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  1. [21]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال الثالث عشر

    COMPLETING THE WORK DISTRIBUTION CHART

    PHASE I

    Before filling out the Work Distribution Chart (WDC), we must first complete two forms, the Activity and Task Lists. These forms collect necessary data in the field to enter onto the WDC.

    THE ACTIVITY LIST:

    The Activity List describes the major duties of a department. The work unit supervisor or manager prepares the list. The sheet is completed as follows:
    • Fill out the heading.
    • List the major functions of the department are in the "activity" section. There are usually about six to eight functions for each department. See attachment for an example of a completed Activity List. Use this as a guide for the level of granularity in documenting activities.
    • Number activities sequentially in the "activity number column."
    • Make the last activity entry "Miscellaneous." Miscellaneous is a "catch-all" for things that occur occasionally or that consume little time or effort.
    • We have included a blank Activity List for you use.
    THE TASK LIST:

    The Task List describes the functions of each member of the work unit. Each employee in the department, including the supervisor, completes a Task List as follows:
    • Fill out the heading.
    • List major job functions in the "description" section.
    • Note the number of times a task is done (or units produced) per week in the "quantity" column.
    • Approximate the number of hours per week spent on each task and enter that figure and total the hours.
    • The last task description may be "miscellaneous."
    Collect the Tasks Lists and complete "Post to Activity No." column by reviewing each task description assigning to the corresponding activity number (from the Activity List). The activity number is the number to the left of each activity on the "Activity List."

    We have included a blank attachment and completed attachment Task Lists for your information and use. Feel free to copy the completed list as a sample/guide for completion of the form.

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  2. [22]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال الرابع عشر

    COMPLETING THE WORK DISTRIBUTION CHART (WDC)


    PHASE II


    Now that we have collected Activity and Task List data from the field we are ready to format this information on the WDC. Print (landscape) a copy of the completed WDC (attachment) and enlarge it to 11" by 17". Also print copies of the completed samples of the Activity (attachment) and Tasks Lists (attachment). Refer to the completed form as you read the instructions for completing the WDC. The completion process is as follows:
    • Complete the heading on a blank WDC, noting present or proposed organization.
    • Take the activities from the Activity List and put in the "Activity" column on the WDC. Number them sequentially in the left side column. Leave several lines blank between each activity. Depending on the number of employees in a department and activities, it may be necessary to cut and paste several blank WDCs.
    • Complete the heading for each employee in the work unit. Start with the supervisor and work your way from left to right in order of grade.
    • Enter tasks from the Task sheet in the appropriate column for each employee. Post the specific job functions from the Task List to the appropriate activity. Note the number of hours per week spent on the task in the block to the right of the task description ("hours/week" column).
    • Total the hours per week by each employee (vertically) and enter total at the bottom of the column. This will give the total number of hours worked by each person.
    • Total the number of hours spent on each task (horizontally) for all employees for each department activity. This will tell you the number of hours per week spent by the department on each activity. Note this total in the "hours/week" column to the right of the activity description.
    Wow! That was a lot of work! Next, you will see that it was well worth the effort. You will start to experience the magic of this tool when we use it to analyze the present state organization.

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  3. [23]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال الخامس عشر

    ANALYZING THE WORK DISTRIBUTION CHART (WDC)

    IN THREE DIMENSIONS!

    The WDC provides an amazing "three dimensional Analysis" of the present state organization analysis with the WDC will yield a large number of issues and opportunities to improve the present organization.
    TAKING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEW
    VIEW I - ACTIVITIES (VERTICAL)

    Team members evaluate the department activities as a whole. This is accomplished by analyzing the data listed in the activity column.
    Questions to ask include:

    Do the department's activities meet customer requirements?
    Are the activities appropriate for the department?
    Is the number of hours spent on this activity consistent to the activities importance in helping the department accomplish its overall mission?
    How do these activities compare with activities from other departments?
    Is there duplication?
    Could activities between departments be consolidated to better meet customer requirements?
    Are certain departmental activities obsolete?
    Could any department functions be done better if they were contracted out?

    VIEW II - HOW DOES EVERYBODY PLUG INTO EACH ACTIVITY?
    now analyze each activity in detail. Take each activity from the "Activity Column" and look horizontally across the WDC. This will show how and what each department member contributes to the activity.

    Team members should ask:
    • Is there variation or inconsistency between two or more people doing the same or similar tasks?
    • Why is each task being done?
    • Can a task be eliminated totally or in part?
    • Who is doing this task? Are they best qualified?
    • How is the task being done? Is there a better method?
    • Is there back-up for this task?
    • Are tasks evenly distributed?
    • Is there under-specialization? Are too many tasks being spread over a large number of workers? If you see, this you may try to consolidate functions with fewer workers.
    • Is there over-specialization? A department should be able to function in the absence of any one unit member.

    VIEW III - HOW ARE THE WORKERS SPENDING THEIR TIME?
    Team members may now analyze each worker's tasks. The duties of each person in the department are listed in the column below the individual name.

    The following questions should be asked:
    • Are functions appropriate to the job title?

    Does the individual have the same number of tasks as others in identical job titles?
    Assess job functions that could be classified as tedious, monotonous, and boring. These are functions that can frequently be eliminated.
    • Why is this task being done?
    • Could it be done somewhere else?
    • Could this task be combined with another?
    • Is there back-up for this task?

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  4. [24]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال السادس عشر

    THE WORK DISTRIBUTION ACTIVITY

    NOW IT'S YOUR TURN
    Now that we have done all of the work leaning about how to complete and analyze the Work Distribution Chart, let's have some fun with it. It's time to pull the rabbit out of the hat and experience the magic of this tool.
    Print the WDC (attachment) landscape and enlarge it to 11" by 17" or larger, do the three dimensional analysis described in last week's tip and see how many issues that you see. Usually it is best to phrase your issues in the form of a question. Example: Why isn't Bob Hopeless involved with posting liquidations? By his admission it is a major departmental activity and he probably should have some involvement!

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    الملفات المرفقة

  5. [25]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال السابع عشر

    WORK DISTRIBUTION CHART

    ACTIVITY RESPONSES
    Thanks for all of the great input on the Work Distribution Chart (WDC) activity. We have attached a completed WDC for your convenience. You folks saw a lot of things that weren't quite right with this organization.
    Here are some of your observations:
    § Why does an Accounts Payable Department need a stock boy?
    § What is The Benson Project?
    § Why is the supervisor not involved in a major departmental activity (Posting Liquidations)?
    § Why does the department spend 34hrs/week on resolving duplicate billing?
    § Why does the supervisor spend 20 hours/week researching duplicate billing?
    § Why does the supervisor spend only about 6 hours/week doing supervisory things?
    § Why does I.C. Waters approve vouchers 5 times faster than Sandy Beach?
    § Is there back up for charge verification?
    § Why doesn't the typist type?
    § Why is a typist approving vouchers?
    § Why does everyone in the department involved in the operations report?
    § Why does the operations report take so much time?
    § Why isn't the vendor complaint function done by one person?
    § Why is a Sr. AP Clerk (May Bee) doing such low level tasks?
    § Why is the stock boy doing such high level tasks?
    § How long are staff meetings?
    § Why does Sandy have 13.5 hours labeled as "Other"?
    § Why is there no active effort to fix the Duplicate Billing problem?
    § Why isn't the stock boy doing stock boy tasks?
    Look at all of these wonderful issues that the WDC gave us a "Heads-Up" on for this department! Thank you for all of the good work.

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    الملفات المرفقة

  6. [26]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال الثامن عشر

    Define and Strengthen Your Value Chain with a Function Analysis

    Part I - The Customer

    Function Analysis is a very simple and effective way to identify all of the customers and suppliers in your organizational value chain. It promotes communications and partnerships that strengthen the value chain. In this two part series we will learn how to use this customer friendly tool.
    • Write an organizational mission statement: Meet with all unit members to develop this statement. The mission should be customer driven and answer the questions, "Why do we exist?" The statement should be clearly written in simple English so everybody can understand it with no room for misinterpretation.
    • Identify customers: Make separate lists of all internal and external customers.
    • List perceived requirements: Discuss perceived requirements for each internal and external customer.
    • Determine actual customer requirements: Meet with customers to determine specific requirements in detail. Try to insure that all requirements are measurable. Requirements are noted on the Customer Function Analysis Worksheet.
    • Compare perceived with actual requirements: This will probably underscore the need for Function Analysis. As the time passes, the difference between perceived and actual requirements should diminish. This indicates a better understanding of your customer.
    • Develop a plan to meet customer requirements: Prioritize customer requirements and determine what must be done to meet customer expectations. Once the plan is complete, it should be shared with management, workers and customers.

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  7. [27]
    عبدالله الرشدان
    عبدالله الرشدان غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Aug 2006
    المشاركات: 106
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 1
    Given: 0
    الله يعطيك العافية

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  8. [28]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال التاسع عشر

    Define and Strengthen Your Value Chain with a Function Analysis


    Part II - The Supplier

    Last article we examined how to better understand and communicate with the customer.
    In this article we will explore the supplier side of Function Analysis and how to continuously monitor and strengthen the value chain.

    • Identify suppliers: Make separate lists of internal and external suppliers.
    • Determine Suppliers Requirements: To better enable you to meet the customers needs. Requirements should be specific and measurable.
    • Communicate requirements: to the suppliers.
    • Monitor Performance: Institute measurements to ensure the customers are receiving what they require. Also, measure the performance of your suppliers to be certain that you have the inputs you require to delight the customer.
    • Take Immediate Action: When measurements reveal a malfunction in the value chain.
    Function Analysis promotes better understanding and communications with customers and suppliers. It is a great first step to making workflows more efficient and effective.
    For your convenience we have included a supplier Function Analysis worksheet.

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  9. [29]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3

    المقال العشرون

    Understanding Paradigms:

    The Passport to Innovation

    Read this sentence:

    "Finished files are the result of years of scientific study combined with the experience of years."


    Now count the number of F's that you see in the text.


    We will give you the answer at the end of the tip.
    Your paradigms shape how you see the world or what you expect things to look like or be. Many times our paradigms create road blocks to innovation because the solution to a problem is already defined by our paradigm.
    I was visiting a friend a few years back. We were in his basement and I noticed a quart of gasoline on a shelf. I mentioned to him that it probably was not a good idea to store gasoline in his home. He explained that this was something that he did every year for the past twenty years. At the end of each Fall he would empty the gasoline from his lawn mower into a jar and store it until the following Spring. He was frugal and could not bear the thought of throwing the gasoline away. I asked him "Why not put it in your car?" the look on his face was one of total amazement. It never occurred to him to put the gas in his car because this was "lawn mower gas." His paradigm for the gasoline blocked an obvious solution.
    When people are trained to identify and understand their paradigms they are better able to understand the things that keep them from "stepping out of the box."
    Now for our answer to our puzzle. If you counted three F's, so did I. However, there are six F's in this sentence (note the 3 "OF" s). The way many of us read (our reading paradigm) makes the F's in "OF" invisible.

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  10. [30]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 19
    Given: 3
    مقالات جميلة في موضوع التحسين المستمر
    ....................للرفع

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