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من يعثر لي علي اي كتاب عن هزا المعدنmontmorllionite for bentonite clayخاصه
كتاب العالم GIRM
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من يعثر لي علي اي كتاب عن هزا المعدنmontmorllionite for bentonite clayخاصه
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هذا المعدن من مجموعة clay mineral
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Or did you mean: potassium bentonite (geology), arkosic bentonite (petrology)
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Library > Words > Dictionary ben·ton·ite (bĕn'tə-nīt') [IMG]http://*******.answers.com/main/*******/img/pron.gif[/IMG]
n. An absorbent aluminum silicate clay formed from volcanic ash and used in various adhesives, cements, and ceramic fillers.
[After Benton Formation (formerly Fort Benton Formation) of the Rock Creek district in eastern Wyoming.]
bentonitic ben'ton·it'ic (-nĭt'ĭk) adj.
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Science and Technology Encyclopedia
Library > Science > Science and Technology Encyclopedia Bentonite The term first applied to a particular, highly colloidal plastic clay found near Fort Benton in the Cretaceous beds of Wyoming. This clay swells to several times its original volume when placed in water and forms thixotropic gels when small amounts are added to water. Later investigations showed that this clay was formed by the alteration of volcanic ash in place; thus, the term bentonite was redefined by geologists to limit it to highly colloidal and plastic clay materials composed largely of montmorillonite clay minerals, and produced by the alteration of volcanic ash in place. The term has been used commercially for any plastic, colloidal, and swelling clays without reference to a particular mode of origin. See also Clay; Gel; Montmorillonite.
Bentonites have been found in almost all countries and in rocks of a wide variety of ages. They appear to be most abundant in rocks of Cretaceous age and younger. In the United States, bentonites are mined extensively in Wyoming, Arizona, and Mississippi. England, Germany, Yugoslavia, Russia, Algeria, Japan, and Argentina also produce large tonnages of bentonite. Many bentonites are of great commercial value. They are used in decolorizing oils, in bonding molding sands, in the manufacture of catalysts, in the preparation of oil well drilling muds, and in numerous other relatively minor ways. The properties of a particular bentonite determine its economic use.
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Wine Lover's Companion
Library > Food > Wine Lover's Companion bentonite [BEN-tn-ite] A powdery clay found in Wyoming, South Dakota, and Germany that is used as a fining agent to clarify wines (especially white). When added to wine, bentonite settles to the bottom carrying with it any suspended particles.
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Library > Reference > WordNet Note: click on a word meaning below to see its connections and related words. The noun bentonite has one meaning:
Meaning #1: an absorbent aluminum silicate clay formed from volcanic ash
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Library > Reference > Wikipedia bentonite
Bentonite - USGS
Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite, (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·(H2O)n. Two types exist: swelling bentonite which is also called sodium bentonite and non-swelling bentonite or calcium bentonite. It forms from weathering of volcanic ash, most often in the presence of water.
Sodium bentonite expands when wet - it can absorb several times its dry weight in water. It is mostly used in drilling mud in the oil and gas well drilling industries.
The property of swelling also makes sodium bentonite useful as a sealant, especially targeted for the sealing of subsurface disposal systems for spent nuclear fuel   and for quarantining metal pollutants of groundwater. Similar uses include making slurry walls, waterproofing of below grade walls and forming other impermeable barriers (e.g. to plug old wells or as a liner in the base of landfills to prevent migration of leachate into the soil).
The non-swelling calcium bentonite is sold within the alternative health market for its purported cleansing properties, yet no scientific studies exist to support these claims. It is usually combined with water and ingested as part of a detox diet,  in a practice known as geophagy. It is claimed that the microscopic structure of the bentonite draws impurities into it from the digestive system, which are then excreted along with the bentonite. It is also claimed that native tribes in South America, Africa and Australia have long used bentonite clay for this purpose. 
Calcium bentonite may be converted to sodium bentonite and exhibit sodium bentonite's properties by a process known as "ion exchange". Commonly this means adding 5-10% of sodium carbonate to wet bentonite, mixing well, and allowing time for the ion exchange to take place.
Pascalite is another commercial name for the calcium bentonite clay.
Uses for both types
Much of bentonite's usefulness in the drilling and geotechnical engineering industry comes from its unique rheological properties. Relatively small quantities of bentonite suspended in water form a viscous, shear thinning material. Most often, bentonite suspensions are also thixotropic, although rare cases of rheopectic behavior have also been reported. At high enough concentrations (~60 grams of bentonite per litre of suspension), bentonite suspensions begin to take on the characteristics of a gel (a fluid with a minimum yield strength required to make it move). For these reasons it is a common component of drilling mud used to curtail drilling fluid invasion by its propensity for aiding in the formation of mud cake.
Bentonite can be used in cement, adhesives, ceramic bodies, cosmetics and cat litter. Fuller's earth, an ancient dry cleaning substance, is finely ground bentonite, typically used for purifying transformer oil. Bentonite, in small percentages, is used as an ingredient in commercially designed clay bodies and ceramic glazes. Bentonite clay is also used in pyrotechnics to make end plugs and rocket nozzles, and can also be used as a therapeutic face pack for the treatment of acne/oily skin.
The ionic surface of bentonite has a useful property in making a sticky coating on sand grains. When a small proportion of finely ground bentonite clay is added to hard sand and wetted, the clay binds the sand particles into a moldable aggregate known as green sand used for making molds in sand casting. Some river deltas naturally deposit just such a blend of such clay silt and sand, creating a natural source of excellent molding sand that was critical to ancient metalworking technology. Modern chemical processes to modify the ionic surface of bentonite greatly intensify this stickiness, resulting in remarkably dough-like yet strong casting sand mixes that stand up to molten metal temperatures.
The same effluvial deposition of bentonite clay onto beaches accounts for the variety of plasticity of sand from place to place for building sand castles. Beach sand consisting of only silica and shell grains does not mold well compared to grains coated with bentonite clay. This is why some beaches are so much better for building sand castles than others.
The self-stickiness of bentonite allows high-pressure ramming or pressing of the clay in molds to produce hard, refractory shapes, such as model rocket nozzles. Indeed, to test whether a particular brand of cat litter is bentonite, simply ram a sample with a hammer into a sturdy tube with a close-fitting rod; bentonite will form a very hard, consolidated plug that is not easily crumbled.
Bentonite also has the interesting property of adsorbing relatively large amounts of protein molecules from aqueous solutions. It is therefore uniquely useful in the process of winemaking, where it is used to remove excessive amounts of protein from white wines. Were it not for this use of bentonite, many or most white wines would precipitate undesirable flocculent clouds or hazes upon exposure to warmer temperatures, as these proteins denature. It also has the incidental use of inducing more rapid clarification of both red and white wines.
History and natural occurrence
The absorbent clay was given the name bentonite by an American geologist sometime after its discovery in about 1890 - after the Benton Formation (a geological stratum, at one time Fort Benton) in eastern Wyoming's Rock Creek area. Other modern discoveries include montmorillonite discovered in 1847 in Montmorillon in the Vienne prefecture of France, in Poitou-Charentes, South of the Loire Valley.
Most high grade commercial sodium bentonite mined in the United States comes from the area between the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Big Horn Basin of Montana. Sodium bentonite is also mined in the southwestern United States, in Greece and in other regions of the world. Calcium bentonite is mined in the Great Plains, Central Mountains and south eastern regions of the United States. Supposedly the world's largest current source of bentonite is Chongzuo in China's Guangxi province.
Bentonite & Montmorillonite: Smectite Clay Minerals
(R. E. Grim: Clay Mineralogy 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York (1968) 41).
Bentonite Chemical Equation: Al2O34SiO2H2O ( Reade Advanced Materials )
Montmorillonite Chemical Equation: Na0.2Ca0.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2(H2O)10
"Sodium bentonite is the name for the ore whose major constituent is the clay mineral, sodium montmorillonite. Montmorillonites are three-layer minerals consisting of two tetrahedral layers sandwiched around a central octahedral layer .Oxide anions at the apices of the tetrahedral subunits are directed inward where they surround interior aluminum, iron and magnesium cations, thereby forming the octahedral subunits of the octahedral layer. Bonding, between the shared interior oxide anions and the cations in both the tetrahedral and the octahedral layers, links the layers together and yields the unique sheet structure characteristic of clay minerals. For montmorillonite, the total negative charge contributed to the structure by the sum of all the oxide anions (O=) is somewhat in excess of the total positive charge contributed by the sum of all the structural cations (Si+4, Al+3, Fe+2, Fe+3, Mg+2) and imparts a slight overall negative charge to the surfaces of the clay sheets. This slight excess negative charge on the sheets is counterbalanced by free-moving (exchangeable) cations which exist between them. These three layers in each sheet comprise individual bentonite platelets which are typically 1 nm in thickness and 0,2-2 microns in diameter. Dry platelets of sodium bentonite are most commonly grouped together in a face-to-face arrangement, with exchangeable cations and small amounts of adsorbed wares in an interlayer region between each platelet. The thickness of the interlayer region is variable depending on the amount of water adsorbed between the platelets."
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Bentonites: Geology, Mineralogy, Properties and Uses (Developments in sedimentology)
by: Ralph E. Grim, Necip Guven
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