقتلهم جميعا وسوف نشرب دمائهم في كاس انتفاضتنا وليكن نخبه الموت لنا ولهم ولتحيا فلسطين

  
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