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  1. [21]
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    للمزيد من المعلومات هنا

    http://www.doctronics.co.uk/555.htm

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  2. [22]
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    Pin connections


    You can use the 555 effectively
    without understanding the function
    of each pin in detail.
    The 555 timer is an extremely versatile integrated circuit which can be used to build lots of different circuits.
    Up
    .
    Astable circuits


    Astable circuits produce pulses. The circuit most people use to make a 555 astable looks like this:

    As you can see, the frequency, or repetition rate, of the output pulses is determined by the values of two resistors, R1 and R2 and by the timing capacitor, C.
    The design formula for the frequency of the pulses is:
    The HIGH and LOW times of each pulse can be calculated from:

    The duty cycle of the waveform, usually expressed as a percentage, is given by:
    An alternative measurement of HIGH and LOW times is the mark space ratio:
    Before calculating a frequency, you should know that it is usual to make R1=1 kW because this helps to give the output pulses a duty cycle close to 50%, that is, the HIGH and LOW times of the pulses are approximately equal.
    Remember that design formulae work in fundamental units. However, it is often more convenient to work with other combinations of units:
    resistance capacitance period frequency F s Hz µF s Hz µF ms kHz With R values in MW and C values in µF, the frequency will be in Hz. Alternatively, with R values in kW and C values in µF, frequencies will be in kHz.
    Suppose you want to design a circuit to produce a frequency of approximately 1 kHz for an alarm application. What values of R1, R2 and C should you use?
    R1 should be 1kW, as already explained. This leaves you with the task of selecting values for R2 and C. The best thing to do is to rearrange the design formula so that the R values are on the right hand side:
    Now substitute for R1 and f :

    You are using R values in kW and f values in kHz, so C values will be in µF.
    To make further progress, you must choose a value for C. At the same time, it is important to remember that practical values for R2 are between 1 kW and 1MW. Suppose you choose C = 10 nF = 0.01 µF:

    that is:

    and:

    This is within the range of practical values and you can choose values from the E12 range of 68 kW or 82 kW. (The E12 range tells you which values of resistor are manufactured and easily available from suppliers.)
    A test circuit can be set up on prototype board, as follows:

    With the values of R1, R2 and C shown, the LED should flash at around 10 Hz.
    What happens if you replace R2 with an LDR or a thermistor? This gives an astable which changes frequency in response to light intensity, or with temperature.
    Up
    .
    Astable component selection


    With a little practice, it is quite easy to choose appropriate values for a 555 timer astable. To make things even easier, you might like to download the DOCTRONICS 555 timer component selection program.
    The program works with Windows 95 and looks like this:

    To download the program (~210K), click on its image.
    Up
    .
    More astables


    Extended duty cycle astable:
    An extremely useful variation of the standard astable circuit involves adding a diode in parallel with R2:

    This simple addition has a dramatic effect on the behaviour of the circuit. The timing capacitor, C, is now filled only through R1 and emptied only through R2.
    The design equation for the output pulse frequency is:
    HIGH and LOW times are calculated from:

    With this circuit, the duty cycle can be any value you want. If R1 > R2, the duty cycle will be greater than 50% (*****alent to a mark space ratio of more than 1.0). On the other hand, if R2 > R1, the duty cycle will be less than 50% (mark space ratio less than 1.0).
    This version of the 555 astable is used in the cyclist/pedestrian safety lights project.
    Up
    Minimum component astable:
    This is a cheap and cheerful astable using just one resistor and one capacitor as the timing components:

    Note that there is no connection to pin 7 and that R1 is linked to the output, pin 3.
    The design equation for the circuit is:
    The HIGH and LOW times are supposed to be equal, giving a duty cycle of 50% (*****alent to a mark space ratio of 1.0).
    However, if you build this circuit, it is probable that the HIGH time will be longer than the LOW time. (This happens because the maximum voltage reached by the output pulses is less than the power supply voltage.) Things will get worse if the output current increases.
    If you need an astable circuit which can be adjusted to give an accurate frequency, this circuit is not the one to choose.
    Up
    Diminishing frequency astable:
    The excitement and realism of electronic games, including roulette, can be increased using an astable circuit which is triggered to produce rapid pulses initially, but which then slows down and eventually stops altogether.
    It is easy to modify the basic 555 astable circuit to produce this result:

    When the 'go' button is pressed, the 47 µF capacitor in parallel with the timing network, R1, R2 and C, charges up very quickly through the 100 W resistor. When the button is released, the astable continues to oscillate but the charge stored slowly leaks away, with the result that it takes longer and longer to charge up the timing capacitor. To trigger the next pulse, the voltage across C must increase to two thirds of the power supply voltage. After a while, the voltage across the 47 µF drops below this value and the pulses stop.
    With the values shown, the initial frequency is about 100 Hz and the output pulses coast to a stop after around 40 seconds.
    The initial frequency can be calculated from the design equation for the basic 555 astable. To give a realistic coasting time, you should use large values for the resistors R1 and R2. The coasting time is determined by the 47 µF capacitor. Experiment with different values until you get the effect you want.

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  3. [23]
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    Diminishing frequency astable:
    The excitement and realism of electronic games, including roulette, can be increased using an astable circuit which is triggered to produce rapid pulses initially, but which then slows down and eventually stops altogether.
    It is easy to modify the basic 555 astable circuit to produce this result:

    When the 'go' button is pressed, the 47 µF capacitor in parallel with the timing network, R1, R2 and C, charges up very quickly through the 100 W resistor. When the button is released, the astable continues to oscillate but the charge stored slowly leaks away, with the result that it takes longer and longer to charge up the timing capacitor. To trigger the next pulse, the voltage across C must increase to two thirds of the power supply voltage. After a while, the voltage across the 47 µF drops below this value and the pulses stop.
    With the values shown, the initial frequency is about 100 Hz and the output pulses coast to a stop after around 40 seconds.
    The initial frequency can be calculated from the design equation for the basic 555 astable. To give a realistic coasting time, you should use large values for the resistors R1 and R2. The coasting time is determined by the 47 µF capacitor. Experiment with different values until you get the effect you want.
    Up
    .
    RESET input


    If the RESET input, pin 4, is held HIGH, a 555 astable circuit functions as normal. However, if the RESET input is held LOW, output pulses are stopped. You can investigate this effect by connecting a switch/pull down resistor voltage divider to pin 4:

    Here is the circuit on prototype board:

    Use the design formula, or the DOCTRONICS component selector program to calculate the frequency of pulses you would expect to obtain with this circuit.
    In an electronic die, provided the output pulses are fast enough, it is impossible to 'cheat' by holding down the button for a definite length of time.
    Think about how you could use this circuit together with a bistable as part of a burglar alarm. Under normal conditions, the output of the bistable is LOW and the astable is stopped. If the alarm is triggered, the output of the bistable goes HIGH and the pulses start, sounding the alarm.
    Up
    .
    CONTROL VOLTAGE input


    By applying a voltage to the CONTROL VOLTAGE input, pin 5, you can alter the timing characteristics of the device. In the astable mode, the control voltage can be varied from 1.7 V to the power supply voltage, producing an output frequency which can be higher or lower than the frequency set by the R1, R2, C timing network.
    The CONTROL VOLTAGE input can be used to build an astable with a frequency modulated output. In the circuit below, one astable is used to control the frequency of a second, giving a 'police siren' sound effect.

    In most applications, the CONTROL VOLTAGE input is not used. It is usual to connect a 10 nF capacitor between pin 5 and 0 V to prevent interference. You don't need to do this in building a test circuit, but this 'bypass' or 'decoupling' capacitor should be included in your final circuit.
    Up
    .
    Monostable circuits


    A monostable circuit produces a single pulse when triggered. The two questions about monostables you immediately need to ask are:
    • How can the circuit be triggered to produce an output pulse?
    • How is the duration, or period, of the output pulse determined?
    The circuit used to make a 555 timer monostable is:

    As you can see, the trigger input is held HIGH by the 10 kW pull up resistor and is pulsed LOW when the trigger switch is pressed. The circuit is triggered by a falling edge, that is, by a sudden transition from HIGH to LOW.
    The trigger pulse, produced by pressing the button, must be of shorter duration than the intended output pulse.
    The period, t, of the output pulse can be calculated from the design equation:
    Remember again about compatible measurement units:
    resistance capacitance period F s µF s µF ms With R1 = 1 MW and C = 1 µF, the output pulse will last for 1.1 s.
    You can build a test version of the 555 monostable as follows:

    By clicking on the monostable tab, the 555 component selection program can be used to investigate the effect of different R1 and C values:

    To download the program (~210K), click on its image.
    Up
    .
    More about triggering


    For a simple 555 monostable, the trigger pulse must be shorter than the output pulse. Sometimes you want to trigger the monostable from a longer pulse:

    The trigger network detects the falling edge at the end of each Vin pulse, producing a short 'spike' which triggers the monostable at the appropriate time. The period of the monostable pulse is shorter than the period of the Vin pulses.
    If you want to trigger the monostable from a rising edge, you need to add a transistor NOT gate to the trigger circuit:

    If you build these circuits, it is interesting to investigate the action of the trigger network using an oscilloscope.
    Up
    .
    555 as a transducer driver


    A transducer is a subsytem which converts energy from one form into another, where one of the forms is electrical. In an output transducer, for example, electrical energy can be converted into light, sound, or movement.
    The output of a 555 timer can deliver more than 100 mA of current. This means that output transducers including buzzers, filament lamps, loudspeakers and small motors can be connected directly to the output of the 555, pin 3.
    You can use the 555 as a transducer driver, that is, as an electronic switch which turns the transducer ON or OFF:

    This circuit has an inverting Schmitt trigger action. The 'inverting' part of this de******ion means that when Vin is LOW, the output is HIGH, and when Vin is HIGH, the output is LOW.
    In a 'Schmitt trigger' circuit there are two different switching thresholds. If Vin is slowly increased starting from 0 V, the output voltage snaps from HIGH to LOW when Vin reaches a level equal to 2/3 of the power supply voltage. Once this level has been exceeded, decreasing Vin does not affect the output until Vin drops below 1/3 of the power supply voltage. (If an input change in one direction produces a different result from a change in the opposite direction, the circuit is said to show hysteresis.)
    If a filament lamp is connected between the positive power supply rail and the output, as shown above, current flows through the lamp when the output voltage is LOW. In other words, the lamp lights when the input voltage is HIGH.
    If you connect the lamp between the output and 0 V, the circuit will still work, but the lamp will light when the input voltage is LOW:

    Note that, in both versions of the circuit pins 2 and 6 are joined together. The circuit can be simplified by omitting the 10 nF bypass capacitor, and will continue to work when the RESET input, pin 4 is left unconnected.
    Some people are very fond of this circuit and use it whenever a transducer driver is required. However, with a HIGH/LOW digital input signal the same result can be achieved more obviously and at lower cost using a transistor switch circuit.

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  4. [24]
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    plitude in comparison with the sine and sawtooth waveforms. Check out the pictures below. This is the top of the circuit board. I used some non-coppered perfboard I had lying about to build the circuit on. Whenever I use perfboard, I like to mark up my perfboard with some fine point Sharpie markers and get all the connections worked out before I actually construct the circuit. I find it easier to do it this way. This is the back side. It's a little more challenging using this type of perfboard over the copper padded type. Here is a view of the front. The enclosure comes from a defunct 4-way data switch box. I gutted it and created some graphics for the faceplate. It measures 7.5"x2.25"x5" deep. For the frequency range switch, I used a recycled rotary switch from an old parallel port A/B switch box. To make it work with this circuit, I had to disassemble it and rearrange the insides a little bit, but now it does exactly what I want it to. (I know, I could have just bought a new rotary switch, but I had this switch lying around...) Since I am using a single female BNC jack and a single 1/4" jack wired in parallel, I decided to use three SPST switches to switch between the different waveforms. One of the switches will be a on-center off-on type. I figure the middle position would make a nice "kill switch" which will prevent any waveforms from reaching the output jacks. I like the idea, because if I don't want any output, I can just flip that switch and leave the unit powered up. Of course, one could just use another rotary switch with a SPST switch that could act as a kill switch as well. I used the SPST switches mainly because I had a bunch of them lying around waiting for a new home...
    This homebrew function generator isn't as fancy or accurate as the ones that are on the market, but for a do-it-yourselfer hobbyist type, it's adequate. I have found that the sine wave isn't totally accurate when I switch between frequency ranges, but I have incorporated a pot which corrects any waveform offsets, so it still quite useable and pretty accurate. Not too bad for a $20 project.

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  5. [25]
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    Electronics -- ICL8038-based Oscillator

    Overview

    The circuit here presents an Oscillator featuring the following attributes:
    • 1.1A guaranteed output current for sine and triangle waves with thermal shutdown and protection diodes
    • Variable offset and gain for the sine/triangle output
    • CMOS-compatible complementary square wave outputs capable of driving into 50 Ohm with rise/fall times of 30ns at 10V (new in Rev 3).
    • Frequency range 0.5Hz to 300 kHz (but signal degenerates when approaching the upper frequency limit)
    • Single supply operation, 5V to 15V
    • About 50% duty cycle (non-precision and adjustable via a trim pot)
    (This is the 3rd revision dated 09/2004.)

    Circuit

    The circuit is a fairly easy design: It consists of the actual VCO (ICL8038 with supplement parts), the sine and triangle output stage (LT1210) and the CMOS-compatible output stage using the MOSFET driver chip ICL7667.
    Download function generator circuit schematic:
    PNG image (854x734 as seen below): funcgen8038-rev3.png (26kb)
    High-quality PDF: funcgen8038-rev3.pdf (162kb)
    Permission to copy and use this schematic is hereby granted provided credit is given where it is due.

    The ICL8038 and all parts around on the lower half of the sheet make up the actual oscillator which is a modified design based on one of the application examples in Intersil's data sheet. There is a large 6-stage switch (S1) to select the major frequency and a logarithmic potentiometer (R2) for minor frequency selection.
    I discourage implementing the oscillator as shown in the above sheet because most of the other potentiometers turned out to be without significant enough effect on the output wave form to jusify their application. Furthermore, duty cycle adjustment will not keep a 50% ratio over all frequencies.
    The switch S2 is used to choose between sine and triangle wave for the high-current amplifier.
    The CD4030 on the left top is used as CMOS-logic signal preconditioning feeding the MOSFET driver IC ICL7667 as output stage for the complementary square wave output. The application of the two XOR gates has the advantage that it can supply a sqare wave and its complement without time offset between them (because CMOS has balanced raise and fall times). Use a bypass capacitor near the ICL7667 device as it can draw quite strong currents and is capable of driving into 50 Ohm up to at least 10V resulting in rise/fall times of 30ns. So, I'm now entirely satisfied with the digital output.
    The industry-standard LM741 in combination with R11 is used to adjust the sine/triangle offset level. (Hint: You should probably use something better here - especially more output current cannot hurt.) Since this oscillator is single-supply, it comes handy that you can change the "zero level" of the wave output; you will normally adjust that to half of the supply voltage. R11 is meant to be available to the user.
    The actual sine/triangle output amplifier was a bit hard to find because it should be able to drive 1A while still not degenerating signal wave form at some hundred kHz. After some searching, I found the ADSL line driver LT1210 from Linear Technology. Being an ADSL line driver, it has a high GBP and high slew rate while providing the required output current (1.1A guaranteed) at all frequencies in question. The part can be obtained e.g. from Bürklin.
    It turned out that this quick current feedback amplifier required very good DC decoupling/bypassing capacitors in order not to start oscillating of its own (at frequencies up to 40MHz). It took me a lot of time to get it work properly; but once that is achieved, the amplifier shows very good performance. (Note: The current implementation is not yet perfect as I noted some months later: It may still start oscillating for parts of the period when driving some special loads.)
    R18 is used to trim the VCO output offset from the ICL8038 (about half supply voltage). R12 is meant for the user as gain adjustment to tune the sine/triangle amplitude from zero to more than supply voltage (resulting in wave tips being cut off). The maximum gain is trimmed by R13/R14 and care sould be taken to use proper values (consult LT1210's data sheet for details).











    http://www.intersil.com/cda/devicein...L8038%2C0.html








    http://www.intersil.com/data/FN/FN2864.pdf

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  6. [26]
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    Circuit.jpg De******ion:
    Filesize: 42.09 KB Viewed: 1569 Time(s)




    _________________
    Don't believe anything you see or hear!

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  7. [27]
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    Function Generator
    Notes:
    Built around a single 8038 waveform generator IC, this circuit produces sine, square or triangle waves from 20Hz to 200kHz in four switched ranges. There are both high and low level outputs which may be adjusted with the level control. This project makes a useful addition to any hobbyists workbench as well.

    Allof the waveform generation is produced by IC1. This versatile IC even has a sweep input, but is not used in this circuit. The IC contains an internal squarewave oscillator, the frequency of which is controlled by timing capacitors C1 - C4 and the 10k potentiometer. The tolerance of the capacitors should be 10% or better for stability. The squarewave is differentiated to produce a triangular wave, which in turn is shaped to produce a sine wave. All this is done internally, with a minimum of external components. The purity of the sine wave is adjusted by the two 100k preset resistors.
    The wave shape switch is a single pole 3 way rotary switch, the wiper arm selects the wave shape and is connected to a 10k potentiometer which controls the amplitude of all waveforms. IC2 is an LF351 op-amp wired as a standard direct coupled non-inverting buffer, providing isolation between the waveform generator, and also increasing output current. The 2.2k and 47 ohm resistors form the output attenuator. At the high output, the maximum amplitude is about 8V pk-pk with the square wave. The maximum for the triangle and sine waves is around 6V and 4V respectively. The low amplitude controls is useful for testing amplifiers, as amplitudes of 20mV and 50mV are easily achievable.
    Setting Up:
    The two 100k preset resistors adjust the purity of the sine wave. If adjusted correctly, then the distortion amounts to less than 1%. The output waveform ideally needs to be monitored with an oscilloscope, but most people reading this will not have access to one. There is however, an easy alternative:- Winscope. This piece of software uses your soundcard and turns your computer into an oscilloscope. It even has storage facility and a spectrum analyser, however it will only work up to around 20KHz or so. Needless to say, this is more than adequate for this circuit, as alignment on any range automatically aligns other ranges as well. Winscope is available at my download page click here. Winscope is freeware and designed by Konstantin Zeldovich. After downloading, read the manual supplied with winscope and make up a lead to your soundcard. My soundcard is a soundblaster with a stereo line input, i made up a lead with both left and right inputs connected together. Connect the lead to the high output of the function genereator, set the output level to high, shape to sine, and use the 1k to 10k range, (22nF capacitor). A waveform should be displayed, see the Figure 1 below:-


    Figure 1.
    Here an undistorted sine wave is being displayed. The display on winscope may flicker, this is normal as it uses your soundcard to take samples of the input waveform. The "hold" button on winscope will display a steady waveform.
    Alignment:
    First adjust the 100k preset connected to Pin 1 of the 8038. An incorrect setting will look similar to the waveform below:-

    Adjust the preset so that the top of the sine wave has a nicely rounded peak. Then adjust the other preset, again an incorrectly adjusted waveform is shown below:
    The two presets work together, so adjusting one affects the other. A little is all that's needed. When your waveform is asjusted and looks similar to Figure 1 press the FFT button on winscope. This will preform a fast fourier transform and the displayed output will be a spectrogram of the input. For a pure sine wave, only one signal is present, the fundamental frequency, no harmonics will be present and so a spectrogram for a pure sine should contain a single spike, see Figure 2 below:-

    Figure 2.
    A distorted sine wave will contain odd and even harmonics, and although the shape of the sine may look good, the spectrogram will reveal spikes at the hormonics, see below:-
    Once alignment of the sine wave is complete, the other wave shapes will also be set up correctly. Below is a picture of the triangle waveform generated from my circuit:-
    Finally the ICL8038PCD is available from Maplin Electronics order code YH38R.
    Return to Test Gear

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  8. [28]
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    Electronics related projects, information, and resources.
    20MHz High Speed Function Generator The High Speed Function Generator was published in the professional electronics section of the Aug 1996 issue of Electronics Australia, and has proven to be extremely popular. The kit is no longer available from any of the kit suppliers.
    The project is capable of generating 20MHz or greater Sine, Square, Triangle, and TTL waveforms.
    The finished HSFG project, as published.
    Read the complete article 20Mhz Function Generator
    View the Schematic Diagram.
    View the PCB for the published version in 300dpi GIF format
    View the PCB for the simpler PCB mount version in 300dpi GIF format.

    My first HSFG prototype.
    A double sided board with everything PCB mounted.
    YES, those electro's are hanging over the edge of the PCB. I didn't have anything else available, and Jaycar was closed !. This one didn't have the TTL output, that was a last minute inclusion in the second prototype that was published, hence the oversight described below.
    Notes & Errata
    There is a problem with the TTL output when the generator is used on the LOW and MEDIUM frequency ranges AND the MAIN frequency adjust control is set to the lower 15% of it's range. Any significant loading on the TTL output will cause it to osscillate on the positive and negative edges. This is apparently an inherent problem with the MAX038 chip !. The only solution is to buffer the SYNC output of the MAX038 with a 74HC14 schmitt inverter. This can be mounted on a small piece of vero-board along with R10 and a bypass capacitor. Use the other 5 inverters in the package in parallel to provide a high current buffered output. Be sure to connect the supply pins of the 74HC14 directly to pins 15 and 16 of the MAX038.









    hsfglc11.gif De******ion:
    Filesize: 18.25 KB Viewed: 1484 Time(s)

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  9. [29]
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    DL PWM extra capacitors.bmp De******ion:
    Filesize: 1.07 MB Viewed: 1321 Time(s)




    tlc555.pdf

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  10. [30]
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    I attached a pic showing three different dave lawton circuit schematics. My question is, which one to use!!! Each one has minor differences from the other two. I am still building my skill in circuit construction, so I don't want to have to guess if the circuit I am trying to build even works. Any help on which circuit (which D14.pdf version) to use would be great. I know there was another posting on this, but no one has posted a pic showing the three different versions. Thanks.


    D14 Version Comparison.JPG De******ion: These schematics are of the following dates: June 2nd, June 10th, and December 24th Filesize: 181.98 KB Viewed: 159 Time(s)

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