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  1. [1]
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً

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     وسام الشكر

      وسام كبار الشخصيات


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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    سلسلة التحسين المستمر

    يسرني اعزائي أن اقدم لكم سلسلة من المقالات التي تشرح طرق و أدوات التحسين المستمر، و هذه المقالات هي عبارة رسائل اسبوعية كانت تبعثها شركة متخصصة في الاستشارات و البرمجيات المتعلقة بالتحسين المستمر اسمها Vatscorp لمجموعة من المشتركين في موقع الشركة، و وجدت ان هذه المقالات جيدة لذا أحببت أن اشارككم بها. و قد لاحظت منذ فترة ان موقع الشركة قد توقف عن العمل و لا ادري ما الأسباب.

    لكن المهم أنني سوف اقوم بوضع هذه المقالات في هذا الموضوع بشكل نصف أسبوعي (كل إثنين و خميس) لإتاحة الفرصة للمهتمين لمتابعة الموضوع دون أن أثقل عليهم.

    انتظرونا

  2. [2]
    sulhi
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    عضو


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
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    في الانتظار

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  3. [3]
    اصل الهندسة
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    عضو


    تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2006
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    بانتضارك اطال الله عمرك
    مع التحية

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    لكل شيء إذا ما تم نقصان
    فلا يغر بطيب العيش إنسان

  4. [4]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
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    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
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    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال الأول

    THE DIFFICULT WE CAN DO RIGHT AWAY. THE IMPOSSIBLE TAKES LITTLE LONGER

    THE SECRETS OF HIGH PERFORMANCE TEAMS

    There is nothing like a high performance team for a Business Process Improvement (BPI) project. Their energy is contagious and the synergy is like magic. High performance usually does not happen by accident or random chance. It is the result of careful and deliberate planning by the people forming the BPI team. We have developed some guidelines that may help get your teams off to a solid start.

    First let's talk about the size of the team. Teams that are too small may have difficulties with synergy. Frequently members of small teams must assume multiple roles. When people feel overworked the magic will stop. If a team is too large there may not be a “Sense of Team.” Control issues arise and things like consensus become difficult to achieve. So what is the perfect number? Most of the “Pros” agree it is in the five to eight range. Our experience tells us that if there were such a thing as a magic number it would be six. Now for some “Dos and Don'ts”.

    When you are configuring a team:

    DO:
    • Discuss specific skills and experience necessary for a successful project and staff your team accordingly.
    • Get a mix of behavioral styles. Some people are detailed by nature and will do a good job getting into the nitty-gritty of process documentation and field work. Others do not warm up to detail but are very creative by nature and love to step way out of the box. You need a combination of both styles on a high performance team.
    • Recruit a “Team Sponsor.” A sponsor is usually not an active team member. He/she checks-in with the team on a regular basis to be sure all is well. The sponsor should have organizational clout so that he/she can run interference for the team and remove frustrating barriers.
    • Select a team member with little or no knowledge of the process being studied. Process knowledge is critical to a successful project but this same knowledge sometimes locks the team into the “We have always done it that way syndrome.” People with little or no process knowledge may ask the questions no one else would ask. These folks are your “Paradigm Busters.”
    • Appoint a team member who represents the customer's point of view. This will ensure appropriate project focus.
    DON'T
    • Recruit the unwilling. Bad attitudes are contagious too. There is usually plenty of well motivated staff to go around.
    • Overwork team members. Occasionally people are “Punished” with team membership. They are expected to perform their normal work tasks and complete team assignments in addition. If someone is overworked either cut them some slack or consider someone else for the team assignment.
    • Use the context of a team to resolve an ongoing feud between workers. We have seen it attempted in the past. It never works. If two people have bad chemistry keep them off of the same team. We hope these simple common sense guidelines will help you launch high performance teams for all of your BPI projects.

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  5. [5]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال الثاني

    DON'T LET YOUR IMPROVEMENTS BECOME “TRIBAL KNOWLEDGE”

    The Power of Work Instructions


    After you have improved a workflow and successfully sold the idea to management, it is time to standardize the new process. This task is a subset of “Implementation” in our Seven-Step model. Failure to write comprehensive work instructions for the improved process may result in the work flow being implemented as people “Think” they understand the new process. In other words work instructions serve as a detailed implementation guide

    The “Tribal Knowledge” phenomena may occur in the absence of work instructions. New workers are trained by supervisors or fellow workers from memory. Steps are added, omitted or changed based on the instructor's perception, personal style and recollection. Now think about this happening with every new worker being told as many versions of how a process works as there are people orienting new staff. This approach opens the door to enormous variation and introduces non-value added activity.
    We recommend you institutionalize writing work instructions as a part of your process improvement methodology. What better timing, since you have already documented the Proposed Process, you have more than 80% of the work instructions written. We have included a sample of work instructions below. These are automatically generated by VATS from the Proposed Process. Consider adding graphics or screen prints to facilitate the absorption of the new procedure (click on graphic below to view). Remember when you are writing work instructions to do them one small step at a time. Keep them simple so that they are understood by all

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    الملفات المرفقة

  6. [6]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال الثالث

    POKA - YOKE

    A COMMON SENSE APPROACH TO DEFECT ELIMINATION


    Poka-Yoke is a Japanese “Mistake-Proofing” methodology. Shigeo Shingo, the late quality guru, first conceived Poka-Yoke in the early 1960s.Litterally translated the term means to avoid (Yokeru) unintentional errors (Poka). Shingo tells us that there are 3 kinds of inspections:

    ·The Judgment Inspection is by far the most common. At some point in the work flow (in-process or end-of line) the product/service is checked against a set of requirements. Defects are detected and corrective action is initiated. Judgment inspections are bad for two reasons. First, they are expensive. Judgment Inspections assume that defects are inevitable. To do a thorough job at quality 100% inspection is frequently employed. Secondly, it's too late, this approach consumes resources only to catch and correct defects after they occur.

    ·The Informative Inspection uses Statistical Process Control. This approach is superior to Judgment Inspections in that it uses statistically determined samples to reduce inspection frequency and costs. Defects are spotted quickly and data drives corrective action. Shingo thought this approach was too late because defects still occurred.

    ·The Source Inspection is the approach Shingo developed as the first step of a Poka-Yoke solution. Errors are part of the human condition. As long as there are people involved in process there will be errors. There is, however, something in the process that permits (or sometimes actually encourages) the error to occur. This is the “Source” of the defect. Identifying the Source of the defect then fabricating a device that inspects the process 100% at the point of the error will not permit the error to become a defect.

    Look at the Traditional inspection cycle (Judgment or Informative). The defect is identified and corrective action is initiated. Now compare it to the Shingo 100% Self-Inspection Cycle. The defect never happens! We believe this simple approach is one of the most exciting concepts in the world of quality today.


    * Based on a graphic developed by Productivity Press

    Shingo says that there are two mistake-proofing strategies we can employ when developing our 100% self- inspecting devices. The first is Prevention. A Prevention Poka-Yoke prevents the error from becoming a defect. Take a look at our Prevention Example. The man has made an error. He has inadvertently selected leaded gasoline. Before the leaded gas can harm his car a simple Poka-Yoke prevents the error from becoming a defect. Think of it, every time you gas-up your car there is an inspection to insure you have not made this error


    The second mistake- proofing strategy is Detection. This approach detects the fact an error has occurred and alerts the operator before the error becomes a defect. Look at our Detection example. This lady has accidentally left her headlights on. Before the battery dies a 100% self-inspection device alerts her to her error when the door is open


    As you can see Poka-Yoke devices are inexpensive and common sense. Frequently, Poka-Yoke practitioners will combine Detection and Prevention devices.
    To learn more about Poka-Yoke we suggest Purchasing Poka-Yoke Improving Product Quality by Preventing Defects, Productivity Press 1988. Also, Visit John Grout's Poka-Yoke website atwww.mistakeproofing.com

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    الصور المرفقة

  7. [7]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال الرابع

    POKA-YOKE TACTIC

    USING A KNOWN PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTIC


    Everything has physical characteristics to include height, weight and shape. Using these known values to design 100% self-inspection devices can make for very simple and effective process mistake-proofing.

    .Let's look at our example: “Welcome to Bruno's Brewery”. The machine in figure #1 puts the plastic carrier on 6 beers making a 6 pack. In the illustration we are doing a 12 ounce six pack run. A defect will occur if someone inadvertently puts a 16 ounce can of “Bruno Brew” on the line when it is set-up for a 12 ounce run. We may hire an inspector to watch the line and hopefully avoid this defect or install a simple and inexpensive device to inspect the process.
    There is a physical difference between a 12 and 16 ounce can. The 16 ounce container is about four sips taller. It is there every time. You can “Take it to the bank”! Using this difference in physical characteristics between the two objects we have designed a device that is placed on the line when we are doing a 12 ounce production run. A 12 ounce can will pass under the gate device (passing the 100% inspection). The 16 ounce container will hit a switch on the top of the gate and shut down the line. This “Prevention Poka-Yoke” will never permit this defect to occur. We have also added a “Detection Poka-Yoke” to our device. In addition to shutting down the line, the 16 ounce can will also set off a buzzer and flashing red light to summon someone to the line to remove the can so that we may resume production of that amber delight, “Bruno Brew


    Figure One
    This example demonstrates how using a known physical characteristic (in this case height) may provide an inexpensive but elegant Poke-Yoke solution to costly defects. In future issues of “Tips and Tricks” we will see how to use other physical characteristics to design Poka-Yoke devices. To learn more about Poka-Yoke visit John Grout's website at http://www.mistakeproofing.com.



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    الصور المرفقة

  8. [8]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
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    المقال الخامس

    Who's On First?

    The Secrets of High Performance Teams

    Establishing clearly defined team roles is a great initial step towards high performance status. Many teams just roll up their sleeves and jump right into problem solving. After all isn't that why the team was configured in the first place? Unfortunately, teams taking this approach may quickly experience breakdowns and what should have been avoidable conflicts. Failure to establish rules invites chaos to join the team.
    We recommend that the team write and fill team job descriptions during the first team meeting. Start by writing the job title on the top section of a sheet of easel pad paper. Next, write the job duties under that title. Repeat the process until all of the descriptions are written and posted on the wall. Remember to do this for the Team Member's job as well. Now agree on a process to fill the jobs. At the conclusion of this activity, everyone on the team will know what his/her job responsibilities are. Team members will also understand the roles of their teammates.
    When designing and filling these jobs, be sure to distribute the workload evenly. In addition to basic fairness team members feel a heightened sense of ownership through involvement. There is no one correct way to configure a team. What is important is that your team selects a model that works for them and to do it right away. Examples of team jobs are:
    The Team Leader - may be responsible for logistical and administrative support for the team. He/she may be the liaison between the team and the rest of the organization.
    The Facilitator-may be responsible for running team meetings and maintaining healthy team dynamics.
    The Team Scribe-does the writing on easel pad paper for the team.
    The Sponsor-may be a senior manager assigned to the team to help navigate organizational obstacles.
    The Recorder- may take, publish and distribute team meeting minutes.
    The Customer Representative- watches out for the customer's best interests, may be the liaison between the customer and the team and gives the team an ongoing customer focus.
    The Timekeeper- may help the team to better manage time.
    The Team Member-may be responsible to complete assignments on schedule and exhibit good team behavior.
    Taking a few moments to do this common sense activity may prevent many problems down the road and have the team running like a well oiled machine.

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  9. [9]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال السادس

    DISTRACTION REDUCTION

    Ways to focus on productivity

    A distraction is ANYTHING that interrupts work, even if it is job related. If a customer contacts you by phone, it is a distraction. I get a lot of flack about this strict definition but hang with me for a bit and you will see why we are so hard nosed. Frequently people accept distractions as part of the job or in some cases, “The Job Itself”. Consequentially, distractions are never analyzed.
    Why should you bother to analyze distractions? There are at least two compelling reasons. First, distractions decrease productivity. Every time that a task is interrupted The worker must refocus or start the task over from the beginning. We have observed people taking 12 minutes to complete a 2 minute task because of serial interruptions. The second reason for you to get a handle on distractions is that they are fueled by need. People call or visit you for a reason. The reason may be the need to socialize, to get information or to express dissatisfaction (to name a few) .So if you understand why people are causing the distraction, you may be able to provide better levels of service by preventing the distraction. One of our customers was receiving about 400 calls/month in the Customer Service Department because clients required an explanation of one element of the monthly bill. Once this was identified as an issue the bill was clarified and calls for this reason went from 400/month to zero. The bottom line is that customers got better service and the organization was spared 400 avoidable distractions/month. This is why we consider customer and work related contacts as distractions. Failure to do this will mask opportunities to be proactive and provide higher levels of customer service.
    Now that we understand the significance of distractions, how can we get a handle on them? The first thing to do is to understand who is the source the distraction(s), the frequency of distractions and the reason for the distractions. There are a few ways to do this. Observation is a great technique to understand distractions and how they impact operations. Once we were asked to study a data retrieval function. The department had a month's backlog and management was going to hire two additional staff. By watching the workers perform the retrieval process the root cause of the problem was obvious. The workers multitasked. In addition to data retrieval they also handled telephone inquiries. Every time a worker started a data retrieval task he/she would receive an average of 5 phone calls. This necessitated starting the retrieval function from scratch 5 times before completing the task. By giving each worker a distraction free period of time each day the backlog vanished, no additional staff was hired and the stress levels were reduced for workers.
    Another way to document distractions is to conduct a distraction inventory (see attached example Distraction Survey form). Use the following guidelines when conducting the survey:
    I. Tell workers the purpose of the study and train them in the use of the form. Be sure the workers understand that a distraction is ANYTHING that interrupts work activity.
    II. Run the study for a representative period of time. One day may not be sufficient.
    III. Check in with workers during the study. Make sure that they are recording distractions and that the distraction description has enough detail to be useful in the Analysis phase.
    IV. Collect the sheets at the conclusion of the study.
    Distraction reduction is a goldmine of opportunity for any organization. Unfortunately in most organizations this gold is never mined. In this issue of Tips and Tricks we have learned the significance of distractions and how to document these costly interruptions. Next week we will show you how to analyze this data and some effective distraction reduction techniques.

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  10. [10]
    صناعي1
    صناعي1 غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف
    الصورة الرمزية صناعي1


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2006
    المشاركات: 1,474

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

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    المقال السابع

    Continuous Improvement at MKS Instruments


    A CASE STUDY

    The following case study was written by Lou Lombard, one of the best process improvement practitioners I have known and Senior Quality Engineer at MKS Instruments, Andover, Massachusetts. The case study demonstrates the successful integration of VATS Technology and Six Sigma.

    As a youngster cutting my teeth on the production floor for a coatings manufacturer to a Quality Engineer in the electronics field, I've always been amazed how often companies preach Continuous Improvement while the only thing remaining continuous is their culture “If it ain't broke, don't fix it” or “We've always done it this way.” Continuous Improvement and Lean Manufacturing have always been part of the MKS culture. A recent corporate decision to change the quality culture at MKS, Instruments led to training and implementing a Six Sigma program. Air Academy tells us, Lean and Six Sigma are complimentary in nature and, if done properly, represent a long-term business initiative that can produce unprecedented results. With the desire to continuously improve processes along with never ending customer demands for better quality at lower prices, the timing seemed perfect to take MKS to the next level.

    As a Quality Engineer involved in process improvements, I've become reliant and proficient at using The Value Added Transition System (VATS) software. As a certified Green Belt, I found VATS to be a perfect compliment to our Six Sigma program. While VATS provides the Process Flow, techniques for improvement, SOP's, detailed management reports, ROI calculations, cost of poor quality, and project implementation modules, Six Sigma provides the statistical tools and techniques including the Six Sigma (DMAIC) framework.

    In performing a Gauge R&R study on one of our test stands for a Green Belt project, it was determined that these test stands were not capable of consistently producing the desired results. The improvement of these stands became a separate Green Belt project. The deliverables for this project were to :
    • Reduce cycle time of testing process.
    • Remove operator error.
    • Increase the accuracy of the test.
    • Reduce the total number of times a unit is adjusted at final test
    • Simplify the overall process.
    The cost of poor quality for this process was $121,259.00 per year. The answer to our problem came in the form an automated test stand. The new process will cost $39,225.00 per year. The improved process yields a sixty eight percent improvement or $82,034.00 per year, per stand. The cost of a new stand is $25,000.00 with a return on investment in 73 days. Based on these results, the company ordered eight more benches to replace all our existing benches. The overall savings for the entire calibration process will be an estimated $656,272.00 per year. VATS reported the following results on the deliverables:
    • Reduce cycle time of testing process. Reduced by 66%.
    • Remove operator error. Stand does all calculations and runs the entire program.
    • Increase the accuracy of the test. Automated stand, no human calculations.
    • Reduce total number of times a unit is adjusted at final test. One time through final.
    • Simplify the overall process. Attach unit to stand and make adjustments to the unit when instructed by the stand.
    Additional improvements included:
    • Ownership changes reduced 50%
    • Distance traveled reduced 70%
    • Value added steps improved 126%
    • Total resource improved by 68%

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