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مبادئ بسيطة لعلم التصميم ///مفيد للمهندسين ////Design Theory

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    مبادئ بسيطة لعلم التصميم ///مفيد للمهندسين ////Design Theory

    مبادئ مبسطة في علم التصميم مفيدة للمهندسين المشاركة الاولى تحوي على عدة روابط لمختلف الاختصاصات والاخرى تميل نحو الهندسة الميكانيكية مع كل التقدير لكل الاخوة الاعضاء




    Design Theory Site Design
    Page Design
    MultiMedia
    Teacher Resources
    Table of *******s
    Home Page


    Copyright © 1999 by Bonnie Skaalid



    Classic Graphic Design Theory
    This section is for the person who is completely unfamiliar with design. It gives brief descriptions of the elements of design, such as line, shape, space, texture, value and color, as well as describing the principles of design which are movement, emphasis, balance and unity. These design principles have been used in the creation of fine art as well as commercial art.
    Gestalt Principles of Perception
    Gestalt theory discusses how we perceive objects in our environment. It discusses the difference between figure and ground and examines how various principles help us to decide which is figure and which is ground.
    Human-Computer Interface Design
    This section discusses recommendations for designing the interface between people and computers and recommends some principles to be considered.
    This site is published in web form by the College of Education, University of Saskatchewan.
    College of Education Home Page....... University of Saskatchewan Home Page



    بامكانكم استخدام الروابط مع المودة



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    Search on AllBookCD-RomeBookSoftware The french leading professional booksellerDescription


    Approximate price
    167.47 €

    Turbomachinery : design & theory (Mechanical engineering series, Vol. 160)
    Author(s) : GORLA Rama S., KHAN Aijaz Ahmed
    Publication date : 12-2003
    Language : ENGLISH
    424p. 23.5x15.9 Hardback
    Status : In Print (Delivery time : 12 days)

    DescriptionClearly presenting the theory and design of turbomachines with step-by-step procedures and worked-out examples, this reference/text emphasizes fundamental principles and construction guidelines for enclosed rotators, such as pumps and fans. It contains end-of-chapter problem and solution sets, design formulations, and equations for clear understanding of key aspects in machining function, selection, assembly, and construction.
    SummaryIntroduction: Dimensional Analysis: Basic Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics. Hydraulic Pumps. Hydraulic Turbines. Centrifugal Compressors and Fans. Axial Flow Compressors and Fan. Steam Turbines. Axial Flow and Radial Flow Gas Turbine. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery. Index.
    Subject areas covered:
    • Mathematics and physics / Mechanics / hydraulics, hydrodynamics
    • Mechanical engineering and construction / Motors, turbines, compressors, pumps
    © Lavoisier 2000-2007

    Web www.lavoisier.fr function ouverture(url) { window.open(url,"","toolbar=no,location=no,directo ries=no,status=no, menubar=no,scrollbars=auto,resizable=yes,width=326 ,height=395") }

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    Turbomachinery: Design and Theory (Mechanical Engineering) (Hardcover)
    by Rama S.R. Gorla (Author), Aijaz Ahmed N.E.D. Khan (Author) "A turbomachine is a device in which energy transfer occurs between a flowing fluid and a rotating element due to dynamic action, and results in..." (more)

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    مجلة التصاميم الميكانيكية


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    Journal of Mechanical Design Volume: Page:



    Robotic System Design; Computer Coordinated Mechanisms; Expert Systems in Design; Computer-Aided Engineering; Design Optimization; Mechanism Design; Kinematics and Dynamics of Mechanisms; Cam Design; Gear Design; Continuously Variable Transmissions; Power Transmission Design; Design of Machine Elements; Design Theory and Methodology; Design Technology; Stress in Design; Reliability in Design.

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    By Keyword By Title By Author By ISBN Home > Engineering and Computer Science > Mechanical Engineering > Measurement And Instrumentation Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 4th Edition .hetlp-biblio-fbox { padding-left:110px; } Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements, 4th Edition
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    1999 ASME CURRICULUM INNOVATION AWARD – HONORABLE MENTION
    P.K. Raju
    , ASME Member, Professor
    Department of Mechanical Engineering
    201 Ross Hall
    Auburn University, AL 36849
    [email protected]

    Chetan S. Sankar
    , Professor
    Department of Management
    415 W. Magnolia Avenue, Suite 401
    Auburn University, AL 36849
    [email protected]

    INTEGRATING THEORY, DESIGN, AND
    PRACTICE IN A MECHANICAL
    ENGINEERING DESIGN COURSE

    Industry representatives stress that engineering education should prepare students for
    the real-world problem-solving situations by providing students opportunities to
    acquire competence in team building, interaction, and inter-disciplinary skills. The
    ABET Criteria 2000 accreditation requirements for engineering programs show that
    future curricula will be strongly influenced by these industrial requests. Two recent
    studies by engineering educators, sponsored by National Science Foundation and
    National Research Council, emphasize the need to tailor engineering curriculum to
    meet industry requests. A review of various instructional methodologies to fulfill these
    industry needs identified the case study method as the most suitable instructional
    technique to enhance active learning techniques in engineering classrooms. Therefore,
    an inter-disciplinary team of engineering and management professors developed a
    series of case studies as part of an innovative curriculum.
    INTRODUCTION: GOALS AND EDUCATIONAL
    OBJECTIVES:
    The first goal of this curriculum innovation is to
    bring theory, design, and practice together. In order to
    achieve this goal, the learning objectives are that the students
    must (a) consider technical, financial, credibility, and
    management issues in making decisions, and (b) work in
    teams and communicate effectively. The second goal of this
    curriculum innovation is develop students' higher-level
    cognitive skills. In order to achieve this goal, the learning
    objectives are that the students must (a) identify criteria, (b)
    analyze alternatives, (c) make a choice, (d) defend the
    choice, and (e) be active learners.
    METHODOLOGY:
    These goals and objectives were achieved by an
    instructional methodology that consisted of (a) developing a
    series of written case studies in conjunction with industry
    partners, (b) adding competency material on engineering and
    business topics that students may use as reference, (c)
    creating multimedia versions of the case studies, (d)
    administering the case studies in engineering classrooms, and
    (e) evaluating the effectiveness of the case studies in
    achieving the goals and objectives.
    Developing a Series of Case Studies:
    The first case study,
    Della Steam Plant, was
    developed with the cooperation of an executive in charge of
    predictive maintenance at the central office of a power plant.
    Data was gathered through visits at the plant and interviews
    with engineers. They were integrated together with the
    technical, financial, people, and risk information in order to
    create a draft of the case study. After the engineers and
    managers from the power plant reviewed and revised the case
    study, it was further improved based upon feedback obtained
    from conference presentations, classroom discussions, and
    publication in a refereed journal. The second case study,

    Crist Power Plant
    , dealt with the cost and risk issues faced
    by a plant manager when he had to
    decide between five alternatives in maintaining a turbinegenerator
    unit. Expert system software was used to analyze
    the decision-making strategies of these engineers. The third
    case study,
    Solid Rocket Booster Field Joint Design case
    study, illustrates the ethical, safety, reliability, risk, schedule,
    and cost factors that were involved in the field design of a
    Solid Rocket Booster. Students were given an opportunity to
    develop alternate designs of the field joint and identify the
    ethical issues that arose as time and cost pressures forced the
    engineers to choose between the options of adding shims and
    doing a complete redesign.

    Adding Competency Material:
    In order that students with little background in the
    power plant industry could effectively analyze the
    Della
    Steam Plant
    and Crist Power Plant case studies, competency
    materials on the topics of vibration analysis, predictive
    maintenance, decision theory, and power plant economics
    were developed. Similarly, competency materials on
    engineering ethics and engineering design were developed
    for the
    Solid Rocket Booster Field Joint Design case study.

    Creating Multimedia Version of the Case Studies:
    The final version of the
    Della Steam Plant case study
    and competency material became the basis of a CD-ROM
    courseware that integrated videos, photographs, and text. The
    case study methodology and associated CD-ROM for the

    Della Steam Plant
    case study was selected as the winner of
    the 1998 Premier Award for Excellence in Engineering
    Courseware sponsored by John Wiley and Sons and NEEDS
    (a NSF coalition). The judges lauded the ability of this
    courseware to develop higher-level cognitive skills. Two
    videos were created to support the
    Crist Power Plant case
    study. A web site and video were developed to support the

    Solid Rocket Booster Field Joint Design
    case study.
    Page 2

    Administering the Case Studies in Engineering
    Classrooms:
    About 180 students in engineering and business
    programs have participated in analyzing these case studies at
    Auburn University, Alabama A&M, University of Pittsburgh,
    and Embry-Riddle University during 1997 to 1999. Based
    on their positive feedback to the case study administration,
    we developed a ME 260 (Concepts in Engineering Design)
    course based fully on the case study methodology. The interdisciplinary
    team created a monograph that included
    instructions on analyzing the case studies, the three case
    studies, and associated competency materials. The
    monograph was supplemented by CD-ROMs, videos, and
    web sites. Student assignments were created for each case
    study. For example, in the
    Della Steam Plant case study, two
    groups assumed the roles of the plant engineer and the
    original equipment manufacturer (OEM) engineer and
    defended their individual recommendations. Another group
    assumed the role of the manager and resolved the dilemma
    faced by him, as he had to choose among the two conflicting
    recommendations. A fourth group discussed how the
    problem could have been avoided if the plant chose to
    implement new technologies. The students worked together
    to analyze the recommendations, evaluate them against the
    criteria, and then created presentations that were discussed in
    the class.

    Evaluation of the Effectiveness:
    As part of evaluation of the effectiveness of the case
    study, the students in a ME sophomore level class, Concepts
    of Engineering Design (ME 260) offered in Fall 1998 were
    given two separate evaluation forms at the end of each case
    study discussion. The results in this section represent the
    reactions of the 23 students to the Della Steam Plant Case
    Study who used the CD-ROM in their discussion.
    Evaluation I consisted of 24 bipolar descriptors. In other
    words, an item on the evaluation form would represent the
    concept of clarity on a 5-point continuum from unclear to
    clear, or the case study’s relevance on a continuum from
    irrelevant to relevant. Because the four constructs derived
    from Evaluation I yielded substantial reliability levels (with
    anything above .60 considered acceptable), the 24 separate
    questions within the survey could be meaningfully organized
    and reported by these four distinct descriptors of the case
    study. Table 1 shows the medians for responses on the four
    separate constructs.
    Indeed, the medians for all four constructs are well
    above a rating of 3, indicating that students rated the case
    study on the positive side of the continuum. In fact, as
    demonstrated by the two constructs with medians of 4.0, the
    students found the case study particularly important and
    valuable as well as relevant and useful--important elements
    in effective learning.
    Evaluation II asked the respondents to indicate the
    extent of their agreement with 16 evaluatory statements on a
    5-point Likert scale. Some sample items include statements
    such as “I improved my ability to evaluate critically technical
    and managerial alternatives” or “I learned to design.” The
    response scale progressed from a rating of 1 that represented
    the least positive or least favorable response of “Strongly
    Disagree” to a rating of 5 that represented the most positive
    or favorable response of “Strongly Agree.” In addition,
    Evaluation II ended with three open-ended questions that
    asked the students to provide written responses concerning
    the strengths and weaknesses of the Della Steam Plant Case
    Study as well. Substantial reliabilities for Evaluation II
    suggested specific constructs, which made an analysis of the
    data manageable and meaningful. The reliabilities are above
    the established criteria of .60 for all the constructs. The
    medians for these five constructs derived from Evaluation II
    are reported in Table 2. This table illustrates that the
    reactions of the students to these various aspects of the Della
    Steam Plant Case Study were favorable. In other words, the
    Della Steam Plant Case Study appeared to be well received
    and educationally advantageous to the students.
    Table 3 summarizes how the educational objectives
    have been met based on the quantitative evaluations provided
    above and on the comments from the students.
    Similar evaluations are available for each of the
    case studies administered in this course. In view of space
    restrictions, we have limited our discussion to the evaluation
    of one case study in this paper.
    INNOVATIONS
    : The innovative features of this curriculum
    are that:

    It enhances student-centered learning since they are
    actively involved in solving the problem.

    It captures the expertise and experiences of industry
    participants and an inter-disciplinary academic team
    thereby enhancing the asynchronous and synchronous
    learning experiences of the students.

    The use of multi-media technology facilitates nonsequential
    processing of information by the students
    thereby closely reflecting their thinking patterns.

    STRATEGIES TO USE IN ADMINISTERING CASE
    STUDIES IN ENGINEERING CLASSROOMS:
    Based
    on our experience, we offer the following suggestions as
    strategies to use in administering case studies in engineering
    classrooms:

    Case studies
    1.
    There are not many technical case studies that could
    be directly used in engineering classrooms. It is
    critical that faculty members from the engineering
    institutions develop technical case studies. Our
    experience in this area suggests that these case studies
    will be meaningful if they relate to a problem that
    actually happened in an industry. Hence, the
    development of these case studies should be done in
    partnership with an industry.

    2.
    The quality of these case studies will be enhanced if
    they are subjected to peer review process in
    conferences and journals. We suggest that the
    technical case studies be peer reviewed and tested in
    classrooms before they become part of engineering
    curricula.

    3.
    Competency material relating to the needs of the case
    study be developed and shared with the students
    Page 3
    before they are assigned to analyze the case studies.
    This is different from the traditional case studies
    developed by business schools. Such a strategy is
    essential because of the multi-disciplinary nature of
    the real-world problems that are being addressed in
    these case studies. It is important to provide
    background material on the disciplines that have a
    significant role in the case study.

    4.
    Organizations need to be created that could be the
    repository of such well-tested case studies both at the
    regional as well as at the national level. Search
    schemes need to be implemented so that teachers can
    retrieve the case studies based on factors such as,
    disciplines addressed, topics, industry sector,
    geographical location, ratings, etc.

    Student
    1.
    Encourage the students to work in teams. Teaming
    exercises and guides might help improve group
    interaction.

    2.
    Provide opportunities for different students to lead the
    team for different case studies thereby providing
    opportunity for all students to participate in the
    discussion.

    3.
    Encourage teams to communicate with each other and
    the instructor. Tools such as electronic journals, email,
    and chat rooms are very helpful in achieving this
    objective.

    4.
    Emphasize that the instructor expect the students to
    carefully read the technical information in the case
    studies in order to analyze the problem.

    Teacher
    1.
    The teacher's role becomes that of a facilitator and not
    a leader of the class. This is rather difficult for most
    teachers, but requires practice before they can leave
    control of the class to the students. At the same time,
    the teachers have to be careful to ensure that the
    students do not steer the class into unrelated topics.

    2.
    The teacher has to encourage the students to perform
    group work. Reference to research material on group
    work might be helpful to the teachers.

    3.
    A major issue is that of grading the presentation and
    write-up. The teacher has to create an evaluation
    formula that needs to be shared with the students. The
    clearer the teacher's objectives are to the students, the
    better the chances are that his/her expectations will be
    met.

    4.
    It is critical to establish a mechanism to provide
    feedback to the students about their performance.
    Evaluation questionnaires similar to the ones we have
    used would provide valuable information on the utility
    of case studies in your classrooms. In addition,
    students could be requested to submit individual ejournals
    that document their progress on acquiring
    higher-level cognitive skills throughout the course.

    Administration
    1.
    The administration has to be responsive to the use of
    case studies in the classroom. Since this is a new
    methodology, traditional accrediting agencies may not
    look at them favorably. An effective evaluation
    strategy that incorporates measurement of learning in
    the classrooms and reporting it to the administrator
    might be able to relieve the traditional biases against
    this methodology.

    2.
    Educating the administrators about the value of the
    case studies in classrooms is essential if such a
    program has to succeed.

    SUMMARY:
    The evaluation shows that the case study
    method of instruction appeared to fulfill the primary
    objectives of this class by combining theory and design with
    practice as well as encouraging the use of higher-order
    thinking skills within the students. We are developing a
    textbook that includes the case studies and the competency
    materials for use in engineering classrooms. This book
    published by Prentice Hall Publishers will be available in
    Fall 2000. The case study method has generated interest
    from faculty members from University of Pittsburgh and
    Alabama A&M University who report that student interest
    on engineering topics increased. We believe that widespread
    implementation of this innovation has the ability to better
    prepare engineering students for real-world problem solving
    situations and retain their interest in engineering subjects.

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
    We thank the National Science
    Foundation, DUE #952353 and the Thomas Walter Center
    for Technology Management at Auburn University for
    funding part of this project. Dr. Paul Swamidass, Dr. Sharon
    Oswald, Mr. Doug Turber, and Dr. Neil R. Darlow, all at
    Auburn University, Dr. Larry Shuman at the University of
    Pittsburgh, Dr. Peter Romine at Alabama A&M, and Dr.
    Robert McGrath at Embry-Riddle University have used our
    case studies in their classes. We appreciate their use of our
    case studies in their courses and providing us formal
    feedback. We also thank our colleagues, Dr. Gerald Halpin
    and Dr. Glennelle Halpin from Auburn University for their
    help in evaluating the effectiveness of this project. We thank
    Dr. A. Mishra at Auburn University for his help in this study.
    We are indebted to our undergraduate and graduate students
    who helped create the CD-ROM, videos, and instructional
    material and encouraged us to conduct this project. We also
    thank John DiJulio and Robert Dean for help in developing
    the multi-media material.
    Page 4
    Interesting and Exciting Important and Valuable Instructionally Helpful Relevant and Useful
    3.4 4.0 3.8 4.0

    Table 1: Medians per Construct in Evaluation I
    Perceived Skill
    Development
    Self-Reported
    Learning
    Intrinsic Learning
    and Motivation
    Learn from Fellow
    Students
    3.8 4.0 4.0 4.0
    Table 2. Medians per Construct in Evaluation II
    Educational Objectives How Della CD-ROM Achieved these Educational Objectives
    The course material needs to:
    -
    Connect engineering courses to real-world
    problems

    -
    Provide excitement of discovery

    -
    Motivate active learning

    -
    Quantitative analysis (significant scores on constructs of
    interesting and exciting, important and valuable, relevant and
    useful)

    -
    Supporting statements from students.

    -
    Paper on the methodology won the outstanding engineering
    education paper (Raju and Sankar, 1997, Raju and Sankar,
    1996).
    The course material needs to:
    - identify criteria to solve problems in
    unstructured situations
    - analyze alternatives given multiple criteria
    - make a choice and defend the choice
    persuasively
    - be actively involved in learning situations

    -
    Quantitative analysis (significant scores on constructs of
    perceived skill development, intrinsic learning, self-reported
    learning, and learn from fellow students).

    -
    Supporting statements from students.

    -
    The judges of the 1998 Premier Award commended it for its
    ability to improve higher-level cognitive skills (Raju and Sankar,
    1998, Raju and Sankar, 1999).

    Table 3: Achievement of Educational Objectives by Della Case Study
    References
    Raju, P.K., and Sankar, C.S., "Teaching Real-World Issues through Case Studies," Journal of Engineering Education, October,
    1999.
    Raju, P.K. and Sankar, C.S., "Case Study Method of Instruction in Engineering Classrooms," paper presented at the SEATEC
    Forum, Jan. 1999.
    Raju, P.K., “Educational Initiative in Mechanical Engineering at Auburn University: Case Studies,” Report of NSF Workshop
    for U.S. Mechanical Engineering Departments, Heywood, J.B., Mikic, B., and Suh, N.P. (eds.,), Massachusetts Institute of
    Technology, Oct. 7-8, 1996.
    Raju, P.K. and Sankar, C.S., “Teaching Real-World Issues in Engineering Classrooms Through Case Studies,” Thomas C.
    Evans Instructional Unit Award Lecture, 1997 ASEE Southeastern Conference, Atlanta, GA., April 1997.
    Raju, P.K. and Sankar, C.S. “Della Steam Plant: Should the Turbine be Shut Off?” Case Research Journal, Volume 18, Issues 1
    and 2, pp. 133-150, Winter/Spring 1998.
    Raju, P.K., and Sankar, C.S., "Della Steam Plant Case Study Presentation," Invited Lecture at the 1998 FIE Conference,
    Tempe, AZ, Recipient of 1998 Premier Award for Engineering Education Courseware, 1998.
    Sankar, C.S., and Raju, P.K., "Impact of Della Case Study CD-ROM in Integrating Research and Practice," in the Proceedings
    of the 1998 NACRA Conference, 1998.
    Work performed at the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE),


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    SummaryFeaturesTable of *******sMechanical Systems Design Handbook: Modeling, Measurement, and Control(The) Yildirim Hurmuzlu
    Osita Nwokah
    Read it Online! Buy it Today! With a specific focus on the needs of the designers and engineers in industrial settings, The Mechanical Systems Design Handbook: Modeling, Measurement, and Control presents a practical overview of basic issues associated with design and control of mechanical systems. In four sections, each edited by a renowned expert, this book answers diverse questions fundamental to the successful design and implementation of mechanical systems in a variety of applications.

    Manufacturing addresses design and control issues related to manufacturing systems. From fundamental design principles to control of discrete events, machine tools, and machining operations to polymer processing and precision manufacturing systems.

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    Mechanical systems designers and engineers have few resources dedicated to their particular and often unique problems. The Mechanical Systems Design Handbook clearly shows how theory applies to real world challenges and will be a welcomed and valuable addition to your library.





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