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التطور في مجال الاتصالات

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  1. [1]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو متميز

    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0

    التطور في مجال الاتصالات

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    أحببت ان أتناول موسوعة شاملة عن التطور في مجال الاتصالات
    وسأبدأ بالحديث عن
    [Mobile phone
    Several mobile phones
    A mobile or cellular telephone is a long-range, portable electronic device for personal telecommunications over long distances. In addition to the standard voice function of a telephone, current mobile phones can support many additional services such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video. Most current mobile phones connect to a cellular network of base stations (cell sites), which is in turn interconnected to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) (the exception are satellite phones).
    Mobile phones are distinct from cordless telephones, which generally operate only within a limited range of a specific base station. Technically, the term mobile phone includes such devices as satellite phones and pre-cellular mobile phones such as those operating via MTS which do not have a cellular network, whereas the related term cell(ular) phone does not. In practice, the two terms are used nearly interchangeably.
    History
    Mobile phones from various years, ranging from a large late 1980s-era phone to tiny 2000s phones
    The Mobile phone is one of the most used pieces of equipment today. The concept of using hexagonal cells for mobile phone base stations was invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and was further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s. Radiophones have a long and varied history that stretches back to the Second World War when the military started to use radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, with hand-held cellular radio devices being available since 1983. Due to their low establishment costs and rapid deployment, mobile phone networks have since spread rapidly throughout the world, outstripping the growth of fixed telephony
    In 1945, the 0G generation of mobile telephones were introduced. 0G mobile telephones, such as Mobile Telephone Service, were not officially categorized as mobile phones, since they did not support the automatic change of channel frequency in the middle of a call, when the user moved from one cell (base station coverage area) to another cell, a feature called "handover".
    Mock-up of the "portable phone of the future", from a mid-1960s Bell System advertisement, shows a device not too different from today's mobile telephones.
    In 1970 Amos Joel of Bell Labs invented the "call handoff" feature, which allowed a mobile-phone user to travel through several cells during the same conversation. Martin Cooper of Motorola is widely considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for handheld use in a non-vehicle setting. Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a handheld mobile phone on April 3, 1973. At the time he made his call, Cooper was working as Motorola's General Manager of its Communications Division.
    Fully automatic cellular networks were first introduced in the early to mid-1980s (the 1G generation). The first fully automatic mobile phone system was the 1981 Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system. Until the late 1980s, most mobile phones were too large to be carried in a jacket pocket, so they were usually permanently installed in vehicles as car phones. With the advance of miniaturization and smaller digital components, mobile phones got smaller and lighter.
    Manufacturers
    Nokia Corporation is currently the world's largest manufacturer of mobile telephones, with a global market share of approximately 36% in Q4 of 2006. Other mobile phone manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UT Starcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, High Tech Computer Corporation, Fujitsu, Kyocera, 3G, LG, Motorola, NEC, HTC, Panasonic (Matsushita Electric), Pantech Curitel, Philips, Research in Motion, Sagem, Samsung, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, Sony Ericsson, T&A Alcatel, and Toshiba. There are also specialist communication systems related to, but distinct from mobile phones, such as for exampleProfessional Mobile Radio.
    Applications
    Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka.

    Health impacts
    Since the introduction of mobile phones, concerns have been raised about the potential health impacts from cellular phone use.[13] Studies from the National Cancer Institute and researchers at the Danish Institute of Cancer Epidemiology in Copenhagen do not show any link between cellular phone use and cancer. The Danish study only covered analog mobile phone usage up through 1995, and subjects who started mobile phone usage after 1995 were counted as non-users in the study. However, a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of 4,500 users found a statistically significant link between tumor frequency and mobile phone use.

    من مواضيع المتوكلة على الله :


    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  2. [2]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0

    تابع للحديث عن الموبايل

    Technology

    Mobile phone tower
    Mobile phones and the network they operate under vary significantly from provider to provider, and nation to nation. However, all of them communicate through electromagnetic microwaves with a cell site base station, the antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole, or building.
    The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, usually not more than 5 to 8 miles (approximately 8 to 13 kilometers) away. When the mobile phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various cell sites during calls, or while waiting (idle) between calls it will reselect cell sites.
    Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers. Many of these sites are camouflaged to blend with existing environments, particularly in high-scenery areas.
    The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. Some technologies include AMPS for analog, and D-AMPS, CDMA2000, GSM, GPRS, EV-DO, and UMTS for digital communications. Each network operator has a unique radio frequency band.
    [FONT='Cambria','serif']Satellite phones[/FONT]
    Some mobile telephones, especially those used in remote locations, where constructing a cell network would be too unprofitable or difficult, instead communicate directly with an orbiting satellite. Such devices tend to be bulkier than cell-based mobile phones, as they require a large antenna or dish for communicating with the satellite, but do not require ground based transmitters, making them useful for communicating from remote areas and disaster zones.
    [FONT='Cambria','serif']Semi-Cordless Phone[/FONT]
    There are phones that work as a cordless phone when near their corresponding base station (and sometimes other base stations) and work as a wireless phone when in other locations but for a variety of reasons did not become popular.
    [FONT='Cambria','serif']IP (Internet Protocol) Telephony[/FONT]

    A WiFi-based VoIP phone
    Also known as Internet telephony, IP Telephony is a service based on Voice over IP (VoIP), a disruptive technology that is rapidly gaining ground against traditional telephone network technologies. In Japan and South Korea up to 10% of subscribers, as of January 2005, have switched to this digital telephone service. A January 2005 Newsweek article suggested that Internet telephony may be "the next big thing."
    As of 2006 many VoIP companies offer service to consumers and businesses.
    IP telephony uses a broadbandInternet connection to transmit conversations as data packets. In addition to replacing POTS, IP telephony is also competing with mobile phone networks by offering free or lower cost connections via WiFihotspots. As mentioned above VoIP is also used on private wireless networks which may or may not have a connection to the outside telephone network.

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  3. [3]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0
    وفي خضم الحديث عن التطور في الاتصالات
    فلا بد من الحديث عن الألياف البصرية
    An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length by confining as much light as possible in a propagating form. In fibers with large core diameter, the confinement is based on total internal reflection. In smaller diameter core fibers, (widely used for most communication links longer than 200m) the confinement relies on establishing a waveguide. Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and engineering concerned with such optical fibers. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communication, which permits digital data transmission over longer distances and at higher data rates than other forms of wired and wireless communications. They are also used to form sensors, and in a variety of other applications.
    The term optical fiber covers a range of different designs including graded-index optical fibers, step-index optical fibers, birefringent polarization-maintaining fibers and more recently photonic crystal fibers, with the design and the wavelength of the light propagating in the fiber dictating whether or not it will be multi-mode optical fiber or single-mode optical fiber. Because of the mechanical properties of the more common glass optical fibers, special methods of splicing fibers and of connecting them to other equipment are needed. Manufacture of optical fibers is based on partially melting a chemically doped preform and pulling the flowing material on a draw tower. Fibers are built into different kinds of cables depending on how they will be used.
    The light-guiding principles behind optical fibers was first demonstrated in Victorian times, but modern optical fibers were only developed beginning in the 1950s. Optical fibers became practical for use in communications in the late 1970s, once the attenuation was reduced sufficiently; since then, several technical advances have been made to improve the attenuation and dispersion properties of optical fibers (i.e., allowing signals to travel further and carry more information), and lower the cost of fiber communications systems.

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  4. [4]
    م.رائد الجمّال
    م.رائد الجمّال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية م.رائد الجمّال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2007
    المشاركات: 2,697

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 15
    Given: 0
    مشكوره و جزاك الله كل خير

    0 Not allowed!


    تبارك الذي بيده الملك وهو على كل شيء قدير
    [SIGPIC][/SIGPIC]
    اذا غضب الله على قوم رزقهم الجدل و منعهم العمل
    اعقل الناس اعذر الناس للناس
    قوة الادراك ان تتمكن من محاسبة هواك
    لا شيء يستحق الانحناء ............لا خساره تستحق الندم

  5. [5]
    المهندس الاسلامي
    المهندس الاسلامي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 53
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 1
    Given: 0
    مشكووووووووووووووووووووووور

    0 Not allowed!



  6. [6]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0
    مشكور جزيلا اخي الفاضل م. رائد الجمال
    على مرورك الكريم
    وبوركت اخي الفاضل المهندس الاسلامي على مشاركتك الكريمة

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  7. [7]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0
    Principle of operation
    An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectricwaveguide that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding. The boundary between the core and cladding may either be abrupt, in step-index fiber, or gradual, in graded-index fiber.

    [Multimode fiber


    The propagation of light through a multi-mode optical fiber.


    Fiber with large (greater than 10 μm) core diameter may be analyzed by geometric optics. Such fiber is called multimode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis (see below). In a step-index multimode fiber, rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection. Rays that meet the core-cladding boundary at a high angle (measured relative to a line normal to the boundary), greater than the critical angle for this boundary, are completely reflected. The critical angle (minimum angle for total internal reflection) is determined by the difference in index of refraction between the core and cladding materials. Rays that meet the boundary at a low angle are refracted from the core into the cladding, and do not convey light and hence information along the fiber. The critical angle determines the acceptance angle of the fiber, often reported as a numerical aperture. A high numerical aperture allows light to propagate down the fiber in rays both close to the axis and at various angles, allowing efficient coupling of light into the fiber. However, this high numerical aperture increases the amount of dispersion as rays at different angles have different path lengths and therefore take different times to traverse the fiber. A low numerical aperture may therefore be desirable.
    In graded-index fiber, the index of refraction in the core decreases continuously between the axis and the cladding. This causes light rays to bend smoothly as they approach the cladding, rather than reflecting abruptly from the core-cladding boundary. The resulting curved paths reduce multi-path dispersion because high angle rays pass more through the lower-index periphery of the core, rather than the high-index center. The index profile is chosen to minimize the difference in axial propagation speeds of the various rays in the fiber. This ideal index profile is very close to a parabolic relationship between the index and the distance from the axis.

    [ Singlemode fiber


    A typical single-mode optical fiber, showing diameters of the component layers.


    Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics. Instead, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure, by solution of Maxwell's equations as reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation. The electromagnetic analysis may also be required to understand behaviors such as speckle that occur when coherent light propagates in multi-mode fiber. As an optical waveguide, the fiber supports one or more confined transverse modes by which light can propagate along the fiber. Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber. The behavior of larger-core multimode fiber can also be modeled using the wave equation, which shows that such fiber supports more than one mode of propagation (hence the name). The results of such modeling of multi-mode fiber approximately agree with the predictions of geometric optics, if the fiber core is large enough to support more than a few modes.
    The waveguide analysis shows that the light energy in the fiber is not completely confined in the core. Instead, especially in single-mode fibers, a significant fraction of the energy in the bound mode travels in the cladding as an evanescent wave.
    The most common type of single-mode fiber has a core diameter of 8 to 10 μm and is designed for use in the near infrared. It is notable that the mode structure depends on the wavelength of the light used, so that this fiber actually supports a small number of additional modes at visible wavelengths. Multi-mode fiber, by comparison, is manufactured with core diameters as small as 50 microns and as large as hundreds of microns.

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  8. [8]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0
    Special-purpose fiber
    Some special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical core and/or cladding layer, usually with an elliptical or rectangular cross-section. These include polarization-maintaining fiber and fiber designed to suppress whispering gallery mode propagation.

    Materials

    Glass optical fibers are almost always made from silica, but some other materials, such as fluorozirconate, fluoroaluminate, and chalcogenide glasses, are used for longer-wavelength infrared applications. Like other glasses, these glasses have a refractive index of about 1.5. Typically the difference between core and cladding is less than one percent.
    Plastic optical fiber (POF) is commonly step-index multimode fiber, with core diameter of 1 mm or larger. POF typically has much higher attenuation than glass fiber (that is, the amplitude of the signal in it decreases faster), 1 dB/m or higher, and this high attenuation limits the range of POF-based systems.

    Fiber fuse

    At high optical intensities, above 2 megawatts per square centimetre, when a fiber is subjected to a shock or is otherwise suddenly damaged, a fiber fuse can occur. The reflection from the damage vaporizes the fiber immediately before the break, and this new defect remains reflective so that the damage propagates back toward the transmitter at 1–3 meters per second The open fiber control system, which ensures laser eye safety in the event of a broken fiber, can also effectively halt propagation of the fiber fuse . In situations, such as undersea cables, where high power levels might be used without the need for open fiber control, a "fiber fuse" protection device at the transmitter can break the circuit to prevent any damage.

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  9. [9]
    المتوكلة على الله
    المتوكلة على الله غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
    المشاركات: 3,104
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 18
    Given: 0

    Termination and splicing

    Termination and splicing

    ST fiber connector on multimode fiber


    Optical fibers are connected to terminal equipment by optical fiber connectors. These connectors are usually of a standard type such as FC, SC, ST, LC, or MTRJ.
    Optical fibers may be connected to each other by connectors or by splicing, that is, joining two fibers together to form a continuous optical waveguide. The generally accepted splicing method is arc fusion splicing, which melts the fiber ends together with an electric arc. For quicker fastening jobs, a "mechanical splice" is used.
    Fusion splicing is done with a specialized instrument that typically operates as follows: The two cable ends are fastened inside a splice enclosure that will protect the splices, and the fiber ends are stripped of their protective polymer coating (as well as the more sturdy outer jacket, if present). The ends are cleaved (cut) with a precision cleaver to make them perpendicular, and are placed into special holders in the splicer. The splice is usually inspected via a magnified viewing screen to check the cleaves before and after the splice. The splicer uses small motors to align the end faces together, and emits a small spark between electrodes at the gap to burn off dust and moisture. Then the splicer generates a larger spark that raises the temperature above the melting point of the glass, fusing the ends together permanently. The location and energy of the spark is carefully controlled so that the molten core and cladding don't mix, and this minimizes optical loss. A splice loss estimate is measured by the splicer, by directing light through the cladding on one side and measuring the light leaking from the cladding on the other side. A splice loss under 0.1 dB is typical. The complexity of this process is the major thing that makes fiber splicing more difficult than splicing copper wire.
    Mechanical fiber splices are designed to be quicker and easier to install, but there is still the need for stripping, careful cleaning and precision cleaving. The fiber ends are aligned and held together by a precision-made sleeve, often using a clear gel (index matching gel) that enhances the transmission of light across the joint. Such joints typically have higher optical loss, and are less robust than fusion splices, especially if the gel is used. All splicing techniques involve the use of an enclosure into which the splice is placed for protection afterward.
    Fibers are terminated in connectors so that the fiber end is held at the end face precisely and securely. A fiber optic connector is basically a rigid cylindrical barrel surrounded by a sleeve that holds the barrel in its mating socket. It can be push and click, turn and latch, or threaded. A typical connector is installed by preparing the fiber end and inserting it into the rear of the connector body. Quick set glue is usually used so the fiber is held securely, and a strain relief is secured to the rear. Once the glue has set, the end is polished to a mirror finish. Various types of polish profile are used, depending on the type of fiber and the application. For singlemode fiber, the fiber ends are typically polished with a slight curvature, such that when the connectors are mated the fibers touch only at their cores. This is known as a "physical contact" (PC) polish. The curved surface may be polished at an angle, to make an angled physical contact (APC) connection. Such connections have higher loss than PC connections, but greatly reduced backreflection, because light that reflects from the angled surface leaks out of the fiber core; the resulting loss in signal strength is known as gap loss.
    Various methods to align two fiber ends to each other or one fiber to an optical device (VCSEL, LED, waveguide etc.) have been reported. They all follow either an active fiber alignment approach or a passive fiber alignment approach.

    0 Not allowed!




    على الله توكلوا .........ولا تتواكلوا
    يا سادتي..
    لا ترفعوا تلك الأيادي للسماء..
    لا ترفعوها إنها لن تستجيب..
    هل يستجيب الله صوت العاجزين؟!
    من قد أضاعوا الدين واحترفوا البكاء!!
    من حرروا الأرض السليبة بالقعود وبالدعاء!!
    من واجهوا كيد الأعادي بالتناحر والجفاء !!
    فلنأخذ بالأسباب ولنتوكل على الله
    وبإذن الله لن نرد خائبين

  10. [10]
    م.رائد الجمّال
    م.رائد الجمّال غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية م.رائد الجمّال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2007
    المشاركات: 2,697

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 15
    Given: 0
    جزاك الله كل خير

    0 Not allowed!


    تبارك الذي بيده الملك وهو على كل شيء قدير
    [SIGPIC][/SIGPIC]
    اذا غضب الله على قوم رزقهم الجدل و منعهم العمل
    اعقل الناس اعذر الناس للناس
    قوة الادراك ان تتمكن من محاسبة هواك
    لا شيء يستحق الانحناء ............لا خساره تستحق الندم

  
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