الأخ العزيز conan313
فيما يلي اشتراطات الكود البريطاني Bs8110 والخاص بإختبار loading test
9.5 Load tests of structures or parts of structures
9.5.1 General
If a load test is deemed necessary, it may be to check on either strength or serviceability. It should be
recognized that loading a structure to its design ultimate loads may impair its subsequent performance in
service, without necessarily giving a true measure of load-carrying capacity. While such overload tests may
sometimes be justified (see 9.6), it is generally recommended that the structure be loaded to a level
appropriate to the serviceability limit states. If sufficient measurements of deformations are taken, then
these, together with the results from the test described in 9.5.2, can be used to calibrate the original design
in predicting the ultimate strength and long-term performance of the structure.
Detailed recommendations on test procedures are given in [8] with background information being provided
in [9] and [10]. Some general principles are given in 9.5.2, 9.5.3, 9.5.4 and 9.5.5.
9.5.2 Test loads
The total load to be carried (W) should be not less than 1.0 times the characteristic dead load plus 1.0 times
the characteristic live load, and should normally be the greater of a) the sum of the characteristic dead load
and 1.25 times the characteristic imposed load or b) 1.125 times the sum of the characteristic dead and
imposed loads. In deciding on suitable figures for this, and on how to apply the test load to the structure,
due allowance should be made for finishes, partitions, etc. and for any load sharing that could occur in the
completed structure, i.e. the level of loading should be representative and capable of reproducing the proper
internal force system reasonably closely.
Test loads should be applied and removed incrementally, while observing all proper safety precautions. The
test loading should be applied at least twice, with a minimum of 1 h between tests, and allowing 5 min after
a load increment is applied before recording deformation measurements. Consideration may also be given
to a third application of load, which is left in position for 24 h.
9.5.3 Assessment of results
In determining deformation measurements, due allowance should be made for changes in environmental
conditions that have occurred during the test.
The main objective in assessing the results is to compare the measured performance with that expected on
the basis of the design calculations. This means that due allowance should be made for any differences in
material strength, or stress, or other characteristic, in the as-built structure, compared with that assumed
in the design. Steps should be taken to determine these material parameters as accurately as possible,
using the methods referred to in 9.6, standard control test results, tensioning records (for prestressed
concrete), etc.
9.5.4 Test criteria
In assessing test data and in recalculation procedures, the following criteria should be considered:
a) the initial deflection and cracking should be in accordance with the design requirements;
b) where significant deflections have occurred under the normal loads given in 9.5.2, the percentage
recovery after the second loading should at least equal that for the first loading cycle, and should be at
least 75 % for reinforced concrete and class 3 prestressed concrete, and 85 % for classes 1 and 2



c) the structure should be examined for unexpected defects, which should then be evaluated in the
recalculation procedures.
9.5.5 Special tests
In certain cases, it may be necessary to devise special tests to reproduce the internal force system expected
in the completed structure. This need can arise in the testing of the precast parts of composite members,
or where the final boundary conditions have not yet been achieved in the construction. Such tests should
be relevant, and agreed in advance by all the parties concerned
.


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