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composite columns and frames

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    tafatneb_dichar
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    composite columns and frames



    Where a beam is supported by a column through a joint that is not
    'nominally pinned', the bending moments depend on the properties of the
    joint, the beam and the column. They form part of a frame, which may
    have to provide resistance to horizontal loads such as wind (an 'unbraced
    frame'); or these loads may be transferred to a bracing structure by the
    floor slabs.
    Where the lateral stiffness of the bracing structure is sufficient, the
    frame can be designed to resist only the vertical loads (a 'braced frame').
    The lift and staircase regions of multi-storey buildings often have concrete
    walls, for resistance to fire. These can provide stiff lateral restraint,
    as can the end walls of long narrow buildings. The frames can then be
    designed as 'braced'.


    the pdf paper to learn

    http://www.zshare.net/download/35025675eaee4f/

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    Eng. Mithaq
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