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    الجدى
    الجدى غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية الجدى


    تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2007
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    جزاكم الله خيرا على هذا الموضوع الجميل


    و صدق الله عز وجل اذ قال " فيه شفاءٌ للناس "

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    الأقصى فى خطر يا مسلمون

    وطنى فلسطين

    اللهم وفقنا لتحرير مسجدك الأقصى الأسير
    أحب فلسطين
    فلسطين من البحر للنهر

  2. [12]
    الموسوي احمد
    الموسوي احمد غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


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    the honey

    Honey as a topical antibacterial agent for treatment of infected wounds
    Author(s)
    Peter Charles Molan
    PhD


    Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Director of the Honey Research Unit
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato
    Private Bag 3105, Hamilton, New Zealand
    mailto:[email protected]

    *******s
    Introduction
    Osmotic effect
    Hydrogen peroxide activity
    Phytochemical component
    Increased lymphocyte and phagocytic activity
    Anti-bacterial potency
    Laboratory investigations
    Clinical observations
    Adverse reactions
    Practical aspects of using honey on wounds
    Conclusion
    References

    Published: December 2001
    Last updated: November 2001
    Revision: 1.0

    Keywords: honey; wound infection; wound dressings; vancomycin-enterococci (VRE); methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); Pseudomonas.


    Key Points

    Honey is a traditional topical treatment for infected wounds. It can be effective on antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.

    Honey is produced from many different floral sources and its antibacterial activity varies with origin and processing. Honey selected for clinical use should be evaluated on the basis of antibacterial activity levels determined by laboratory testing.

    The antibacterial properties of honey include the release of low levels of hydrogen peroxide. Some honeys have an additional phytochemical antibacterial component.

    Many authors support the use of honey in infected wounds and some suggest its prophylactic use on the wounds of patients susceptible to MRSA and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


    Abstract
    Honey is an ancient remedy for the treatment of infected wounds, which has recently been 'rediscovered' by the medical profession, particularly where conventional modern therapeutic agents are failing. There are now many published reports describing the effectiveness of honey in rapidly clearing infection from wounds, with no adverse effects to slow the healing process; there is also some evidence to suggest that honey may actively promote healing. In laboratory studies, it has been shown to have an antimicrobial action against a broad spectrum of bacteria and fungi. However, further research is needed to optimise the effective use of this agent in clinical practice.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Introduction
    Honey was used to treat infected wounds as long ago as 2000 years before bacteria were discovered to be the cause of infection. In c.50 AD, Dioscorides described honey as being "good for all rotten and hollow ulcers" [1]. More recently, honey has been reported to have an inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives [2]. An antifungal action has also been observed for some yeasts and species of Aspergillus and Penicillium [2], as well as all the common dermatophytes [3]. The current prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microbial species has led to a re-evaluation of the therapeutic use of ancient remedies, including honey[4].

    Osmotic effect
    The antibacterial property of honey was first recognised in 1892 by van Ketel [5]. It has often been assumed that this is due entirely to the osmotic effect of its high sugar ******* [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13]. Honey, like other saturated sugar syrups and sugar pastes, has an osmolarity sufficient to inhibit microbial growth [14], but when used as a wound contact layer, dilution by wound exudate reduces the osmolarity to a level that ceases to control infection [14], [15]. However, it has been shown that wounds infected with Staphylococcus aureus are quickly rendered sterile by honey [16], [17], [18], [19]. Honeys selected to have a median level of antibacterial activity have been found to prevent growth of Staphylococcus aureus if diluted by a further 7-14 fold beyond the point where their osmolarity ceases to be inhibitory [20].

    The fact that the antibacterial properties of honey are increased when diluted was clearly observed and reported in 1919 [21]. The explanation for this apparent paradox came from the finding that honey contains an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide when diluted [22]. This agent was referred to as 'inhibine' prior to its identification as hydrogen peroxide [23]; the term 'inhibine number' was coined as a measure of the relative antibacterial potency of different honeys, it being the number of steps by which a honey could be diluted and still inhibit bacterial growth [24].

    The importance of the additional antibacterial activity of honey is demonstrated in comparisons between the therapeutic effects of honey and sugar. In an experimental study conducted on burns created on the skin of pigs [25], there were fewer bacterial colonies seen histologically in wounds treated with honey compared with those treated with sugar, fewer micro-pustules in the neo-epidermis, and fewer bacteria seen in the eschar of the honey-treated wounds. There has also been a clinical case report of a discharging deep pressure sore not responding to various treatments, including dressing with sugar, which was completely healed in six weeks when dressed with honey [26]. Frequent changes of sugar dressings are also necessary to maintain a therapeutic action, compared with fewer changes of honey dressings [6].

    Hydrogen peroxide activity
    Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known antimicrobial agent, initially hailed for its antibacterial and cleansing properties when it was first introduced into clinical practice [27]. In more recent times it has lost favour because of inflammation and damage to tissue [28], [29], [30]. However, the hydrogen peroxide concentration produced in honey activated by dilution is typically around 1 mmol/l [2], about 1000 times less than in the 3% solution commonly used as an antiseptic. The harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide are further reduced because honey sequesters and inactivates the free iron which catalyses the formation of oxygen free radicals produced by hydrogen peroxide [31] and its antioxidant components help to mop up oxygen free radicals [32]. Studies in animal models have demonstrated that honey reduces inflammation (seen histologically), compared with various controls, in deep [25] and superficial [33] burns and in full-thickness wounds [34], [35], [36], [37].

    Although the level of hydrogen peroxide in honey is very low it is still effective as an antimicrobial agent. It has been reported that hydrogen peroxide is more effective when supplied by continuous generation with glucose oxidase than when added in isolation [38]. A study with Escherichia coli exposed to a constantly replenished stream of hydrogen peroxide, showed that bacterial growth was inhibited by 0.02-0.05 mmol/l hydrogen peroxide, a concentration that was not damaging to fibroblast cells from human skin [39].

    Phytochemical component
    In some honeys treated with catalase to remove the hydrogen peroxide activity, additional non-peroxide antibacterial factors have been identified [40], [41], [42], [43], [44]. Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey from New Zealand has been found to have substantial levels of non-peroxide antibacterial activity [40]. This is associated with an unidentified phytochemical component, although further investigations are still to be completed. A similar finding has been made in honey from an unidentified Leptospermum species in Australia, 'jellybush' [C. Davis, Queensland Department of Primary Industries: personal communication].

    Increased lymphocyte and phagocytic activity
    The clearing of infection seen when honey is applied to a wound may reflect more than just antibacterial properties. Recent research shows that the proliferation of peripheral blood B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes in cell culture is stimulated by honey at concentrations as low as 0.1%; and phagocytes are activated by honey at concentrations as low as 0.1% [45]. Honey (at a concentration of 1%) also stimulates monocytes in cell culture to release cytokines, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, which activate the immune response to infection [46].

    In addition, the glucose ******* of honey and the acid pH (typically between pH3 and pH4) may assist in the bacteria-destroying action of macrophages [47].

    Anti-bacterial potency
    Honey is produced from many different floral sources and its antimicrobial activity varies with origin and processing. Dioscorides (c.50 AD) stated that a pale yellow honey from Attica was the best [1]; Aristotle (384-322 BC), when discussing different honeys, referred to pale honey as being "good as a salve for sore eyes and wounds" [48]. Today, the strawberry-tree honey of Sardinia is valued for its therapeutic properties [49]; in India lotus honey is said to be a panacea for eye diseases [50]; honey from the Jirdin valley of Yemen is revered in Dubai for its therapeutic properties [51]; and manuka honey has a long-standing reputation in New Zealand folk-lore for its antiseptic properties.

    A wide range of MIC values (the minimum concentration of honey necessary for complete inhibition of bacterial growth) have been reported in studies comparing different honeys tested against single species of bacteria: from 25% to 0.25% (v/v) [52]; >50% to 1.5% (v/v) [5]; 20% to 0.6% (v/v) [53]; 50 to 1.5% (v/v) [54].

    A survey of 345 samples of New Zealand honeys from 26 different floral sources found a large number with low activity (36% of the samples had activity near or below the level of detection in an agar diffusion assay), the activity of the rest being distributed over a 30-fold range of activity [40]. An unpublished survey of 340 samples of Australian honeys from 78 different floral sources found 68.5% of the samples had activity below the level of detection in an agar diffusion assay [C. Davis, Queensland Department of Primary Industries: Personal communication].

    The failure to take into account the large variance in antibacterial potency of different honeys may contribute, in part, to the large discrepancy in results reported between hospitals using honey in similar ways. Some have reported rapid clearance of infection in a range of different types of wound, with all wounds becoming sterile in 3-6 days [17], [19], 7 days [16], [55], [56] or 7-10 days [18]. Others have reported bacteria still present in wounds after 2 weeks [57], [58], 3 weeks [59], [60], [61], and 5 weeks [62].

    A randomised controlled trial found early tangential excision and skin grafting to be superior to honey in controlling infection in the treatment of moderate burns [63]. The honey used in this trial however was not standardised and the same author had reported good results with honey in the treatment of burns in a previous study [64].

    Laboratory investigations
    The only studies that give a reasonable indication of the likely usefulness of honey for treatment of infected wounds are those conducted with standardised honeys. Two types of standardised honey have been subjected to laboratory investigations. These are a typical (near median activity) manuka honey from New Zealand, with activity due to a phytochemical component and a typical (near median activity) multifloral honey with activity due to hydrogen peroxide. In one study the hydrogen peroxide component was removed from the manuka honey, but generally manuka honey was selected for its phytochemical component and low hydrogen peroxide component. The antibacterial potency of these two honeys are described below.

    The non-peroxide antibacterial activity of the typical (near median activity) manuka honey was tested against seven species of bacteria and compared with the typical (near median activity) honey with hydrogen peroxide activity. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of the honeys was found to range from 1.8% to 10.8% (v/v), indicating that the honeys had sufficient antibacterial potency to stop bacterial growth if diluted at least nine times, and up to 56 times in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus [65], the most common wound pathogen. In another study with 58 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus [20] the MIC ranged from 2% to 4% (v/v). In a study of 20 isolates of Pseudomonas from infected wounds [66] the MIC of these two honeys was found to range from 5.5% to 9.0%.

    Antibiotic-resistant strains have also been studied and found to be as sensitive to honey as the antibiotic-sensitive strains of the same species. The MIC for 82 epidemic strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found to range from 3% to 8% (v/v) [67]. In this study 56 strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were also examined, and the MIC values were found to range from 5% to 10% (v/v) for the manuka honey and from 8% to 20% for the second honey. In a further study the MIC values for eight strains of MRSA isolated from swabs collected from acute and chronic wounds, and 16 strains of VRE isolated from the hospital environment were all below 10% (v/v) for both honeys, as were the MIC values for 15 strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci, and seven strains of vancomycin-sensitive enterococci isolated from swabs collected from acute and chronic wounds [68].

    Overall in these studies, other than those with enterococci, there was no marked difference in effectiveness between the two types of honey used. However, further research is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of these results.

    Clinical observations
    Honey has been used to treat infections in a wide range of wound types. These include burns [16], venous leg ulcers, leg ulcers of mixed aetiology, diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, unhealed graft donor sites, abscesses, boils, pilonidal sinuses, infected wounds from lower limb surgery [69], necrotising faciitis [55] and neonatal postoperative wound infection [61]. In many of these and other cases, honey has been used to heal wounds not responding to treatment with conventional antibiotics and antiseptics [16], [26], [57], [58], [61], [62], [69], [70], [71], [72], [73], [74].

    One study, for example, reported treatment with honey dressings of 59 patients with recalcitrant wounds and ulcers, 47 of which had been treated for between one month to two years with no signs of healing. Some had increased in size. The ulcers had been treated with a chlorinated lime and boric acid solution (Eusol) and dressed with acriflavine, framycetin-impregnated dressing (Sofra-Tulle) or neomycin-zinc bacitracin (Cicatrin) [16]. Swabs from the 51 wounds with bacteria present became sterile within one week and the others remained sterile. All but one wound (a Buruli ulcer) showed signs of healing.

    Another study used honey on nine infants with large infected surgical wounds that failed to heal with intravenous antibiotics, cleaning the wound with aqueous 0.05% chlorhexidine solution and application of fusidic acid ointment [61]. Marked clinical improvement was seen in all cases after five days of treatment with honey, and all wounds were closed, clean and free of infection after 21 days of application of honey.

    In a randomised control trial 26 patients with postoperative wound infections had their wounds treated with honey and 24 had their wounds washed with 70% ethanol and povidone iodine applied [75]. The group treated with honey had infection eradicated and achieved complete healing in less than half the time compared with the antiseptic-treated group.

    Two randomised controlled clinical trials have compared honey with silver sulfadiazine ointment on partial-thickness burns [59], [64]. Both of these showed that honey gave better control of infection.

    In a comparative trial 20 consecutive cases of patients with Fournier's gangrene were treated conservatively with topical application of honey and compared retrospectively with 21 similar cases, managed using the orthodox method of wound debridement, wound excision, secondary suturing, and in some cases scrotal plastic reconstruction [55]. The average duration of hospitalisation was slightly longer with the honey treatment group, but response to treatment and alleviation of morbidity were faster. Systemic antibiotics were administered to both groups, but in the honey-treated groups these were given routinely whereas in the control group they were selected on the basis of sensitivity testing. Although some of the bacteria isolated from the honey-treated patients were not sensitive to the antibiotics used, all the wounds in this group became free of infection within one week.

    Wounds infected with Pseudomonas, not responding to other treatment, have been rapidly cleared of infection using honey, allowing successful skin grafting [71], [74].

    In patients with wounds infected with antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, not responding to antibiotic therapy, good results have been achieved after five weeks of application of honey [62]. The bacteria infecting the wounds were found to be resistant to ampicillin, oxytetracycline, gentamicin, chloramphenicol and cephadine. Wounds infected with MRSA have also been cleared of infection and healed by application of honey including a leg ulcer [73], cavity wounds resulting from haematomas [72] and surgical wounds [69].

    Adverse reactions
    Allergic reactions to honey are rare [76] and have been attributed in some cases to a reaction to a specific pollen in the honey [77], [78]. Honey processed for use in wound care is passed through fine filters which remove most of the pollen. In more than 500 published reports on the clinical usage of honey in open wounds [63], [69], [71], [72], [73], [74], [75], there have been no adverse reactions noted other than a localised stinging sensation described by some patients. This may be due to the acidity of honey as it has not been reported when the acidity is neutralised [69].

    A transient stinging sensation was also observed in 102 cases in a trial of honey for ophthalmological use [79], although this was never severe enough to stop treatment. In papers describing the application of honey to open wounds it has been reported to be soothing [80], to relieve pain [80], be non-irritating [17], [81], [82], be pain free on application [83], and with no adverse effects [58]. A number of histological studies examining wound tissues also support the safe use of honey [25], [36], [84], [85].

    Practical aspects of using honey on wounds
    Substantial amounts of honey need to be applied to a wound to achieve adequate potency. Although it may be very viscous or even solid at room temperature, honey becomes very fluid at body temperature and even more fluid if diluted with proportionally small volumes of exudate. It is therefore very important that sufficient honey is applied to a wound and it is kept in place if a good therapeutic effect is to be obtained. For the optimal MIC of the antibacterial components of honey to be reached at the deepest sites of infection there needs to be the highest concentration possible on the surface, and a 'reservoir' of sufficient quantity that it is not substantially depleted by diffusion into the wound tissues.

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    الموسوي

  3. [13]
    الموسوي احمد
    الموسوي احمد غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


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    العسل

    تأثير العسل التثبيطي على نمو الكائنات الدقيقة

    أ.د. نبيه عبد الرحمن باعشن


    أظهرت العديد من الدراسات المخبرية أن العسل غير المسخن يتميز بفعل مضاد للجراثيم, وقد ثبت أن للعسل أثرًا مبيدًا للعديد من البكتريا السالبة والموجبة لصبغة جرام.
    %20اكتشافات%20و%20آراء%20و%20اعجازات/تأثير%20العسل%20التثبيطي%20على%20نمو%20الكؠ ?ئنات%20الدقيقة_وقد اقترحت عدة تفسيرات للآلية التي يمارس بها العسل هذا الفعل. فقد يعود ذلك إلى الأسموزية المرتفعة للعسل, أو لوجود الأنزيمات في العسل, أو لوجود مجموعة المواد المثبطة للنمو البكتيري (أنهبين Inhibin).
    ومن ضمن هذه الدراسات ما قام به العالم مولان, وزملاؤه (Molan, et al, 1988) بعمل دراسة مقارنة على تأثير أنواع العسل النيوزلندي على البكتيريا ستافيلوكوككس أوريوس Staphylococcus aureus باستخدام التخفيفات 1:4, 1:8, 1:16 للعسل, فوجد أن تاثير العسل الثبيطي ينتشر خلال الأجار, كما وجد أن عسل (كانوكا, مانوكا, كاماهي, غذاء ملكات النحل (Kanuka,Manuka, Kamahi, Royal gel) أكثر تثبيطا على النمو البكتيري من عسل (هيثر ـ ريوا ريوا ـ راتا ـ تاوار ـ توي ـ كلوفر( (Heather; Rewa rewa; rata; Taware; Towi; Clover).
    ودرس العالم وولين (Woollen,1994) تأثير العسل المنتشر في نيوزيلانده وهو عسل مانوكا (Manuka) على بكتريا هيليكوبكتر بيلوري Helicobacter pylori المسببة للالتهاب وقرحة الاثنى عشر في الإنسان.
    وثبت بالتجربة أن عسل مانوكا (Manuka) يثبط نمو البكتريا ستافيلوكوكس أوريوس Staphylococcus aurerus وعند إزالة H2O2 من العسل بواسطة عامل محفز (فينول 15.5%) لا يثبط نمو البكتريا ستافيلوكوكس أوريوس Staphylococcus aureus (Willix, at al. 1992).
    وذكر الباحث زيفانوفيك (Zevanovic, 1994) أن عسل النحل يثبط نمو البكتريا, ويرجع ذلك إلى سبب انخفاض الأس الهيدروجيني(PH3.8) في العسل, لسبب احتوائه على الماء الأكسجيني.
    وبالمثل درس العالم ألن وزملاؤ (Allen, et al, 1991) تأثير 345 عينة عسل من أصل 34 نوعًا من أنواع العسل النيوزلندي غير المبستر (كانوكا, كاماهي, هيثر, مانوكا...الخ) (Kanuka, Kamahi, heather, manuka...etc) عند التخفيف 50% و25% على بكتريا ستافيلوكوكس أوريوس Staphylococcus oureus, وكانت نتائج الدراسة هي أن اختلاف نوع العسل وتركيزه تؤدي إلى اختلاف درجة تثبيطه للنمو البكتيري. وعند إضافة عامل محفز (فينول 15.5%) لإزالة H2O2 من الأعسال المستخدمة, فقدت الأعسال قدرتها على تثبيط البكتريا قيد الدراسة. ما عدا نوع (مانوكا) (Manuka) الذي لم يتأثر بإضافة الماء الأكسجيني واحتفظ بقدرته التثبيطية.
    أما في عام 1991م فقد قام العالم أبو الطيب, وزملاؤه (Abu Taib, et al, 1991) من جامعة الملك سعود ـ الرياض, بدراسة تأثير العسل على نمو البكتريا المسببة لقرحة المعدة والاثنى عشر هيليكوبكتر بيلوري Helicobacter pylori, وعدد آخر من البكتريا السالبة والموجبة لصبغة جرام. فوجد أن العسل يثبط نمو البكتريا التي تمت دراستها عند تركيز 20% من العسل كما وجد أيضًا أن نصف عدد البكتريا الموجبة والسالبة بصبغة جرام يتثبط نموها بتأثير العسل عند تركيز 10%.
    وأظهرت الأعسال الطبيعية غير المعاملة والمتوفرة في أسواق نيجيريا فعالية تثبيطية عند تركيز 50%, تقل طرديًّا مع نقصان تركيز العسل, على نمو العديد من الأنواع البكتيرية.
    بينما لم تظهر الأعسال التجارية اي فعالية تثبيطية على نمو الميكروبات السابقة حتى عند تركيز 100% (Efem, et al, 1992).
    كما أجرى العالم أوبي وزملاؤه (Obi, et al, 1994) دراسة على تأثير الأعسال النيجيرية على الأنواع البكتيرية المسببة للإسهال ـ فوجد أن أقراص العسل ذات التركيز (40 ـ 100%) تعمل على تثبيط نمو البكتريا. وينتج عنها منطقة تثبيط قطرها من 18 ـ 19 ملليمتر. أما الأقراص المحتوية على عسل تركيزه أقل من 40% فإنها تكون منطقة تثبيط أصغر ويتراوح قطرها بين 7 ـ 14 ملليمتر.
    ومن ناحية أخرى استخدم العالم تشو وزملاؤه (Chu, et al, 1992) فطر اسكوسفيرا ابيس Ascosphaera. apis, وزرعه على بيئة سابرود دكستروز اجار + مستخلص الخميرة فوجد أن الفطر ينمو كما ينمو على اجار العسل. ولكن الفطر يتأثر نموه الخضري عند الفطر عند تركيز 2.5% من الغذاء الملكي في بيئة سابرود دكستروز + مستخلص الخميرة. كما يتثبط نمو الهيفات عند إضافة 1% من الغذاء الملكي إلى بيئة الاجار سابرود دكستروز + مستخلص الخميرة. وعند إضافة مركب ـ هيدروكسي ـ 2 حمض الدسنويك ـ - إلى اجار سابرود دكستروز + مستخلص الخميرة فإن نمو الهيفات للفطر يتثبط. وفي حالة غياب هذا المركب من غذاء اليرقات فإن اليرقات النامية (الشغالات في المستقبل) سوف تكون عسلًا يخلو من هذه المادة فيؤدي ذلك إلى عدم تثبيط نمو الفطر عند استخدام هذا العسل.
    كما أن الأعسال المصرية عند تركيز 50% ـ 100% تثبط نمو الميكروبات اللاهوائية, ولكن التثبيط يكون أقل عند استخدام محلول سكر مشابه لتركيب العسل.
    وكذلك الحال بالنسبة للأعسال التجارية, وقد يكون ذلك بسبب أن الأعسال التجارية تعرضت للحرارة أو للشمس في مكان مكشوف عند إسالة العسل, فأدت هذه الحرارة إلى تكسير المواد المثبطة للنمو الميكروبي في العسل (Elbagoury and Ramsy, 1993).
    وأثبت العالم السخن, وآخرون, 1994 أن العسل الأردني المحلي يثبط نمو بكتريا باسيلس سيريس Bacillus Cereus, ستافيلوكوكس أوريوس Staphylococcus Oureus, سالمونيلا دبلن Salmonella dublin, وشيغيلا دسنتاري Shigella dysenteriae. وقد بينت الدراسة أن البكتريا الموجبة لصبغة جرام أكثر حساسية للتأثير التثبيطي للعسل بالمقارنة مع البكتريا السالبة لصبغة جرام. كما أن للعسل تأثير تثبيطي على تكوين الجراثيم بالنسبة للبكتريا المتجرثمة. وقد يكون لتركيب الجدار الخلوي دور في حساسية البكتريا لتأثير العسل التثبيطي عليها(EL-Sukhon, et al, 1994).
    [%20اكتشافات%20و%20آراء%20و%20اعجازات/تأثير%20العسل%20التثبيطي%20على%20نمو%20الكؠ ?ئنات%20الدقيقة
    [%20اكتشافات%20و%20آراء%20و%20اعجازات/تأثير%20العسل%20التثبيطي%20على%20نمو%20الكؠ ?ئنات%20الدقيقة
    بينما قام الباحثان كوردا وبلوكوفا (Curda and Plockova, 1995) بدراسة تأثير عسل النحل على بكتريا حمض اللاكتيك. Lactobacillus spp, فوجدا أن العسل غير المعامل بالحرارة يثبط نمو البكتريا بشكل كبير. ولكن نفس العسل إذا عومل بالحرارة فإنه يثبط نمو البكتريا بشكل محدود, وقد يفسر ذلك بأن الحرارة تؤثر سلبًا على المادة (المواد) المثبطة لنمو بكتريا حمض اللاكتيك في العسل.
    وقد تمت دراسة تأثير عشرة أنواع من أنواع العسل المحلي في الباكستان على خمسة وعشرين نوعًا من أنواع البكتريا المرضية وغير المرضية.
    وكانت نتائج الدراسة هي أن العسل يثبط نمو البكتريا بشكل واسع, ويوقف نمو الفطريات التي تمت دراستها (Dilnawaz, et al, 1995).
    ملخص الدراسة
    لقد تم دراسة تأثير العسل على النمو البكتيري في رسالة الماجستير التي تقدم بها الطالب / خالد الفريح ـ بقسم علوم الأحياء ـ بجامعة الملك عبد العزيز ـ تحت إشرافي وإشراف الدكتور صالح كابلي، وذلك باستخدام مجموعة من الأعسال المتوفرة في أسواق جدة منها: عسل السدر السعودي, عسل سوري, عسل لانجنيز, عسل أكاسيا, عسل مانوكا, عسل الشفا, والعسل التركي بشمعه, على كل من بكتيريا: اشيريشيا كولاي, انتيروكوكس فايكاليس, ستافيلوكوكس أوريس, سيودوموناس إيروجينوسا, هيموفيلس. أنفلوانزا, ستربتوكوكس نومونيا, وجميعها تم الحصول عليها من الشركة الأمريكية لتجميع وتنميط الميكروبات. وذلك عند تركيز 100% ـ 20% من العسل المستخدم بطريقة عمل ثقب في بيئة الأجار (طريقة الأبار). ووضع العسل بها بعد تلقيح الأجار بالميكروب وتحضينه عند 37مْ لمدة 24 ساعة, ومن ثم تم قياس منطقة التثبيط بالملليمتر. وقد أظهرت النتائج اختلافات تأثير العسل على درجة التثبيط باختلاف نوع العسل ونوع البكتريا. كما تمت دراسة تأثير العسل التثبيطي على البكتريا في بيئة المرق المغذي, حيث وجد أن للعسل أثرًا يتناسب طرديًّا مع التركيز على نسبة النفاذية خلال بيئة المرق المغذي المضاف إليها العسل بتركيز 100%, 75%, 50%. وأظهرت النتائج أثر العسل التثبيطي على نسبة نفاذية الضوء من خلال البيئة. كما تم استخلاص بعض مضادات النمو البكتيري من الأعسال المذكورة باستخدام المذيبات العضوية وهي بتروليوم إيثر, ميثلين كلوريد, كلوروفورم, إيثايل أسيتات, على الترتيب من محلول العسل الألماني (عند الأس الهيدروجيني =9), وتم عمل مقارنة بين مضادات النمو البكتيري التي في مستخلص الكلوروفورم, والإثايل أسيتات مع عقار التتراسيكلين, والدوكسيسيكلين, (بعد معادلتهما بالأمونيا) باستخدام تقنية كروماتجرافي الطبقة الرقيقة, وعلى ضوء ذلك تم فصل عدة مضادات النمو البكتيري من المستخلصين لأنواع العسل, ووجد أن بعض هذه المستخلصات تحتوي على مواد لها نفس زمن الاستبقاء لكل من العقارين السابقين باستخدام تقنية الفصل الكروماتجرافي. ووجد عمليًّا أن لهذه الطبقات تأثيـرًا مشابهًا لتأثير العقارين على النمو البكتيري. كما تم فصل طبقة عند زمن الاستبقاء من مستخلص عسل السدر بالإيثايل أسيتات, وأخرى ذات زمن استبقاء Rf=0.74 Rf=0.83 من مستخلص عسل المنوكا بالإيثايل أسيتات, وجميعها لها تأثيرات على النمو البكتيري. وقد كانت درجات الثبيط لهذه المواد المعزولة من الأعسال أقل من درجات التثبيط لنفس الأعسال عند التركيز 50% على نفس البكتيريا محل الدراسة, مما يدل على أنه توجد مواد أخرى في العسل تثبط النمو البكتيري

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