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ارجوا مساعدتي .. نبذه عن الاتصالات وكيفيه عمل دائرة Fire alarm

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  1. [1]
    فيصلووو
    فيصلووو غير متواجد حالياً

    جديد

    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2007
    المشاركات: 1
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    ارجوا مساعدتي .. نبذه عن الاتصالات وكيفيه عمل دائرة Fire alarm

    السلام عليكم يا شباب
    انا طالب هندسه اتصالات
    ارجو منكم مساعدتي في تقرير عن دائرتي الالكترونيه ...
    ممكن الي عنده مقدمه او نبذه عن نشأة الاتصالات
    و ارجو من الي عنده موقع او شرح مبسط لكيفيه عمل دائرة Fire Alarm circuit
    ارجو مساعدتي باقرب فرصه

  2. [2]
    ماجد عباس محمد
    ماجد عباس محمد غير متواجد حالياً
    مشرف متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2006
    المشاركات: 5,226

    وسام مشرف متميز

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    سبق تقديم انذار الحريق هنا رجاء استخدام البحث

    0 Not allowed!



  3. [3]
    قدقدقد
    قدقدقد غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2007
    المشاركات: 2
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    بيليببببببببببببب

    0 Not allowed!



  4. [4]
    معاذ الكمالي
    معاذ الكمالي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2007
    المشاركات: 36
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    عندي النبذة لكن ماقدرت أرفعها لك

    0 Not allowed!



  5. [5]
    إلكترونيكس
    إلكترونيكس غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2007
    المشاركات: 62
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    دوائر الانذار والحريق ما فى أكثر منها :)
    شوف ماذا تريد بالظبط وانا تحت أمرك إن شاء الله :)

    0 Not allowed!



  6. [6]
    خيري الشريف
    خيري الشريف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية خيري الشريف


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 209
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    السلام عليكم
    وكل عام وانتم بخير بمناسبة عيد الأضحى المبارك

    0 Not allowed!


    لا اله إلا الله ............................ محمد رسول الله
    م. خيري عبد الحليم الشريف
    بنغازي - ليبيا

  7. [7]
    خيري الشريف
    خيري الشريف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية خيري الشريف


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 209
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    FIRE SYSTEM DESIGN GUIDE
    SYSTEM DESIGN
    In order to undertake the process of designing a fire system for
    a building it is necessary to have a sound understanding of the
    relevant design standards, the legal framework surrounding
    building safety legislation and a sound working knowledge of
    product application theory. The importance of consultation with all
    relevant parties cannot be over stressed, neither can the
    importance of specialist advice in relevant areas. The following
    system design process is intended to give a reasonable overview
    of all the areas of knowledge required for the successful design of
    a fire alarm system.
    It is envisaged that the user will refer to the information contained
    within the design section to determine the areas where further
    detailed advice will be required and to give guidance as to where
    such advice may be contained.
    Due to the complex nature of legislation and design standards
    relating to fire alarm system design, this design guide is not
    intended to be a comprehensive guide to all aspects of fire alarm
    design but rather a very useful source of background information
    to which further application specific detailed information can be
    added from other sources as required.
    The standards referred to in this section relate to the UK and
    Europe. Although the principles are broadly universal, it is
    recommended for readers in other countries that they familiarise
    themselves with specific local requirements from their own
    standards, only using the British or European standards where
    these have been accepted by local fire authorities. Information
    relating to equipment facilities and performance apply to Cooper
    Lighting and Security equipment and may not necessarily apply to
    other manufacturers equipment. The reader should carefully check
    whether such comments relate to equipment from other
    manufacturers before considering alternative equipment.
    OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
    The following describes a typical fire alarm system design process,
    after each item a section number is provided which relates to the
    area within the design guide where further information can be
    found.
    • Understand the reasons for installing the fire alarm system in the
    specific property (section 1)
    • Conduct a risk assessment to help determine requirements
    (section 2)
    • Consult with all interested parties (section 3)
    • Decide on the relevant design standard (section 4)
    • Establish if third party approval is required - for equipment and
    /or installation.
    • Decide on the type of alarm technology to be used
    (see pages 16-20)
    • Decide on the appropriate protection category and extent of
    coverage where relevant (section 5)
    • Discuss and agree the fire strategy (section 6)
    • Plan the zoning of the building (section 6)
    • Select and position relevant system components (section 7)
    - Select the appropriate detectors for each area
    - Position the detectors
    - Select suitable callpoints and position at appropriate
    locations
    - Agree on the means of summoning the fire authority
    - Plan the alarm signalling arrangements (sounders, beacons,
    pagers etc)
    OVERVIEW OF THE DESIGN PROCESS (cont’d)
    • Select a suitable panel (suitably sized and rated with
    adequate standby autonomy)
    - Review the design such as to - minimise the potential for false
    alarms (section 8)
    - Select Contractor
    - Ensure suitable wiring of the system (section 9)
    - Make suitable arrangements for commissioning (section 10)
    - Appoint/Establish responsible person (section 11)
    - Make suitable arrangements for ongoing maintenance and
    monitoring of system performance (section 11)
    BACKGROUND LEGISLATION
    The following section contains details of European legislation which
    relates mainly to legal requirements placed on the manufacturer or
    importer of equipment. The description is included here to give the
    user/specifier an understanding of the subject.
    EMC
    The EMC directive requires that all electrical and electronic
    equipment is able to co-exist without interference. There are two
    basic levels, which relate to the type of environment, industrial
    and commercial/light industrial. The industrial level allows
    equipment to emit more electrical noise taking into account the
    problem of containing electrical noise in large electrical machines.
    EMC standards are continually evolving as communication
    equipment becomes more sophisticated and measurement
    techniques improve.
    In principle Fire Alarm equipment must emit low levels of noise but
    be able to withstand high levels, so that it can be used in all
    applications. To that end a product family standard, EN50130-4
    has been published to cover alarm equipment susceptibility and the
    commercial/light industrial generic standard is used for emissions.
    LVD
    The Low Voltage Directive requires that all electrical equipment
    connected to low voltage supplies (up to 1000V) must be safe.
    Various standards are published relating to different types of
    equipment but the general standard EN60950 is applied to fire
    detection and alarm equipment.
    Most items in commercial fire detection systems are designed to
    work at Extra Low Voltage (24V) and so the LVD does not apply,
    the exceptions being fire alarm panels, mains rated relays or
    interfaces and other items of equipment connected to the mains
    supply such as door closers, smoke vents etc.
    CPD
    The Construction Products Directive relates to building materials
    and equipment fixed to the structure of the building. One section
    of the directive relates to Safety In Case Of Fire and mandate
    109 requires that all fire detection and alarm equipment is
    third party certified to the relevant Harmonised European standard.
    In most cases this will be a part of the EN54 suite of standards,
    e.g. EN54-2 for control equipment or EN54-5 for heat detectors.
    Many of these standards are published but are in the process of
    harmonisation. Once harmonised there will be a transition period
    before compliance becomes mandatory. Therefore at present third
    party approval is voluntary but over the next few years it is
    expected to become mandatory.

    0 Not allowed!


    لا اله إلا الله ............................ محمد رسول الله
    م. خيري عبد الحليم الشريف
    بنغازي - ليبيا

  8. [8]
    خيري الشريف
    خيري الشريف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية خيري الشريف


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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    CPD (cont’d)
    Third party testing to an EN54 standard is very expensive,
    this may therefore restrict the level of customisation that can be
    offered by manufacturers in the future.
    CE MARKING
    Currently CE marking is used to indicate that the equipment meets
    the EMC and LV directives. It will also apply to CPD compliance
    once mandated standards are in place for the items of equipment
    in question. CE marking is not retrospective and generally it will be
    clear as to what directive the marking relates to. The mandated
    standards will be parts of EN54 for fire alarm and fire detection
    systems.
    RoHS
    The Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive currently does
    not apply to fire detection and alarm equipment. However it is
    likely that once alternative materials become available and reliable
    (particularly in the case of lead solder,) then the scope of the
    directive will be enlarged to cover current exceptions and to
    incorporate more materials. The objective of the directive is to
    require manufacturers to stop using substances that potentially
    provide some health risk, in electrical and electronic equipment.
    1.0 WHY HAVE A FIRE ALARM SYSTEM?
    The answer to this question depends on the premises in question
    and the legal requirements. In large high-rise buildings, such
    systems are essential to warn all occupants that a fire or
    emergency situation exists and the system is used to control
    evacuation in an orderly way. Large sites with a retained fire
    brigade may require the system to call the brigade and direct them
    to the area of risk. The property may have considerable intrinsic
    value and the insurers either require a fire detection system or may
    incentivise its use.
    The building may be unoccupied for periods where equipment is
    still powered and the owner wishes to ensure that if anything goes
    wrong fire fighters are called to the scene in a timely manner.
    Fire alarm systems are often used for other purposes as well as fire
    detection and alarm, such as bomb alert signalling, monitoring
    systems for high risk equipment or places, emergency call systems
    and even class change systems for schools.
    Sometimes fire detection and alarm systems are used to
    compensate for structural fire protection shortcomings or to give
    special cover for items of high value. Whatever the reason,
    an automatic fire detection and alarm system generally provides
    a network of manual callpoints, fire sensors and alarm warning
    devices over the area covered. It is, in effect, the eyes and mouth
    of the building to constantly monitor the building and warn if a fire
    breaks out, or is suspected. In the same way we do if we see
    flames or smell burning.
    1.1 Insurance Requirements
    Insurance requirements normally relate to the protection of property
    - rather than life. The objective is therefore to detect fire as early as
    possible and instigate measures to put the fire out with the
    minimum amount of damage.
    Generally a system designed for property protection will also give
    protection of life as well but the essential difference is that the
    requirements for property protection are driven from the insurance
    company’s desires rather than law. BS5839-1 covers both life and
    property protection, so is equally useful in both cases.
    1.2 Legal Framework
    Generally the legal requirement for a fire alarm system relates
    to the protection of life. Either of those in the building or those
    in adjacent buildings. The primary objective of life protection is
    to warn occupants of the risk of fire and get them to a place of
    safety as quickly as possible.
    The UK traditionally had a number of regulations relating to
    different types of building and has used the fire brigade to act as
    a local enforcement agency either issuing or withholding fire
    certificates depending on their view of the level of protection
    provided. This has now changed and the government has
    devolved the responsibility onto the building owners - with some
    exceptions. This means that it will become the building owner (or
    occupier) who is responsible to ensure that the building is safe for
    those in and around it. The tool to establish the requirement is ‘risk
    assessment’. The overall legal framework as it previously was and
    is now are detailed in the charts below.
    Acts of Parliament
    Government Departments
    Fire Authority & Building Control
    Implement Legislation, they inspect
    premises and decide upon requirements
    then issue Fire Certificates to premises
    that comply and are responsible for the
    fire safest standards of the building
    Employer
    Uses contractor to install products to
    meet fire authority requirements who
    will then issue a fire certificate
    British Standards Institute
    Produces standards of best engineering
    practice by consultation with all
    parties. They are called up in guidance
    documents as showing legal compliance
    Enforced by courts
    e.g. Home office, provide guidance
    Fire Safety Bill - Act of Parliament Government Departments
    Employers
    and their
    Fire Risk assessors
    They have the total responsibility
    for the Fire safety of the premises
    Enforced by courts e.g. Home office, provide guidance
    Fire Authority & Building Control
    Implement Legislation check assessments
    Competent Engineers
    Specialists in fire alarm and emergency
    lighting design installation and
    maintenance provide technical assistance
    British Standards Institute
    Produces standards for equipment and
    application that can be used by employers
    to demonstrate compliance
    If a fire detection or alarm system is required then it is
    necessary to establish the specification for the system. In the
    UK BS5839-1 is normally the appropriate standard for commercial
    and industrial premises. BS5839-6 relates to residential premises
    and other standards such as HTM 82 for hospitals relate to
    specific building types.
    FIRE SAFETY LEGISLATION - Previous Situation
    Flowchart of Fire Safety for normal premises since
    October 2006

    0 Not allowed!


    لا اله إلا الله ............................ محمد رسول الله
    م. خيري عبد الحليم الشريف
    بنغازي - ليبيا

  9. [9]
    خيري الشريف
    خيري الشريف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية خيري الشريف


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 209
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 2
    Given: 0
    2.0 RISK ASSESSMENT
    The first step in the design process is the risk assessment.
    It underpins the whole system strategy and therefore could be
    argued as being the most important stage. Risk assessment is the
    process of considering each part of a building from the point of
    view of what fire hazards exist within an area and what would
    happen in the event of fire or if explosion were to occur. This
    would normally be done when considering the building from the
    point of view of general safety. Clearly very small premises only
    require a first level of fire protection, such as safe construction,
    clear escape routes and a fire extinguisher. Equally obviously,
    large hotels will require a fully automatic fire detection and alarm
    system, multiple sets fire protection equipment and adequate
    emergency lighting and escape signage. The Risk Assessment
    process is to help building owners of buildings between these two
    extremes make adequate and appropriate provision.
    Building owners or operators will often want to employ the services
    of a professional risk assessor to ensure that the building
    is considered impartially and in adequate detail. However there
    are checklists and technical advice available so that the task can
    be done ‘in-house’. The Government web site for communities and
    local government provides useful guidance on the subject
    (www.communities.gov.uk). It is recommended that risk assessors
    should be fully familiar with the requirements of the latest edition of
    BS5839:1 and if in doubt consult a suitably qualified specialist.
    3.0 CONSULT WITH ALL INTERESTED PARTIES
    BS5839 stresses the need to consult with all interested parties
    before embarking on a detailed design. As a minimum the
    following need to consult to ensure that the fire detection and
    alarm system meets the requirements of all concerned.
    - The authority responsible for enforcing health and safety
    legislation
    - The property insurer
    - The building user
    - The proposed installer
    - Fire engineering specialists (where appropriate)
    4.0 RELEVANT STANDARDS
    Standards are produced for equipment and the application of
    equipment, they are generally produced or endorsed by BSI.
    They represent recognised best practice either for the design,
    manufacture or application of a particular product or product
    range.
    Often these standards are called up within guidance documents
    for pieces of legislation and since they represent best current
    practice, can be generally be used by employers to demonstrate
    that equipment they have installed is adequate and appropriate.
    The following standards relate to the UK and Europe. There are
    other standards that relate to specific applications (such as
    hospitals or data processing installations) and other countries will
    have their own standards covering the same area as those listed.
    4.1 BS5839
    The BS5839 suite of standards relate to specific areas of
    application for fire detection and alarm equipment. Specifically
    part 1 relates to public premises and part 6 relates to residential
    premises.
    4.1 BS5839 (cont’d)
    BS5839-1 is a comprehensive code of practice for fire detection
    and alarm systems, the requirements relate to both life and property
    protection and the standard includes much advice and comment
    with is very useful in informing the building owner or system
    specifier of the background to the requirements. The standard has
    been developed through input from the whole fire detection
    industry over a period of 30 years and is the distillation of expert
    opinion and practical advice. The application notes that follow
    relate to the requirements of BS5839:1 2002.
    4.2 BS5588
    The parts of BS5588 form the technical element of the building
    regulations for England and Wales, they should be consulted to
    establish the detailed requirements for the building in question.
    BS5588 is mainly concerned with the structure and design of the
    building but also contains some requirements for fire detection and
    alarm systems. The requirements of BS5588 are incorporated
    within the building regulations giving it mandatory legal status.
    4.3 BS7273, BS EN 60079-14, BS EN 50281-1-2
    The parts of BS7273 are codes of practice for different types of
    fire protection systems. Generally this is considered separately to
    fire alarm systems but there may be occasions where a trade off
    can be made between the two systems, or where the two systems
    interact and must be interfaced.
    BS EN 60079-14 and 50281-1-2 cover areas where there may
    be risk of explosive gas/vapour or dust respectively, reference to
    them may be required in certain buildings or where there is a
    change of use.
    4.4 EN54
    The EN54 suite of standards relates to the design and
    performance of items of equipment that make up a fire detection
    and alarm system. Each part relates to a different piece of
    equipment, for example part 3 relates to alarm devices, part 11 to
    call points, part 4 to power supplies etc.
    Some parts of the standards have options with requirements. These
    relate to specific features that are required in certain applications
    but not all. For example all control and indicating equipment must
    be able to detect fire (with the help of appropriate input devices),
    must monitor certain functions (such as cables for open and short
    circuit faults) and must have a disablement facility so that functions
    or areas of cover can be switched off for maintenance or similar
    activities. However it is optional to have a test facility or delays to
    outputs, but if such features are either provided or required in the
    application (e.g. to allow a local search for fire prior to calling the
    brigade) then those facilities must meet specified criteria.
    It is therefore necessary when specifying compliance to EN54 that
    the relevant part is identified and that the application standard
    (such as BS5839-1) is consulted to identify specific options. For
    example, the UK fire brigade almost always will require zonal light
    emitting indicators to be incorporated in control equipment to show
    the extent of the fire event at a glance; this is an option in EN54-2
    and many countries in Europe do not require such displays.
    4.5 BS7671
    BS7671 was previously known as the IEE wiring regulations.
    The standard is called up in BS5839-1 and covers the installation
    of the system.

    0 Not allowed!


    لا اله إلا الله ............................ محمد رسول الله
    م. خيري عبد الحليم الشريف
    بنغازي - ليبيا

  10. [10]
    خيري الشريف
    خيري الشريف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية خيري الشريف


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 209
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 2
    Given: 0
    2.0 RISK ASSESSMENT
    The first step in the design process is the risk assessment.
    It underpins the whole system strategy and therefore could be
    argued as being the most important stage. Risk assessment is the
    process of considering each part of a building from the point of
    view of what fire hazards exist within an area and what would
    happen in the event of fire or if explosion were to occur. This
    would normally be done when considering the building from the
    point of view of general safety. Clearly very small premises only
    require a first level of fire protection, such as safe construction,
    clear escape routes and a fire extinguisher. Equally obviously,
    large hotels will require a fully automatic fire detection and alarm
    system, multiple sets fire protection equipment and adequate
    emergency lighting and escape signage. The Risk Assessment
    process is to help building owners of buildings between these two
    extremes make adequate and appropriate provision.
    Building owners or operators will often want to employ the services
    of a professional risk assessor to ensure that the building
    is considered impartially and in adequate detail. However there
    are checklists and technical advice available so that the task can
    be done ‘in-house’. The Government web site for communities and
    local government provides useful guidance on the subject
    (www.communities.gov.uk). It is recommended that risk assessors
    should be fully familiar with the requirements of the latest edition of
    BS5839:1 and if in doubt consult a suitably qualified specialist.
    3.0 CONSULT WITH ALL INTERESTED PARTIES
    BS5839 stresses the need to consult with all interested parties
    before embarking on a detailed design. As a minimum the
    following need to consult to ensure that the fire detection and
    alarm system meets the requirements of all concerned.
    - The authority responsible for enforcing health and safety
    legislation
    - The property insurer
    - The building user
    - The proposed installer
    - Fire engineering specialists (where appropriate)
    4.0 RELEVANT STANDARDS
    Standards are produced for equipment and the application of
    equipment, they are generally produced or endorsed by BSI.
    They represent recognised best practice either for the design,
    manufacture or application of a particular product or product
    range.
    Often these standards are called up within guidance documents
    for pieces of legislation and since they represent best current
    practice, can be generally be used by employers to demonstrate
    that equipment they have installed is adequate and appropriate.
    The following standards relate to the UK and Europe. There are
    other standards that relate to specific applications (such as
    hospitals or data processing installations) and other countries will
    have their own standards covering the same area as those listed.
    4.1 BS5839
    The BS5839 suite of standards relate to specific areas of
    application for fire detection and alarm equipment. Specifically
    part 1 relates to public premises and part 6 relates to residential
    premises.
    4.1 BS5839 (cont’d)
    BS5839-1 is a comprehensive code of practice for fire detection
    and alarm systems, the requirements relate to both life and property
    protection and the standard includes much advice and comment
    with is very useful in informing the building owner or system
    specifier of the background to the requirements. The standard has
    been developed through input from the whole fire detection
    industry over a period of 30 years and is the distillation of expert
    opinion and practical advice. The application notes that follow
    relate to the requirements of BS5839:1 2002.
    4.2 BS5588
    The parts of BS5588 form the technical element of the building
    regulations for England and Wales, they should be consulted to
    establish the detailed requirements for the building in question.
    BS5588 is mainly concerned with the structure and design of the
    building but also contains some requirements for fire detection and
    alarm systems. The requirements of BS5588 are incorporated
    within the building regulations giving it mandatory legal status.
    4.3 BS7273, BS EN 60079-14, BS EN 50281-1-2
    The parts of BS7273 are codes of practice for different types of
    fire protection systems. Generally this is considered separately to
    fire alarm systems but there may be occasions where a trade off
    can be made between the two systems, or where the two systems
    interact and must be interfaced.
    BS EN 60079-14 and 50281-1-2 cover areas where there may
    be risk of explosive gas/vapour or dust respectively, reference to
    them may be required in certain buildings or where there is a
    change of use.
    4.4 EN54
    The EN54 suite of standards relates to the design and
    performance of items of equipment that make up a fire detection
    and alarm system. Each part relates to a different piece of
    equipment, for example part 3 relates to alarm devices, part 11 to
    call points, part 4 to power supplies etc.
    Some parts of the standards have options with requirements. These
    relate to specific features that are required in certain applications
    but not all. For example all control and indicating equipment must
    be able to detect fire (with the help of appropriate input devices),
    must monitor certain functions (such as cables for open and short
    circuit faults) and must have a disablement facility so that functions
    or areas of cover can be switched off for maintenance or similar
    activities. However it is optional to have a test facility or delays to
    outputs, but if such features are either provided or required in the
    application (e.g. to allow a local search for fire prior to calling the
    brigade) then those facilities must meet specified criteria.
    It is therefore necessary when specifying compliance to EN54 that
    the relevant part is identified and that the application standard
    (such as BS5839-1) is consulted to identify specific options. For
    example, the UK fire brigade almost always will require zonal light
    emitting indicators to be incorporated in control equipment to show
    the extent of the fire event at a glance; this is an option in EN54-2
    and many countries in Europe do not require such displays.
    4.5 BS7671
    BS7671 was previously known as the IEE wiring regulations.
    The standard is called up in BS5839-1 and covers the installation
    of the system.

    0 Not allowed!


    لا اله إلا الله ............................ محمد رسول الله
    م. خيري عبد الحليم الشريف
    بنغازي - ليبيا

  
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