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السيارات الذكية !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!smart cars

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  1. [1]
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو متميز

    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    السيارات الذكية !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!smart cars

    السيارات الذكية مصطلح يطلق على السيارات التي تحتوي انظمة سيطرة وهذه الانظمة تختلف باختلاف الشركات المصنعة لهذه السيارات وتخضع لعوامل عدة ابرزها العوامل التجارية من خلال زيادة الكلف اذ بالتالي زيادة الاسعار وتراجع المستهلكين
    هذا من جانب ومن الجانب الاخر توفر ورش الصيانة لهذه السيارات في الدول المستهلكة لها اذ ان اغلب السيارات التي تحتوي على التقنيات غالبا ما تكون هذه الانظمة سر من اسرار الشركة وقد يلاحظ الاخوة العراقيين كيف ان هناك انواع من السيارات تعتبر متطورة في غير العراق من الدول ولكن لا نجد لها سوقا في العراق واذا سالنا المستهلكين يكون الجواب هو اما بعدم توفر امكانية الصيانة بسبب عدم توفر مقرات للشركة المصنعة كفروع صيانة او بسبب عدم توفر قطع الغيار وغيرها
    علما ان هذه السيارات تجد لها سوقا متميزة في الدول المجاورة
    هذا من باب المثال فقط *
    والان ندرج لكم ما وجدناه في صفحات النت ومن لديه معلومة يرفدنا بها والهدف الاساس للموضوع هو انظمة السيطرة الحديثة*تحياتي
    ***********************************







    DESCRIPTION.
    The test-bed vehicle in our project is a 1999 Toyota Landcruier 4WD. A 4WD vehicle was chosen for a number of reasons: it provides a strong and robust platform capable of surviving the rigors of experimentation; it has a large amount of interior space for installing sensors/computers; and it allows the option of performing research into off-road autonomous driving. The overall design philosophy is to use as many off the shelf components as possible to reduce development time and to lever off existing tried and true technology.


    Sensing.
    The main mode of sensing used in the vehicle will be vision. Two separate vision systems are planned. First, an active vision head (called CeDAR developed previously at the ANU - see active vision page) will be mounted with two stereo camera pairs. One pair will have a short focal length, and concentrate on the near field of view, while the other pair will have a longer focal length, and concentrate on looking further along the road. The second vision system involves using a stereo pair looking from the dash back toward the driver's face. By monitoring the driver useful information as to their intention can be gathered as well as verification that they have seen a detected dangerous situation. This system is based on the faceLAB system from seeing machines. Apart from vision sensing, a Global Positioning System (GPS), Inertial Navigation Sensor (INS), and laser range finder have been installed into the vehicle. The 6 DOF INS is mounted close to the vehicle's centre of gravity at a point between the two rear-seat foot-wells. It provides a continuous stream of linear and angular acceleration data that can be used to keep track of vehicle dynamics. The GPS provides data that can be used for high-level, navigation problems, but is also very useful for correcting drift in the INS output. The laser range finder has been mounted looking forward on the vehicle's bull-bar. Its purpose will be to identify obstacles, both stationary (eg. guard-rails, parked cars, etc.) and moving (eg. other vehicles), and will provide an additional source of information for our obstacle avoidance algorithms.

    Actuation.
    Three actuation sub-systems are required in the vehicle: steering, braking, and throttle. We achieve throttle control by interfacing with the vehicle's cruise control module. The steering sub-system is based around a Raytheon rotary drive motor/clutch unit, which was designed for use in yacht auto-pilot applications. It was installed in the engine bay alongside the steering shaft of the vehicle. Power from an electric motor is transferred to the steering shaft using three spur gears: the first is attached to the steering shaft, the second to the motor shaft, and the third, being an idler gear, sits between the first two. A key feature in the design is that the idler gear can be engaged and disengaged from the drive-train using a lever protruding from the assembly. Then for ``manual'' driving of the vehicle, the idler gear can be disengaged, providing the safeguard that the autonomous steering assembly cannot impede normal steering in any way. A photo of the steering sub-system is shown in this image. Note the lever used to engage and disengage the idler gear. Also note the rotary drive motor/clutch unit, and the vehicle's steering shaft. The braking sub-system is based around a linear drive unit (produced by Animatics), and an electromagnet. The linear drive is connected to one end of a braided steel cable via the electromagnet. The cable passes through a guiding sheath to reach, at its other end, the brake pedal. Braking is then achieved by having the linear drive unit pull on the cable. The electromagnet must be powered in order for braking to occur (ie. if it is unpowered, then the linear drive cannot pull on the cable to activate the brake). In an emergency, power can be cut to the electromagnet so that all braking control is returned back to the driver. In our implementation, an emergency scenario is communicated to the autonomous driving system by having the human activate an emergency stop button. The braking subsystem is shown in this image. In the foreground the figure shows the linear drive and electromagnet, while in the background the brake pedal and its connection with the cable is shown.

    Processing and Communication.
    Processing and communication hardware is required to fuse together the various sensing and actuation subsystems into a cohesive, single unit. Our approach in this area has been to favor the use of standard PC and networking hardware. Such hardware is readily available, easily upgradable, and cheap. An additional PC will be installed to process non-vision sensing data, and to control the throttle, steering, and braking subsystems. Communication is achieved between PCs via ethernet, with a connection from the vehicle back to a base station possible via a radio ethernet link. Due to the large number of sensing and actuation devices that communicate over serial lines, a serial port server has been installed. This device allows communication between a PC and serial devices as though these devices were connected directly to local serial ports on a PC. Finally, an Servo to go card has been installed to provide a low level communication interface between PCs and various other devices (eg. cruise control system, steering motor control, steering angle potentiometer). This module connects into the ethernet, and provides a number of functionalities, including A/D and D/A conversion, PID control, timers, etc.

    1999 Toyota Land Cruiser, diesel, with power steering, cruise control and ABS.



    BRAKING SYSTEM.

    Whole brake actuator system.
    Brake pedal assembly.
    Brake actuator assembly.
    UltraMotion Smart motion linear actuator.
    Emergency stop electro-magnet.



    STEERING SYSTEM.

    Whole steering system.
    Steering mechanism of vehicle including drive motor/clutch unit (left), idler gear (centre) and gear on steering shaft (right).



    SENSORS.


    CeDAR active camera platform.
    FaceLAB cameras on dash board.
    LCD monitor in backseat with FaceLAB software on screen.

    Sick Laser Range finder.
    11 Mbit Radio ethernet traceiver.
    Looks like a 10cm3 black box
    3D rate and acceleration gyroscope.
    Size of a bread box
    12V DC - 240V AC inverter.
    Cylinder with cable coming out one end.
    Steering angle linear potentiometer.
    looks like every other ethernet switch.
    Ethernet switch.
    FaceLAB


    The software runs on several machines running linux.
    Distributed Client-Server based software architecture written in C*********************

  2. [2]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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  3. [3]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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  4. [4]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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  5. [5]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    MWR MR2 Spyder Cruise Control System Cruise Control Kit Pictures

    This kit includes everything you will need to add an OEM-quality cruise control system to your 2000-2005 Toyota MR2-Spyder. Kit uncludes all wiring, connectors, electric actuator, control switch, mounting hardware, and comprehensive step-by-step instructions with wiring diagrams. All electronics are manufactured in an ISO 9000 environment, and all parts are covered by a 3 year/36,000 mile warranty for materials and worksmanship.

    Installation about as difficult as installing a car alarm, and requires only basic tools such as wrenches, a drill, and a dremel with cut-off wheel.
    http://monkeywrenchracing.com/mwr_shop_cars.html
    هذا الرابط مع التحية

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  6. [6]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    نبذة عن نظام ABS


    Questions and Answers about ABS

    What is ABS? ABS is an acronym for anti-lock braking system, one of the most significant safety advances in automotive engineering in recent decades. First developed and patented in 1936, ABS is actually derived from the German term "antiblockiersystem."

    Anti-lock brakes are designed to prevent skidding and help drivers maintain steering control during an emergency stopping situation. In cars equipped with conventional brakes, the driver pumps the brakes, whereas in cars equipped with four-wheel ABS, the driver keeps a firm foot on the brake, allowing the system to rapidly and automatically pump the brakes. Because the wheels don't lock, drivers have the ability to steer around hazards if they are unable to stop in time.
    What does ABS do for me? ABS can improve vehicle stability, steerability and stopping capability.
    When the braking force created by the driver is greater than the tire can handle, the wheel can lock up. Locked wheels can create vehicle instability problems and prevent steering around obstacles in the road. Stopping distance on many slippery surfaces will also increase with locked wheels. Four-wheel ABS prevents wheel lock-up in situations in which the wheels might normally lock, such as on slippery roads.
    ABS can also prevent tire damage. Locked wheels on dry asphalt or concrete can quickly create flat spots on tires, which can cause an annoying vibration while driving. The big advantage, however, is the maintenance of the tire -- a significant factor in effective stopping.

    Most anti-lock brake systems will indicate their operation by pulsations in the brake pedal and a noticeable sound. If the driver notices these pulsations and sounds, it is an indication that the roads are slippery. Speed and following distance should therefore be adjusted.
    To reap the maximum safety benefits of ABS, drivers must know how to use the system correctly.
    How does it work?In vehicles equipped with conventional brakes, drivers often apply their brakes to the point at which the wheels lock up. This results in a loss of steering control and less-than-maximum braking effect.
    When a driver operating a four-wheel ABS-equipped vehicle steps firmly on the brake pedal, the system automatically modulates the brake pressure at all four wheels, adjusting pressure to each wheel independently to prevent wheel lock-up.
    With ABS, stopping distances decrease in many cases and the driver can maintain steering control of the vehicle. Importantly, four-wheel ABS allows the driver continuing control to help steer around hazards if a complete stop cannot be accomplished in time.
    How do you know your ABS is working?Most anti-lock brake systems let you know when you have activated your ABS. The driver usually notices a mechanical sound and can feel some pulsation or increased resistance in the brake pedal. This means traction limits have been reached on the road being traveled. It is important not to take your foot off the brake pedal when you hear noise or feel vibrations, but instead continue to apply firm pressure.
    What is the difference between rear-wheel anti-locks (RWAL) and four-wheel anti-locks?Rear-wheel anti-lock brakes (RWAL), found exclusively on light trucks, vans and sports utility vehicles, are designed to maintain directional stability. Four-wheel anti-lock brakes, usually found on passenger cars and some light trucks, are designed to maintain steerability in emergency stopping situations.
    Because the braking system in a four-wheel anti-lock vehicle modulates the braking pressure and thereby prevents wheel lock on all four wheels, the driver maintains control over steering. Drivers of RWAL vehicles, on the other hand, control the braking and thus the lock prevention capabilities of the front wheels. If the driver steps too firmly on the brake pedal, the front wheels can lock and prevent steering -- the same that would happen with conventional brakes. But with RWAL ABS, the vehicle continues to move in a straight line. With just enough pressure applied, the driver with RWAL can maintain steering control.
    Drivers of four-wheel ABS cars should step firmly on the brake in an emergency stopping situation and keep their foot on the pedal. Drivers of RWAL vehicles should step firmly with care, and if they feel the wheels begin to lock, they should withhold some pressure.
    Do cars with ABS stop more quickly than cars without it?Not always. Although the stopping distance with ABS is shorter under most road conditions, drivers should always keep a safe distance behind the vehicle in front of them and maintain a speed consistent with the road conditions. While a vehicle with ABS maintains its steering capability in a sudden stop, it may not turn as quickly on a slippery road as it would on dry pavement.
    Can you lose steerability?The tire can deliver a fixed amount of traction for the road conditions. This traction is divided between steering and braking. A driver can continue to steer a vehicle using maximum ABS braking but not as sharply as he or she could without braking.
    Can ABS stop all car skids?While ABS cannot prevent all skids, it does prevent the wheels from locking in typical panic situations. ABS cannot, however, change the laws of physics. A combination of excessive speed, sharp turns and slamming brakes can still throw an ABS-equipped vehicle into a sideways skid.
    In what circumstances might conventional brakes have an advantage over ABS?There are some conditions where stopping distance may be shorter without ABS. For example, in cases where the road is covered with loose gravel or freshly fallen snow, the locked wheels of a non-ABS car build up a wedge of gravel or snow, which can contribute to a shortening of the braking distance.
    If I live in the Snow Belt, how can I benefit from ABS?Even in fresh snow conditions, you gain the advantages of better steerability and stability with four-wheel ABS than with a conventional system that could result in locked wheels.
    In exchange for an increased stopping distance, the vehicle will remain stable and maintain full steering since the wheels won't be locked. The gain in stability makes a potential increase in stopping distances an acceptable compromise for most drivers. All in all, these benefits outweigh the rare instances where the ABS system increases distances over non-ABS equipped vehicles.
    Does ABS work on ice?Yes. The system's computer monitors the speed of each of the vehicle's wheels, compares them and adjusts brake pressure to each wheel to ensure the car stops in the shortest distance possible for most road surfaces.
    Will pumping the brakes on ABS-equipped vehicles improve braking performance?NO! When in use, the ABS automatically varies the brake pressure much better than pumping can. Do not pump the brakes; apply force firmly.
    What if the ABS fails?Anti-lock brake systems are designed to be fail-safe. Nevertheless, they are equipped with a diagnostic feature that automatically activates and tests the major components each time the car is started and monitors them throughout the journey.
    In the rare event of a failure, the ABS would be deactivated by its own safety circuit. A warning light goes on indicating to the driver that the vehicle is now in conventional base-brake mode.
    Why invest in a system you may use only a few times?When you consider that ABS can protect your automotive investment, your health and safety, passengers and other motorists, ABS is a good investment.
    Most people agree the investment in ABS proves its worth if it prevents just one accident. Maybe that's why nearly nine out of 10 first-time ABS buyers in Europe are repeat buyers.
    How do I know if the vehicle I'm driving has ABS?
    Most newer car models offer ABS as either standard or optional equipment. There are different ways to find out whether your car has an anti-lock brake system:
    • If you buy or lease a new car, ask your dealer.
    • Check your instrument panel for an ABS indicator light after you turn on the ignition.
    • Read your owner's manual.
    • If renting a vehicle, check with the rental car company when picking it up.
    To determine if your vehicle has rear-wheel anti-lock brakes or four-wheel ABS:
    • Read the owner's manual.
    • Ask your dealer.
    • If you buy or lease a new vehicle, check the window sticker equipment listing.
    • A qualified mechanic can tell you by checking under the hood and reviewing the brake hose routings and ABS package.
    What is the difference between an anti-lock brake system and other technology such as traction control or the new intelligent stability and handling systems? Click here to view a Comparative Analysis of Automotive Braking Safety Technologies


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  7. [7]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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  8. [8]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    اليكم النظامين


    Traction Control System

    Traction Control was developed in Formula One racing to control wheel spin as cars travelled through turns and on slick surfaces (oil) allowing consistent application of power and maintenance of control. The VSC system orchestrates the ABS and Active Traction Control (A-TRAC) sensors,actuators and computor electronics.

    If a wheel loses traction, the computer will help minimize wheel slippage by controlling engine output and brake fluid pressure that is applied to the slipping wheel. Other system maintain control by Clamping down on the fuel supply to the engine (throttle), lowering engine power.

    Typically the ABS is used to slow one spinning drive wheel, which sends power to the other as a limited-slip differential would. Then the engine power limiters kick in only if both drive wheels are spinning faster than the passive wheels, which indicates that both drive wheels have lost traction. Because the wheel-rotation sensors are part of any antilock braking system, cars equipped with traction control always have antilock brakes as well.

    Traction control is like ABS for acceleration. If a wheel starts to spin, traction control may cut engine power or pulse the brakeon the spinning wheel (or perform both operations) to help transfer some of the engine's torque across the axle to the wheel with more grip. Expert off-road drivers sometimes pump the brake pedals on vehicles without traction control to try to accomplish the same thing.


    -ETS (four-wheel Electronic Traction System):
    Working with the vehicles'full-time four-wheel drive, 4-ETS uses individual wheel-speed sensors to detect the onset of wheel slip. Then it individually brakes the slipping wheels as needed, providing the effect of locking the front, center and/or rear differentials. The 4-ETS system continually balances the torque split to direct power to the wheel or wheels with traction.

    *Always wear your seat belts And Remember Never drive faster than your Angel can fly. Homepage Automotive Glossary Locate a Cardealer Look for a Used Car CARCLUBS and Events Email address protected by JavaScript. Please enable JavaScript to contact me. New Cars Reviews and Specs Car Insurance V.I.P. section Car Finance on a new car List your used car for Sale for FREE!!

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  9. [9]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    تكملة للموضوع
    Traction Control
    What is it and how does it work



    What is traction, and what does traction control do on my car while I drive? Traction is the grip that your car’s tires have on the road, which is needed to accelerate, turn and brake. If your car, or more specifically, your tires have little or no grip; your car will not accelerate, turn or brake and will skid. Traction control devices in the car will help prevent this loss of grip so your tires will have traction to accelerate, turn and brake.
    The most common and well-known traction control device is the Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS). ABS is designed to prevent your wheels from locking up during panic or hard braking. When braking, if your front wheels lock-up, steering control is lost and your car will continue in the same path as before you attempted to brake. The system consists of a host of speed sensors and a central computer. Speed sensors are located at the wheels of the car, which tell the computer how fast they are turning. The computer constantly evaluates the speed of the vehicle and the speed of the wheels. When the brake pedal is depressed and the speed of the wheel reaches or get close to locking-up, the ABS computer will then modulate the amount of brake pressure (or “pump” the brakes), as fast as fifteen times per second, on that wheel. This continuing modulation or pumping will prevent or correct wheel lock-up and allow the driver to brake and steer. ABS systems do vary from auto manufacturer to auto manufacturer. It is important know if the car you are driving is equipped with ABS and how to brake if ABS is activated. Shortly after its introduction in the marketplace, there were insurance industry studies that showed ABS equipped cars were in a higher rate of accidents then those not equipped. In this study, it was shown that the most frequent factor in these accidents was driver error. Drivers were not putting enough pressure on the brake, not holding brake pressure long enough or trying to pump the brakes. Evidence also suggests that drivers were over confident when driving an ABS equipped car and were not allowing for a safe following or braking distance.
    To correctly use the brakes in an ABS equipped car in a panic situation, the driver must apply the brakes 100 percent, using all available force. The ABS computer will prevent brake lockup and the tires sliding on the travel surface. This will allow the driver to steer around the threat. It is important to remember that ABS can increase straight-line stopping distances beyond that of threshold braking in a non-ABS equipped car. ABS offers drivers, in an emergency situation, the ability to maintain steering control so they can steer clear of an obstacle or threat. Current ABS systems give feedback to the driver to let them know it is activated and operating during the current braking maneuver. The most common way that ABS communicates to the driver is a pulsing sensation felt in the braking foot or a rattling noise during braking. This is normal operation and is telling the driver ABS is working. As discussed above, do not attempt to modulate the brake yourself and remember to use all the brake force available. The ABS system will take care of the modulation for you and allow you to steer around a threat.
    As marketed by most automakers, but related to ABS, is Traction Control. Traction Control is used to prevent the drive wheels from losing grip when accelerating. Spinning tires during hard acceleration may be dramatic, but it is the slowest way to get to your desired speed. Using the car’s ABS speed sensors at the wheels, the Traction Control computer compares the drive wheel’s speed to the car’s road speed. If there is a loss of grip event during acceleration, there are a number of ways that the Traction Control slows the drive wheels so they can regain grip. The most common method is to use the braking system. When the drive wheels lose grip, the ABS computer can apply the brake to the wheel that has lost grip to slow it down so it can regain grip. Another method for slowing the slipping wheels is to reduce the amount of power applied to them. The computer will electronically modify the amount of fuel entering the engine and/or use the transmission to slow the drive wheels so they can regain grip.
    The latest traction control technology introduced to motor vehicles is Stability Control. While ABS and Traction Control help manage the grip of the tires for braking and accelerating, Stability Control helps prevent a car from sliding sideways. Using the same components in the ABS and Traction Control systems, Stability Control adds other sensors. These include; steering wheel angle sensor and yaw rate sensor. Yaw is defined as, "the movement of an object turning on its vertical axis”. Stability Control is used to
    manage the amount of understeer a vehicle will exhibit if the driver used too much steering or entering a turn too fast. It will also manage oversteer if the driver uses too much or too little throttle while turning. Much like the other technologies of traction control, Stability Control will apply the brakes and/or throttle to a wheel or a number of wheels, independently, so the driver can regain control.
    How does Stability Control help to regain control of the car? The foundation of ABS and Traction Control were already in place when Bosch pioneered Stability Control with their Electronic Stability Program (ESP) in the Mercedes Benz E Class in 1995.
    These same technologies were used to correct an impending slide. Reviewing back, ABS can control individual wheels’ braking forces and Traction Control controls individual wheels’ acceleration forces. Stability Control can use either braking or throttle application to correct a slide. To get a better understanding how braking and acceleration forces affect a cars attitude, we must understand the effect of weight transfer during braking, turning and accelerating. To illustrate, we will use a brake and turn exercise to show how weight transfer will allow the driver to steer more effectively around an obstacle. As we know from previous exercises, to turn more effectively, braking should be done prior to turning. During braking, weight is transferred to the front, “loading up” the front wheels. To take these visuals further; imagine a car with a rod or a pole installed vertically through the roof to the ground of the car. Yaw would be the movement or rotation of the car around this rod. Similar forces are applied to a vehicle when turning. Depending on speed and how much steering is applied, the car can understeer or oversteer.
    A realistic scenario would be driving down the interstate at typical highway speeds in the center lane. Imagine what you would do if the truck in front of you accidentally drops its load of gravel on the roadway in front of you. A common evasive maneuver would be to steer around the obstacle, going left then right to avoid the gravel. For this given example, you may put too much steering input when turning left and cause the car to understeer. To correct the understeer, the Stability Control could apply the brake to the inside front wheel. In this case, during the left turn, the inside front wheel would be the left front wheel. This braking of the left front wheel causes the car to get back to the driver’s intended path by reducing the amount of understeer. The deceleration of the vehicle causes weight transfer and puts more weight over the steered wheels. During this evasive maneuver, you are only half done and have not steered back into your lane. When making a quick left/right turn, weight transfer can be quite dramatic and the car can deviate from your intended path. When initially turning left, the weight transferred to the right side of the vehicle. When turning back right and getting back into your lane, the weight will unload from the right side of the car and will quickly transfer to the left. This weight transfer will immediately unload the rear tires and can cause the car to oversteer or fishtail. A common method to prevent oversteer in this scenario, thinking back to the car spinning on the rod, would be to slow the inside rear tire. Slowing down the right rear tire will slow or prevent the rotating of the vehicle on its vertical axis – the rod in our example.
    Here are the common marketed names Stability Control is called and their respective manufacturers: Audi: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) BMW: Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) DaimlerChrysler (Mercedes Benz): Electronic Stability Program (ESP)Ford Motor Company: Advance Trac General Motors: Active Handling System (Corvette) Precision Control System (Oldsmobile), Stabilitrak (Pontiac, Buick, Cadillac) Jaguar: Dynamic Stability Control (DSM) Lexus: Vehicle Skid Control (VSC) Porsche: Porsche Stability Management (PSM)Volkswagen: Electronic Stability Program (ESP) Volvo: Dynamic Stability Traction Control (DTSC)
    Modern vehicles, that offer traction control devices, perform a self-test on the ABS, Traction Control and Stability Control computer(s). If there is an error encountered in any of these systems when starting or while driving, an error light will steadily illuminate in the instrument cluster of the vehicle. During this time, one or more of these traction control devices will be unavailable and you should know how to maintain vehicle control if these aids are unavailable. It is also possible that a vehicle make and model may offer switches which power off the ABS, Traction Control or Stability Control. Please familiarize yourself with the vehicle’s controls and owner’s manual. In a later article, we will cover situations where a traction control technology should be switched off. Remember, these technological advances only aid the driver and cannot defy the laws of physics. As an example, if you are trying to drive 50mph around a corner that your car can negotiate at 30mph, you will go off the road, no matter how many traction control devices your vehicle is equipped with.

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  10. [10]
    م/محمد لطفي
    م/محمد لطفي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية م/محمد لطفي


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    مشكوووووووووووووووور
    وجزاك الله خيرا

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    لمشاهده احدث المواضيع والمشاركات يمكنكم زياره هذا المنتدي

    www.eng2all.com/vb

  
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