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Gas turbines

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  1. [1]
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو متميز

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    Gas turbines


    الحاقا بموضوع التوربينات السابق ولغرض تسليط الضوء بصورة دقيقة حول التوربينات الغازية نقدم الموضوع التالي وهو عبارة عن عدة مشاركات ومواقع وصفحات كتب منتقاة نرجوا ان تكون مفيدة
    ************************************************** ***********************************

    تحياتي











    Technology Basics

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature, high-pressure gas rushes out of the combustor and pushes against the turbine blades, causing them to rotate. In most cases, hot gas is produced by burning a fuel in air. This is why gas turbines are often referred to as "combustion" turbines. Because gas turbines are compact, lightweight, quick-starting, and simple to operate, they are used widely in industry, universities and colleges, hospitals, and commercial buildings.
    Simple-cycle gas turbines convert a portion of input energy from the fuel to electricity and use the remaining energy to produce heat, which is normally rejected to the atmosphere. However, this waste heat can be used to create steam to power a separate turbine. The attached steam turbine can generate electricity or power a mechanical load. This is referred to as combined-cycle combustion because two processes or cycles are derived from one fuel input to the primary turbine.
    Simple-cycle (i.e., without external use of exhaust heat) efficiencies range from 21% to 40%. However, turbines produce high-quality heat that can generate steam for combined-cycle or cooling, heating, and power applications and enhance efficiency. These systems capture and use the heat produced in the combustion process for steam, hot water, or thermally activated equipment such as absorption chillers. Taking advantage of the normally wasted heat means a tremendous gain in efficiency—nearly 90% in some cases.
    Domestic and global potential markets for advanced turbines are large. At least half of all new power generating capacity added between now and 2010 is likely to use gas turbines. In addition, mid-sized turbines have tremendous potential for use as base-load, peaking, and standby/backup power in commercial and industrial settings.

  2. [2]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    عدة ملفات pdf كروابط فعالة

    Gas turbine





    Industrial/Marine Gas turbine manufacturer

    Specifications:

    -2MW power range
    -Radial technology: simple and robust
    -High Efficiency
    -Dual fuel capability (Gas/Diesel)
    -Low LHV Gas
    -Low Emissions
    -High outlet temperature

    Benefits:

    -Compact
    -Long product life
    -Low industrial maintenance costs
    -Ideal for Oil&Gas and CHP applications
    var tabInfoRes52208 = new Array();tabInfoRes52208[0] = '';tabInfoRes52208[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes52208[2] = 'vericor-power-systems';tabInfoRes52208[3] = 'gas-turbine-22651-52208.html'; Gas turbine
    0.5 - 3.5 MW



    Space and Cost Efficient Solutions
    VPS Series Gensets for Cogeneration & Power Generation Greater power, higher efficiency and availability are key issues for power generation markets. With more than 15 million hours of proven performance, the cornerstones of our VPS Series packages are the compact, rugged, and reliable ASE Series aero-derivative gas turbines . Our aero-derivative based solutions have high power density making them ideal for putting maximum power in a relatively small packag...
    var tabInfoRes232046 = new Array();tabInfoRes232046[0] = '';tabInfoRes232046[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes232046[2] = 'ansaldo-energia';tabInfoRes232046[3] = 'gas-turbine-29641-232046.html'; Gas turbine VIDE
    var tabInfoRes214533 = new Array();tabInfoRes214533[0] = '';tabInfoRes214533[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes214533[2] = 'alstom-power-generation';tabInfoRes214533[3] = 'gas-turbine-29644-214533.html'; Gas turbine
    ... gas turbines gas turbines from 56 MW up to 281 MW for turnkey power plants including simple cycle, combined cycle, repowering and retrofit
    Gas turbines
    Advanced Gas, Steam and Hydro turbines
    steam turbines from 100 MW up to 1560 MW for steam based power plants
    steam turbine retrofits
    hydraulic and pump turbines up to 900 MW
    Steam turbines
    A comprehensive range of turbines for all applications, from industrial power generation up to the largest power plants in the world
    ALST...
    var tabInfoRes52215 = new Array();tabInfoRes52215[0] = '';tabInfoRes52215[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes52215[2] = 'international-energy-systems';tabInfoRes52215[3] = 'gas-turbine-22658-52215.html'; Gas turbine
    With the new L20A, Kawasaki's gas turbine lineup now offers outputs ranging from 700 kW to 20 MW per unit, and covers power plants up to 50 MW. This lineup should meet all the needs
    of customers in the fast-growing diversified power generation market.
    Power Generation System Industrial generator Output (MW) Generator Efficiency (%, LHV) Steam Production (tons/hour) 1. Simple Cycle 17 34 - 2. Cogeneration 17 81 (Overall efficiency) 36 3. Combined Cycle 1 gas turbine manufacturer 1 steam turbine manufacturer...
    var tabInfoRes43115 = new Array();tabInfoRes43115[0] = '';tabInfoRes43115[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes43115[2] = 'man-turbomaschinen';tabInfoRes43115[3] = 'gas-turbine-19648-43115.html'; Gas turbine
    FT8 - 25 490 kW



    The FT8 gas turbine manufacturer is based on modern aeroengine technology from Pratt & Whitney, adapted for industrial use. The gas turbine manufacturer is characterised by a compact, modular design. FT8 gas turbines achieve a high level of availability and are extremely reliable.


    var tabInfoRes55243 = new Array();tabInfoRes55243[0] = '';tabInfoRes55243[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes55243[2] = 'solar-turbines';tabInfoRes55243[3] = 'gas-turbine-22650-55243.html'; Gas turbine
    750 - 15 000 kW (1000 - 20 000 hp)



    ... Industrial gas turbine Industrial gas turbine Products for the Oil and Gas Industry
    Solar builds complete turbomachinery packages that are ready to go to work...no matter where the job might be worldwide. Solar designs and manufactures gas turbines and packages under various quality systems ensuring the highest reliability. Industrial compressor Sets Power Range, hp (Thousands) 1 5 10 15 20
    var tabInfoRes303826 = new Array();tabInfoRes303826[0] = '';tabInfoRes303826[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes303826[2] = 'solar-turbines';tabInfoRes303826[3] = 'gas-turbine-engine-22650-303826.html'; Gas turbine engine
    1185 - 15290 kW (1590 - 20 500 hp)



    ... Gas turbine Gas turbine Mechanical Drive Packages
    Solar builds complete turbomachinery packages that are ready to go to work...no matter where the job might be worldwide. Solar designs and manufactures gas turbines and packages under various quality systems ensuring the highest reliability. Mechanical Drives Power Range, hp (Thousands) 1 5 10 15 20
    var tabInfoRes160094 = new Array();tabInfoRes160094[0] = '';tabInfoRes160094[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes160094[2] = 'solar-turbines';tabInfoRes160094[3] = 'gas-turbine-for-pumping-applications-22650-160094.html'; Gas turbine for pumping applications


    ... Gas turbine Gas turbine Mechanical Drive Packages
    Solar builds complete turbomachinery packages that are ready to go to work...no matter where the job might be worldwide. Solar designs and manufactures gas turbines and packages under various quality systems ensuring the highest reliability. Mechanical Drives Power Range, hp (Thousands) 1 5 10 15 20
    var tabInfoRes196560 = new Array();tabInfoRes196560[0] = '';tabInfoRes196560[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes196560[2] = 'man-turbomaschinen';tabInfoRes196560[3] = 'heavy-duty-gas-turbine-19648-196560.html'; Heavy duty gas turbine
    THM



    The heavy duty machines of the THM gas turbine family are designed for a long life with a high level of reliability and availability. They are supplied as ready-assembled drive units.

    Their modular design facilitates allow an easy installation and maintenance manufacturer. The relatively low industrial turbine inlet temperature guarantees a long life and extended inspection intervals. Fitting manufacturer of two external Dry Low Nox combustion chambers in a V-configuration guarantees extremely low emission values.

    var tabInfoRes52210 = new Array();tabInfoRes52210[0] = '';tabInfoRes52210[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes52210[2] = 'vericor-power-systems';tabInfoRes52210[3] = 'gas-turbine-marine-engine-22651-52210.html'; Gas turbine marine engine
    3 - 8 MW



    Marine Propulsion – Reliable Power & Speed
    Today’s marine propulsion systems must provide faster vessel speed, enable greater payloads or deliver more power per square foot of machinery space. When vessel speed is critical and space is a premium, gas turbines can be an ideal solution. For fast patrol boats, fast attack craft, corvettes and hovercraft as well as commercial applications such as fast ferries and mega-yachts, marine propulsion is made simple with Vericor’s aero-derivative...
    var tabInfoRes138278 = new Array();tabInfoRes138278[0] = '';tabInfoRes138278[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes138278[2] = 'vericor-power-systems';tabInfoRes138278[3] = 'gas-turbine-compressor-set-22651-138278.html'; Gas turbine compressor set
    4000 - 4700 HP



    Rugged, Reliable and Cost Efficient Solutions
    VPS Series Packages for Mechanical Drive Greater power, higher efficiency and availability and rugged design are key issues for mechanical drive markets. With more than 15 million hours of proven performance, the cornerstones of our VPS Series packages are the compact, rugged, and reliable ASE Series aero-derivative gas turbines . Space and weight are at a premium in some mechanical drive applications, and the VPS Series packages have the smalles...
    var tabInfoRes55246 = new Array();tabInfoRes55246[0] = '';tabInfoRes55246[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes55246[2] = 'solar-turbines';tabInfoRes55246[3] = 'gas-turbine-compressor-set-22650-55246.html'; Gas turbine compressor set
    1185 - 15290 kW (1185 - 15290 hp)



    ... Gas turbine Gas turbine Compressor manufacturer Sets
    Solar builds complete turbomachinery packages that are ready to go to work...no matter where the job might be worldwide. Solar designs and manufactures gas turbines and packages under various quality systems ensuring the highest reliability. Compressor Sets Power Range, p (Thousands) 1 5 10 15 20
    ... products without technical informationvar tabInfoRes137493 = new Array();tabInfoRes137493[0] = '';tabInfoRes137493[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes137493[2] = 'daihatsu-diesel';tabInfoRes137493[3] = 'gas-turbine-30043-137493.html'; Gas turbine
    var tabInfoRes148941 = new Array();tabInfoRes148941[0] = '';tabInfoRes148941[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes148941[2] = 'kawasaki-gas-turbines';tabInfoRes148941[3] = 'gas-turbine-17850-148941.html'; Gas turbine
    ... see all the products in the category var tabInfo = new Array();tabInfo[0] = '';tabInfo[1] = 'cat';tabInfo[2] = 'motors-geared-motors-drives';tabInfo[3] = 'turbines-D-587.html'; Turbines 2 products in var tabInfoCat197 = new Array();tabInfoCat197[0] = '';tabInfoCat197[1] = 'cat';tabInfoCat197[2] = 'motors-geared-motors-drives';tabInfoCat197[3] = 'internal-combustion-engines-D-197.html'; Internal combustion enginesvar tabInfoRes303826 = new Array();tabInfoRes303826[0] = '';tabInfoRes303826[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes303826[2] = 'solar-turbines';tabInfoRes303826[3] = 'gas-turbine-engine-22650-303826.html'; Gas turbine engine
    1185 - 15290 kW (1590 - 20 500 hp)



    ... Gas turbine Gas turbine Mechanical Drive Packages
    Solar builds complete turbomachinery packages that are ready to go to work...no matter where the job might be worldwide. Solar designs and manufactures gas turbines and packages under various quality systems ensuring the highest reliability. Mechanical Drives Power Range, hp (Thousands) 1 5 10 15 20
    var tabInfoRes52210 = new Array();tabInfoRes52210[0] = '';tabInfoRes52210[1] = 'prod';tabInfoRes52210[2] = 'vericor-power-systems';tabInfoRes52210[3] = 'gas-turbine-marine-engine-22651-52210.html'; Gas turbine marine engine
    3 - 8 MW



    Marine Propulsion – Reliable Power & Speed
    Today’s marine propulsion systems must provide faster vessel speed, enable greater payloads or deliver more power per square foot of machinery space. When vessel speed is critical and space is a premium, gas turbines can be an ideal solution. For fast patrol boats, fast attack craft, corvettes and hovercraft as well as commercial applications such as fast ferries and mega-yachts, marine propulsion is made simple with Vericor’s aero-derivative...
    ... see all the products in the category var tabInfo = new Array();tabInfo[0] = '';tabInfo[1] = 'cat';tabInfo[2] = 'motors-geared-motors-drives';tabInfo[3] = 'internal-combustion-engines-D-197.html'; Internal combustion engines

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  3. [3]
    Eng-Maher
    Eng-Maher موجود حالياً
    مشرف قسم الهندسة البحرية.
    الصورة الرمزية Eng-Maher


    تاريخ التسجيل: Aug 2006
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    الحمد لله

  4. [4]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    How GE's Evolution Locom..:0
    Record-Breaking Aircraft... :
    GR-5 Turboshaft Engine P..0:
    GR-5A Turboshaft Engine Added:Mar 19, 2007Time:07:36
    GR-7 Turbine Engine Star... Added:Mar 19, 2007Time:04:20
    GRV-1 TurboTug Jet Truck... Added:Mar 19, 2007Time:08:17
    Ecomagination Fact Sheet... Added:Mar 18, 2007
    Ecomagination Fact Sheet... Added:Mar 18, 2007
    Ecomagination Fact Sheet... Added:Mar 18, 2007
    Ecomagination Fact Sheet... Added:Mar 18, 2007

    لينكات فعالة

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  5. [5]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    بارك الله فيك اخى تشكر على مجهودك وطريقه العرض


    شكرا للمهندس حسن هادى
    شكرا جزيلا اخي المهندس ماهر ووفقك الله في كافة مجالات الحياة/ تحياتي اخوكم حسن

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  6. [6]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    How Gas Turbine Engines Work
    by Marshall Brain


    Inside This Article
    1.
    Introduction to How Gas Turbine Engines Work

    2.
    A Little Background

    3.
    Advantages and Disadvantages

    4.
    The Gas Turbine Process

    5.
    Combustion Area

    6.
    The Turbine


    7.
    Other Variations

    8.
    Thrust Basics

    9.
    Jet Engine Thrust

    10.
    Lots More Information

    11.
    See all Transportation articles



    When you go to an airport and see the commercial jets there, you can't help but notice the huge engines that power them. Most commercial jets are powered by turbofan engines, and turbofans are one example of a general class of engines called gas turbine engines.



    You may have never heard of gas turbine engines, but they are used in all kinds of unexpected places. For example, many of the helicopters you see, a lot of smaller power plants and even the M-1 Tank use gas turbines. In this article, we will look at gas turbine engines to see what makes them tick!

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  7. [7]
    kondor
    kondor غير متواجد حالياً
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  8. [8]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    Thrust is the force which moves any aircraft through the air. Thrust is generated by the propulsion system of the aircraft. Different propulsion systems develop thrust in different ways, but all thrust is generated through some application of Newton's third law of motion. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In any propulsion system, a working fluid is accelerated by the system and the reaction to this acceleration produces a force on the system. A general derivation of the thrust equation shows that the amount of thrust generated depends on the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the gas.
    During World War II, a new type of airplane engine was developed independently in Germany and in England. This engine was called a gas turbine engine. We sometimes call this engine a jet engine. Early gas turbine engines worked much like a rocket engine creating a hot exhaust gas which was passed through a nozzle to produce thrust. But unlike the rocket engine which must carry its oxygen for combustion, the turbine engine gets its oxygen from the surrounding air. A turbine engine does not work in outer space because there is no surrounding air. For a gas turbine engine, the accelerated gas, or working fluid, is the jet exhaust. Most of the mass of the jet exhaust comes from the surrounding atmosphere. Most modern, high speed passenger and military aircraft are powered by gas turbine engines. Because gas turbine engines are so important for modern life, we will be providing a lot of information about turbine engines and their operation.
    Turbine engines come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes because of the many different aircraft missions. All gas turbine engines have some parts in common, however. On the slide we see pictures of four different aircraft equipped with gas turbine engines. Each aircraft has a unique mission and therefore a unique propulsion requirement. At the upper left is a DC-8 airliner. Its mission is to carry large loads of passengers or cargo for a long distance at high speed. It spends most of its life in high speed cruise. At the lower left is an F-14 fighter plane. Its mission is to shoot down other aircraft in air-to-air combat. It spends most of its life in cruise, but needs high acceleration when in combat. At the lower right is a C-130 cargo aircraft. Like the DC-8, it carries cargo a long distance, but it does not have the high speed requirement of the DC-8. At the upper right is a T-38 trainer. It is used to teach pilots how to fly jet aircraft and does not have the acceleration requirements of the F-14. The DC-8 is powered by four high-bypass turbofan engines, the F-14 by two afterburning low-bypass turbofans, the C-130 by four turboprop engines, and the T-38 by two turbojet engines.
    EngineSim is an interactive Java applet which allows you to study different types of jet engines. You can learn the fundamentals of turbine engine propulsion with the EngineSim simulator. RangeGames is an interactive Java applet which allows you to study how different types of aircraft use different types of engines to meet their mission.

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  9. [9]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
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    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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  10. [10]
    حسن هادي
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    عضو متميز
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    Turbo-charger based Gas Turbine Engine

    Running Gas Turbine I have built a simple gas turbine engine from a Holset diesel engine turbo-charger by adding a
    home made combustion chamber to it. I was given the turbo some years ago and for a long time wondered if it could be made into a gas turbine. More recently I began a series of experiments with the turbo, initially these were a bit half hearted and produced nothing more
    than lots of flames but in 1993 a very hot turbo belching flames began to drive itself. I have refined this design and it now runs quite well. The fundamental problems to be overcome were to provide enough air to start it and to construct an efficient combustion chamber. A turbo-charger is quite similar to a gas turbine in many ways, the original engine built by Frank Whittle partly consisted of some super charger components and it was my inspiration for this project.


    Combustion Chamber
    This was built from a steel tube cut from a satellite dish ground stand, the tube is clamped between two plates to form the ends. The bottom plate is bolted to the turbo turbine inlet volute and the top plate originally accepted compressor air through a tube but now air passes into the combustion chamber at the side near the top.


    Flame Tube Air is delivered to the combustion chamber through plastic drain pipe, this tends to blow off if the unit is allowed to go too fast. The flame tube or combustion chamber liner was made from a camping gaz tin and extended using steel sheet. The gaz tin gives the right sort of domed top to the liner. Holes are drilled into the liner to allow air into the combustion zone. The size and positions of the holes were guessed from looking at various diagrams of commercial engines, no calculations were done. The engine is fueled by propane gas, the gas enters the combustion chamber via a burner ring made from copper pipe drilled with 1mm holes.


    Ignition
    A motorcycle spark plug is inserted into the combustion chamber to "light up" the engine. I have tried several different sources
    of ignition the best being a HT Ignitor unit from an early jet aircraft. I have also used a motorcycle ignition coil driven from
    a home built transistorised inverter. Once ignition has taken place, the combustion chamber seems to hold the flame well,
    the throttle can be backed right off and the flame does not go out.

    LubricationOil is circulated into the turbo-charger plain bearing by a car engine oil pump driven by an induction motor originally from
    a photo copier. The pump is of a type fitted to ford crossflow engines and is easily modified as it is an external type with
    integral oil filter. A metal tank beneath the turbo collects oil from it ready to be recirculated by the pump. When the oil is
    cold it is quite hard work for the motor, during starting the oil pump is stopped to lower the drag on the turbo-charger
    rotor and then switched on when the engine self sustains. The oil used is conventional Mobil 1 formula which is what the
    turbo is designed for, turbine oil should not be used as it is designed for ball races not plain bearings. During running the oil
    gets hot, a future modification might be to add an oil cooler.


    Starter Blower Starting
    A complete compressor assembly from another similar turbo-charger is driven by a spin-drier motor running off the mains. The compressor forms a blower which is coupled into the front of the engine and acts as a "Windmill Starter". A dimmer switch connected to the motor controls the amount of air admitted to the engine, to achieve ignition only a gentle breeze is required otherwise the engine lights with a loud bang. To start the engine the blower works at full power and is removed when the engine self sustains at about 35,000 rpm. Interestingly the blower with a cold engine barely turns the rotor yet the airflow with combustion is enough to wind it up as the oil warms.

    Instrumentation
    I have used an optical method for measuring the speed of the gas turbine. An optical fiber illuminates a small portion
    of the rear face of the compressor wheel, the surface of the wheel is alternately shiny aluminum and matt black, a second
    optical fiber receives reflected light from the wheel and conveys it to an electronic sensor. As the wheel rotates the reflected light pulses on and off. The sensor converts the light to an electrical signal which operates a homemade rev-counter calibrated
    0-100,000 rpm. I have found this system to work but the reflected light is quite dim requiring a sensitive amplifier, I have used
    a He-Ne Laser to provide the light as it couples to the optical fiber efficiently. Another problem is that the optical fibers are actually polymer ones which can melt due to heat soak into the compressor section of the turbo when the unit is shut
    down. After shutting down the turbo I blow air through it to cool it, during this operation the turbine is locked using
    a spanner to prevent it from turning as the lubrication system is switched off.
    Exhaust temperature is measured using a standard inconel K type probe feeding into an AD595 thermo couple amplifier integrated circuit and then on to an analogue meter calibrated 0-1000 degrees C. I much prefer analogue meters, they are easier to watch as the engine parameters change during acceleration and deceleration. The AD595 IC makes temperature
    measurement easy as it converts the mV output from the thermocouple to an output of 0-10V. The 0-10V output
    then corresponds to a temperature range of 0-1000 degrees C.

    I have fitted a pressure gauge to measure the compressor delivery pressure. The indicated pressure seems to fluctuate
    so I have inserted a restriction in the gauge feed pipe to dampen oscillation.

    Fuel System
    The engine is fueled by propane gas delivered from a portable caravan type cylinder. The regulator is removed and the
    valve mounted on the cylinder used as the throttle control. The engine has a very healthy appetite for fuel and only lasts about
    10 - 15 minutes on a 3.9 Kg cylinder. Due to the fast fuel delivery the cylinder sits in a bowl of warm water to aid evaporation
    of the liquid propane into gas.
    I have tried liquid fuel using a car Bosch "K" type fuel injector nozzle, this almost worked but the single nozzle would not cope
    with the required fuel flow. The nozzle using kerosene at low flow rates produced a near ideal spray pattern, but this
    deteriorated as the flow was increased. Ignition was more tricky to achieve with liquid fuel, if light up did not occur quickly after
    turning the fuel on, the engine would rapidly flood with fuel threatening a very "wet start" when ignition finally occurred.
    An aircraft fuel primer pump was used as a fuel pump, this would supply fuel at up to 60 PSI, a needle valve was used to
    spill fuel from the pump outlet back to it's inlet and so act as a throttle. The injector opens at about 15 PSI but as the
    pressure was increased (needle valve closed) the device would choke and not atomize the fuel properly.

    Operation
    This is where the fun starts, to start this home built gas turbine the starter is coupled directly to the turbo inlet and the air
    turned on gently. The ignition is switched on and the fuel valve opened again gently until the engine lights with a "fut".
    After the engine has lit up, the air is turned on fully and the throttle opened, initially the rotor spins slowly but as the oil thins
    and heats up the engine begins to accelerate and at about 35,000 rpm the air supply to the engine is quickly pulled off
    to allow it to suck in more air and accelerate to a comfortable speed of 50,000 rpm. During starting the oil supply
    is switched off and only momentarily pulsed to provide some lubrication without causing too much drag, when self sustaining
    speed is reached the oil is turned on permanently. Once the engine has completed a run and is hot it is much easier
    to restart, the rotor spins up much faster.
    In operation the engine is quite noisy, although with ear defenders the unit sounds pretty good emitting a delightful "Whistle"
    from the compressor and a rumble from the combustion process. Listening with eardefenders helps hear the compressor
    speed more clearly which aids throttling the engine which can be tricky. If you close your eyes you can imagine that you
    are at the controls of a real jet, I was stood listening to the Vulcan XH558 the other day and the similarity in the sound
    to my engine was uncanny.
    So far the gas turbine has achieved about 70,000 rpm and at 50,000rpm the exhaust gas temperature is only 500 degrees C
    not bad for a home built engine. The limit to rpm at the moment is the compressor delivery pipe, it seems to blow off if
    the engine runs too fast, flames shoot out of it and the compressor shrieks as it runs rapidly down. Some of my early
    attempts suffered from the compressor pipe blowing off, the original engine would hardly self-sustain before the pressure
    build up was too much for it.

    Future
    As time allows I hope to develop this demonstration gas turbine further, it can never be used as a propulsion engine
    as it is far to heavy but with a more secure compressor pipe I think it will spin faster. It exhibits all the characteristics
    of any other gas turbine and was built at a fraction off the cost of a commercial unit or even a model aircraft turbo-jet.
    The cost of the project is only £100 or so as the turbo bits were scrap surplus units.
    I have tried a perspex top to the combustion chamber to perhaps see into it during operation, this seems to work and does not
    get hot. A blue glow can be seen through the air holes in the top of the flame tube but the holes are not large enough to give
    an idea of flame distribution.
    I would like to revisit liquid fuel as some point, I may try fitting a burner/atomizer from a "Solent" gas turbine starter
    unit but this is cheating as it means that I am fitting components which originate from highly specialized aircraft
    systems and not "Junk yard" automotive parts.
    The home built engine works well, but is not very elegant and needs all manner of services to get it working, what I really
    wanted is a commercial small gas turbine engine which is electric start and runs on Kerosene. I find small aircraft gas
    turbines most interesting and satisfying to operate.


    Gas Turbine Rear View
    Starter Coupled to Engine Developments
    30/12/1997 The engine is now running very well. I have replaced the compressor delivery pipe with a new stainless
    steel item and the joints are now fabricated using special turbo-charger hose purchased from a motor sport shop. A
    colleague of mine has very kindly built me a new oil pump connection block. The oil pump now bolts into this aluminum block which ducts the oil in and out and provides mountings for the oil pipe fittings. A new shaft seal is fitted to the pump and the unit
    is very oil tight.
    The turbo has now run up to just over 80,000 rpm, at this speed it produces about 0.9 bar of boost pressure. At this speed
    the pressure rise increases with compressor speed very rapidly. I believe that the engine will go even faster, the exhaust
    temperature at 70-80,000 rpm is quite low at about 450 degrees C lower than at slower speeds. The steady exhaust temperature suggests that the unit is functioning efficiently at high speed. I will find out what the limits are for this type of
    turbo, it's a fairly old-fashioned unit so I guess that I'm not far off the turbo's limits.
    The turbo is getting pretty loud at high speeds and is fast approaching my beloved Garrett GTP30 in terms of noise levels.
    The limit to the running time appears to be the oil temperature. The oil capacity is fairly low (About 1litre) and so gets hot
    quickly as it circulates through the hot bearing assembly. A future improvement will be to fit an oil cooler with electric
    fans. I will also have to fit an oil temperature indicator fed from a thermocouple fitted inside the oil tank.
    Developments to Date
    In 1999 my brother built me a high energy ignition system to my good friend Roger Marmion's design. The unit uses a surface discharge plug taken from a racing car engine, light up tests have shown that this arrangement is superior to the high tension systems previously adopted. The ignitor works by using an inverter to charge up a 2uf capacitor, a special trigger circuit provides a low energy spark which ionizes the air and causes a high curent flash-over at the spark plug tip.

    Home Built High Energy Ignitor In Action!This home built engine has more or less been abandoned in terms of development in favor of more APU type units. It represents the early years of my gas turbine development and is a personal historic artifact. The home built engine is also a great mechanical engineering achievement and the for-fillment of a long held dream to construct such a unit.

    Oil Pump Mounting Block
    Stainless Steel Compressor Delivery Pipe

    0 Not allowed!



  
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