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  1. [461]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
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    Practical Power System Protection [REPOST]



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  2. [462]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
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    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


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    Market Operations in Electric Power Systems: Forecasting, Scheduling, and Risk Manage


  3. [463]
    Haroutuon
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    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


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    Solution Manual - Electrical Machines, Drives and Power Systems


  4. [464]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


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    Control of Induction Motors (Electrical and Electronic Engineering) (Engineering)



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  5. [465]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


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    Advanced DC/DC Converters (Power Electronics and Application

    Advanced DC/DC Converters (Power Electronics and Applications Series) (Hardcover)
    by Fang Lin Luo (Author), Hong Ye (Author)
    Editorial Reviews
    Product Description
    DC/DC conversion techniques have undergone rapid development in recent decades. With the pioneering work of authors Fang Lin Luo and Hong Ye, DC/DC converters have now been sorted into their six generations, and by a rough count, over 500 different topologies currently exist, with more being developed each year.Advanced DC/DC Converters offers a concise, practical presentation of DC/DC converters, summarizing the spectrum of conversion technologies and presenting many new ideas and more than 100 new topologies. The treatment begins with background material on DC/DC conversion and discussions on voltage lift and super-lift converters. It then proceeds through each generation, including the groundbreaking sixth generation--converters developed by the authors that can be cascaded for high voltage transfer gain. More than 320 figures, 60 tables, and 500 formulae allow you to more easily grasp the overall structure of advanced DC/DC converters, provide fast access to precise data, and help you quickly determine the values of your own circuit components. Nowhere else in the literature are DC/DC converters so logically sorted and systematically introduced. Nowhere else can you find detailed information on prototype topologies that represent a major contribution to modern power engineering.
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  6. [466]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
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    Power Electronics And Motor Drives: Advances and Trends


  7. [467]
    Haroutuon
    Haroutuon غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
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    Switching_Electronics

    1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    1.2 Review of Logic Family Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    1.2.1 A Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    1.2.2 The CMOS Logic Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
    1.2.2.1 Logic Levels and Noise Margins . . . . . . . . . 6
    1.2.2.2 Fanout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    1.2.2.3 Specific CMOS Logic Families . . . . . . . . . . 9
    1.2.3 Bipolar Logic Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    1.2.3.1 Bipolar Logic Noise Margins . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    1.2.3.2 Fanout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
    1.2.3.3 Specific TTL Logic Families . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    1.3 Issues in TTL–CMOS Interfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
    2 Introduction to Digital Switching 16
    2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    2.2 Relevant Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    2.3 Propagation, Time and Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    2.4 Lumped Versus Distributed Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    2.5 Four Kinds of Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    2.5.1 Ordinary Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    2.5.2 Ordinary Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    2.5.3 Mutual Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
    2.5.3.1 Relationship between Mutual Capacitance and
    Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
    2.5.4 Mutual Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
    2.5.4.1 Relationship Between Mutual Inductance and
    Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
    2.6 Speed of Digital Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
    2.6.1 dv/dt Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
    2.6.2 di/dt Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
    2.6.3 Ground Bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
    2.6.3.1 Why Does Ground Bounce Occur? . . . . . . . . 44
    2.6.3.2 How Does Ground Bounce Affect Circuits? . . . 45
    2.6.3.3 Estimating Ground Bounce Magnitude . . . . . 47
    2.6.3.4 Reducing Ground Bounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
    2.6.4 Lead Capacitance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
    2.6.5 Measurement Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
    2.6.5.1 Rise Time and Bandwidth of CROs . . . . . . . 49
    2.6.5.2 Self-inductance of CRO Probe Ground Clips . . 51
    2.6.5.3 Mutual-inductance of CRO Probe Ground Clips 57
    2.6.5.4 Loading Effect of CRO Probes . . . . . . . . . . 59
    2.6.6 Better Probing Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
    2.6.6.1 Home Brew 21:1 Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
    2.6.6.2 Low Inductance with Conventional Probes . . . 66
    2.6.6.3 PCB Test Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
    2.6.6.4 Shield Currents and Ground Loops . . . . . . . 69
    3 Point-to-Point Wiring and Transmission Lines 73
    3.1 Shortcomings of Point-to-Point Wiring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    3.1.1 EMI Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
    3.1.2 Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
    3.2 Uniform Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
    3.2.1 Measurement of Distributed Parameters . . . . . . . . . . 77
    3.2.2 Alternative Way of Deriving Characteristic Impedance . . 79
    3.2.3 Physical Explanation of Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
    3.3 Modelling of Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    3.4 Some Practical Effects in Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    3.4.1 Skin Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    3.4.2 Proximity Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    3.4.3 Dielectric Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
    3.5 Termination of Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
    3.5.1 General Effects of Source and Load Impedance . . . . . . 89
    3.5.1.1 Load termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    3.5.1.2 Source Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    3.5.1.3 Very Short Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
    3.5.2 Capacitive Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    3.5.2.1 Equally Spaced Capacitive Loads . . . . . . . . 97
    3.5.3 Multi-point Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    4 Ground Planes and other Printed Circuit Board Issues 108
    4.1 Power Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
    4.1.1 Decoupling Capacitors and Power Planes . . . . . . . . . 110
    4.2 Crosstalk Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
    4.2.1 Path of Least Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
    4.2.1.1 Crosstalk in Ground Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
    4.2.1.2 Crosstalk in Slotted Ground Planes . . . . . . . 114
    4.2.1.3 Crosstalk in Two Layer PCBs . . . . . . . . . . 116
    4.2.1.4 Crosstalk in with Power and Ground Finger PCBs118
    4.2.1.5 A Note on Guard Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
    4.2.1.6 Distributed Cross Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
    II Switched Mode Power Supplies 125
    5 Fundamental Topologies 126
    5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
    5.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
    5.3 Taxonomy of Switch Mode Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
    5.3.1 Step-down or Buck Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
    5.3.2 Step-up or Boost Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
    5.3.3 Buck–Boost Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
    5.3.4 C´uk Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
    5.3.5 Full Bridge Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
    5.4 Basic Analysis of Switch Mode Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
    5.4.1 Duty Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
    5.4.2 Basic PWM Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
    5.4.3 Simplified Analysis of the Buck Converter . . . . . . . . . 139
    5.4.3.1 Continuous Conduction Mode . . . . . . . . . . 139
    5.4.3.2 Boundary between Continuous and Discontinuous
    Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
    5.4.3.2.1 Discontinuous Current with Constant
    Vd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
    5.4.3.2.2 Discontinuous Current with Constant Vo.145
    5.4.3.3 Output Ripple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
    5.4.3.4 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
    5.4.4 Simplified Analysis of the Boost Converter . . . . . . . . 151
    5.4.4.1 Continuous Conduction Mode . . . . . . . . . . 152
    5.4.4.2 Boundary between Continuous and Discontinuous
    Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
    5.4.4.2.1 Discontinuous Current with Constant
    Vd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
    5.4.4.3 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
    5.4.5 A Brief Look at the Buck-Boost Converter . . . . . . . . 159
    5.4.6 A Brief Analysis of the C´uk Converter . . . . . . . . . . . 161
    5.4.7 Full Bridge dc-dc Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
    5.4.7.1 Bipolar Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
    5.4.7.2 Unipolar Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
    5.4.8 Comparison of Basic Converter Topologies . . . . . . . . . 168
    5.4.8.1 Switch Utilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
    5.4.8.1.1 Buck Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
    5.4.8.1.2 Boost Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
    5.4.8.1.3 Buck-Boost Converter . . . . . . . . . . 170
    5.4.8.1.4 Full Bridge Converter . . . . . . . . . . 171
    5.4.9 Synchronous Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
    5.4.10 Resonant and Soft-Switching Converters . . . . . . . . . . 173
    5.4.10.1 Why One Should Not Use Resonant Converters 176
    5.4.10.2 Why One Should Use Quasi-Resonant Converters 176
    6 Switch Mode Power Supplies 178
    6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
    6.2 Isolated Converter Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
    6.2.1 The Forward Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
    6.2.1.1 Other Forward Converter Topologies . . . . . . . 183
    6.2.1.1.1 Two Switch Converter . . . . . . . . . . 184
    6.2.1.1.2 Push-Pull Converter . . . . . . . . . . . 184
    6.2.2 The Flyback Converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
    6.2.3 Utilisation of Magnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
    6.3 Introduction to Control Techniques for Switching Power Supplies 199
    6.3.1 Start-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
    6.3.2 Protection Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
    6.3.2.1 Soft Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
    6.3.2.2 Voltage Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
    6.3.2.3 Current Limiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
    6.3.3 Control Architecture of a Switch Mode Power Supply System
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
    6.3.3.1 Voltage Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
    6.3.3.2 Voltage Feed-forward PWM Control . . . . . . . 209
    6.3.3.3 Current Mode Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
    6.3.3.3.1 Slope Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . 212
    7 Introduction to Practical Design of Switch Mode Power Supplies
    218
    7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
    7.2 Component Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
    7.2.1 Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    7.2.1.1 Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    7.2.1.2 Resistor Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
    7.2.1.3 Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
    7.2.1.4 Selecting Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
    7.2.1.5 Maximum Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
    7.2.1.6 Temperature Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
    7.2.1.7 Power Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
    7.2.1.8 Shunts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
    7.2.1.9 PCB Track Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
    7.2.2 Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
    7.2.2.1 Types of Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    7.2.2.2 Standard Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
    7.2.2.3 Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
    7.2.2.4 ESR and Power Dissipation . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
    7.2.2.5 Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
    7.2.2.6 dv/dt Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
    7.2.2.7 Series Connection of Capacitors . . . . . . . . . 226
    7.2.3 Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
    7.2.3.1 Schottky Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
    7.2.3.2 PN diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
    7.2.4 The BJT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
    7.2.5 The MOSFET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
    7.2.5.1 Bi-directional Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
    7.2.5.2 Power Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
    7.2.5.3 MOSFET Gate Resistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
    7.2.5.4 Maximum Gate Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
    7.2.6 Operational Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
    7.2.6.1 Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
    7.2.6.1.1 Input Offset Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . 232
    7.2.6.1.2 Input Offset Current . . . . . . . . . . . 233
    7.2.6.1.3 Input Bias Current . . . . . . . . . . . 233
    7.2.6.2 Limits on Resistor Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
    7.2.6.3 Gain-Bandwidth Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
    7.2.6.4 Phase Shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
    7.2.6.5 Slew Rate Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
    7.2.7 Comparators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
    7.2.7.1 Hysteresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
    7.2.7.2 Comparator Interfacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
    7.3 Introduction to Magnetics Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
    7.3.1 Review of the Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
    7.3.1.1 Ampere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
    7.3.1.2 Faraday’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
    7.3.1.3 Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
    7.3.1.4 A Note on Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
    7.3.1.5 The Three R’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
    7.3.1.5.1 Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
    7.3.1.5.2 Remanence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
    7.3.1.5.3 Reluctance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
    7.3.2 The Ideal Transformer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
    7.3.3 Real Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
    7.3.3.1 Core Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
    7.3.3.2 Saturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
    7.3.3.3 Other Core Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
    7.3.3.3.1 Curie Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . 249
    7.3.3.3.2 Core Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
    7.3.4 Optimal Design Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
    7.3.5 Design of an Inductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
    7.3.5.1 Key Magnetic Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
    7.3.5.1.1 Initial Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . 255
    7.3.5.1.2 Effective Permeability . . . . . . . . . . 255
    7.3.5.1.3 Amplitude Permeability . . . . . . . . . 255
    7.3.5.1.4 Incremental Permeability . . . . . . . . 255
    7.3.5.1.5 Effective Core Dimensions . . . . . . . 256
    7.3.5.1.6 Inductance Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
    7.3.5.2 Details of Inductor Design . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
    7.3.5.3 Issues in Forward Converter Transformer Design 263
    7.3.5.3.1 Turns Ratio = 1:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
    7.3.5.3.2 Turns Ratio = 2:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
    7.3.5.3.3 Turns Ratio = 3:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
    7.3.5.3.4 Turns Ratio = 4:1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
    7.3.6 Design of Manufacturable Magnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
    7.3.6.1 Wire Gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
    7.3.6.2 Wire Gauge Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
    7.3.6.3 Toroidal Core Winding Limits . . . . . . . . . . 265
    7.3.6.4 Tape versus Wire Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . 266
    7.3.6.5 Layering of Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
    7.3.6.6 Number of Windings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
    7.3.6.7 Potting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
    7.3.6.8 Safety Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
    III Line Commutated Converters and High Power Inverters
    269
    8 Introduction to High Power Converter Technology 270
    8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
    8.1.1 Applications of Power Converter Technology . . . . . . . 271
    8.2 Review of Power Semiconductor Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
    8.2.1 Diodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
    8.2.2 Thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
    8.2.2.1 Turn-on Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
    8.2.2.2 Turn-off Transient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
    8.2.3 Gate Turn-off Thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
    8.2.3.1 Snubbers and GTO Thyristors . . . . . . . . . . 283
    8.2.3.2 GTO Turn-on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
    8.2.3.3 GTO Turn-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
    8.2.4 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) . . . . . . . . 289
    8.2.4.1 IGBT Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
    8.2.4.2 IGBT Turn-on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
    8.2.4.3 IGBT Turn-off . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
    8.2.5 Other Devices and Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
    8.2.5.1 Power Junction Field Effect Transistors . . . . . 293
    8.2.5.2 Field Controlled Thyristor . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
    8.2.5.3 MOS-Controlled Thyristors . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
    8.2.5.4 New Semiconductor Materials . . . . . . . . . . 294
    9 Line Frequency Uncontrolled Rectifiers 299
    9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
    9.2 Some Mathematical Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
    9.2.1 Fourier Analysis of Repetitive Waveforms . . . . . . . . . 300
    9.2.1.1 Measures of Waveform Distortion . . . . . . . . 301
    9.2.1.2 Power and Power Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
    9.3 The HalfWave Rectifier Circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
    9.3.1 Pure Resistive Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
    9.3.2 Inductive Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
    9.3.3 Inductive Load with Back EMF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
    9.4 The Concept of Current Commutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
    9.5 Practical Uncontrolled Single Phase Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 317
    9.5.1 Unity Power Factor Single Phase Rectifier . . . . . . . . . 323
    9.5.2 Effect of Current Harmonics on Line Voltages . . . . . . . 328
    9.5.3 Voltage Doubler Single Phase Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . 329
    9.5.4 The Effect of Single Phase Rectifiers on Three Phase, Four
    Wire Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
    9.6 Three Phase, Full Bridge Rectifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
    10 Introduction to Other Power Electronic Devices and Applications
    335
    10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
    10.2 Inverters and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
    10.2.1 Pulse Width Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
    10.2.1.1 Space Vectors and PWM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342
    10.2.2 Dead-time Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
    10.2.3 Some Inverter Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
    10.2.3.1 Variable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
    10.2.3.2 Grid Connected Applications . . . . . . . . . . . 350
    10.3 Multilevel Converters and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
    10.4 Matrix Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352
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    أبو سلامة المصري
    أبو سلامة المصري غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


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    جزاكم الله خيرا يأهل الخير

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  9. [469]
    Haroutuon
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    الصورة الرمزية Haroutuon


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    Artificial immune systems

    السلام عليكم اريد بشده هذا الكتاب ارجو الافاده
    Artificial immune systems
    by
    Leandro N. De Castro, Jonathan Timmis‏

    http://books.google.com/books?hl=ar&...eHCxBfKRfmkZqs


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