انا قمت قبل ايام بعمل بحث عن اساسات للسدود و بحثت في الانترنت و لكن لم يعطي التفصيل و الشرح الوافي و الجيد الذي اريده
لذلك ساعرض فقرات من البحث غير مفصلة ارجو ان تساعدوني في شرحها و تفصيلها و تاثيرها
و جزاكم الله كل خير
1-) Causes of settlement:
1. Bearing capacity failure or instability, including landslides.
2. Failure or deflection of the foundation structure.
3. Elastic or distortion of the soil or rock.
4. Consolidation (compression) of the soil or rock.
5. Shrinkage due to desiccation.
6. Change in density due to shock or vibration.
7. Chemical alteration of constituents, including decay.
8. Underground erosion.
9. Collapse of underground openings such as caves or mines.
10. Structural collapse due to weakening of cementation upon saturation.
Measurement of Crest Settlement:
Crest settlement is measured by bench marks placed at intervals along the top of the dam. Obviously these are tied to a reference bench mark on the abutment which is immovable.
»Measurement of Internal Settlement:
Measurement of internal settlement is made using settlement plates embedded in the dam or the foundation.
Diagram of settlement plates -
3-) For settlements, allowances must be made, such as; in the design height ؟؟؟؟؟
Effects of settlement on structures:
The settlement configuration of a uniform load on a thick deposit of compressible soil is a saucer shaped depression which extends beyond the limits of the structure. If the loading is irregular or the soil uniform, the saucer shaped curve is distorted. If the deposit is thin, the 'saucer' is flattened at the centre. The effect that the settlement has on a structure depends on where the structure is located in the depression and on how the movements at that location influence the performance of the structure.