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الديزل الحيويbiodiesel

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    ajami
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    الديزل الحيويbiodiesel

    السلام عليكم
    اخواني
    من يستطيع مساعدتي باسماء موردين ومصادر لمعدات الديزل الحيوي سواء من اوروبا او الصين

  2. [2]
    waadmazag
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    السلام وعليكم ورحمة الله وبركاتة: هذا بحث اشتغلت عليه في لما كنت في الجامعه انشالله يفيديك

    Rakan Ahmed


    Biodiesel Fuel

    Scientists have come along way in devolving the biodiesel fuel and making good use of it in real life. As a result, over 250 buses in Kentucky and Ohio were powered using B20 fuel (a blend of 20% biodiesel mixed with 80% petroleum diesel) in 1998, and they ran 250,000 miles using B20 as an alternative fuel.4
    To begin with, the biodiesel fuel is organically produced. Unlike petroleum diesel, the biodiesel fuel is a fuel that is made from natural, renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and restaurant greases that chemically can be transformed into a clean burning fuel. Table 1 shows the physical characteristics of the biodiesel fuel.

    Table 1: Physical Characteristics for the pure biodiesel fuel (B100) 3.
    Specific gravity

    0.87 to 0.89
    Kinematic viscosity * 40°C

    3.7 to 5.8
    Cetane number

    46 to 70
    Higher heating value (btu/lb)

    16,928 to 17,996
    Sulfur, wt%

    0.0 to 0.0024
    Cloud point °C

    -11 to 16
    Pour point °C

    -15 to 13
    Iodine number

    60 to 135
    Lower heating value (btu/lb)

    15,700 to 16,735


    To produce a biodiesel fuel, fats and oils are chemically reacted with an alcohol (usually methanol is used) and that will produce chemical compounds known as fatty acid methyl esters, those methyl esters are named biodiesel when they are used as a fuel. Glycerol is also produced from the reaction as a co-product, which can be used in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics market.1
    Like petroleum diesel, biodiesel fuel and especially B20 type can be used to power diesel engines, and the lubricating effects of the biodiesel may extend the lifetime of engines.1 According to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), B20 fuel type can be used in almost all diesel engines with no need of any kind of modifications to the engines.4 Since the biodiesel fuel can be made from the soy beans oil, and there is an excess surplus of soy beans in the united states, therefore producing biodiesel is an economic way to utilize this surplus and at the same time it reduces the dependence on the imported oil.1 Biodiesel is less polluting than petroleum diesel, because it reduces almost all forms of air pollution. Additionally, biodiesel reduces air toxics and cancer-causing compounds and pure biodiesel can reduce the cancer risks by 94%; however, the B20 type will reduce that risk by almost 27%. Also, there is no sulfur in biodiesel. All these data are summarized in the following table given by DOE at April 2000, where a percentage of each gas reduction is given when the biodiesel is used as a fuel diesel.

    Table 2: A comparison in the gas reduction between the B20 type, and the pure biodiesel fuel (B100) when used in diesel engines.4
    Emission
    B100
    B20
    Carbon monoxide
    -43.2%
    -12.6%
    Hydrocarbons
    -56.3%
    -11.0%
    Particulates
    -55.4%
    -18.0%
    Nitrous oxides
    +5.8%
    +1.2%
    Air toxics
    -60%–90%
    -12%-20%
    Mutagenicity
    -80%–90%
    -20%


    Furthermore, the process of producing biodiesel fuel leaves no accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere, and therefore it reduces the greenhouse effect. Biodiesel produces 2661 grams of CO2 per gallon, compared to 12,360 grams per gallon for petroleum diesel fuel allowing the biodiesel fuel to be 78 % less in the production of CO2. Another benefit of biodiesel production is that it creates more employment, as it is three to six times more labor per unit of production than petroleum fuels. 4 Due to the fact that the biodiesel is safer than the petroleum fuel to the environment, since it reduces harmful emissions, when used as a fuel, many mines over the nation attempted to use the biodiesel fuel for their vehicles inside the mines where venting is a major concern.2 Lately, it has been proven that methyl esters similar to biodiesel can be used to clean up oil spills.3 Biodiesel fuel can also be used in combination with heating oil to heat residential and industrial buildings which can reduce dependence on non-renewable and expensive heating oil.1
    On the other hand, as major disadvantages of producing the biodiesel fuel are the cost and the high energy of sowing, fertilizing and harvesting the soybeans associated with the process production.1 Studies were conducted to compare the prices of the petroleum diesel against the biodiesel fuel when the agricultural commodity prices were much lower than nowadays’ prices and petroleum prices were in the range of US$18 to $20 per barrel and concluded that for the biodiesel fuel to be suitable and valuable in the market, the price of the petroleum diesel had to be in the range of US$40-$50 per barrel.4 However, scientists have realized that issue, and suggested starting producing the biodiesel fuel using recycled cooking oils rather than using soybeans. Another disadvantage of the biodiesel fuel is that using it to power engines could cause damaging the rubber hoses in those engines, and especially those built before 1994.1 Also, the biodiesel fuel does not work properly when used in diesel engines during the cold weather at lower temperatures, because it has higher viscosity than the petroleum diesel, therefore, additional modifications that might be costing need to be applied to the engine’s system.4 for unclear reasons, it seems that using biodiesel fuel in the diesel engines produces more emissions of NOx to the environment when compared to petroleum diesel, but studies and researches to solve that issue are under devolpment.3
    The biodiesel fuel market has shown an obvious growth since 1998. According to the American Biofuels Association, with the help of government, biodiesel sales could reach about 2 billion gallons per year by 2004, or about 8% of highway diesel consumption.3 Some of the biodiesel plants across the nation are under development in producing biodiesel fuel by blending soybeans oil with lower cost of waste grease and cooling oil, hoping to achieve better quality of the biodiesel fuel at a lower costs.4
    Since the biodiesel can help preventing damage to marine environments such as rivers, and oceans, marine showed some interest in the biodiesel fuel production. As an example of one of the most successful marine’s demonstration is Sunrider, which is a biodiesel fuel boat with a standard of 180-horespower. It was powered using 100% biodiesel fuel for two years, two months and six days allowing the boat to cover 40,000 miles visiting 40 countries.4
    At the end of the day, it is essential to know that keeping diesel in the marketplace is important in terms of refinery operations’ efficiency and fuel economy. Keeping the biodiesel fuel in the market is also important in terms of reducing the harmful emissions to the environment, reducing the dependency on the imported oil, and allowing countless busses to operate using the biodiesel fuel. I personally think that the biodiesel industry has a very pried future, and it might be something very useful in the future that can be used as an alternative fuel in different vehicles.






    Reference:
    1) http://www.cpast.org/Articles/fetch.adp?topicnum=61.
    2) http://www.cpast.org/References/fetch_ref.adp?refnum=118.
    3) http://www.afdc.doe.gov/altfuel/bio_general.html.
    4) http://www.cpast.org/References/fetch_ref.adp?refnum=118.

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    أبو محمد الزير
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    lefa2000
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    طب ممكن ترفع ال presentation التى انت قدمتها لما كنت فى الكليه لو ممكن.
    انا شغال فى كليتى فى نفس المشروع واكيد هستفيد من ال presentation
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    ali_yasseen
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    with my best wishes
    MSC. Ali Y. Nasir

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    aymanok
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    موضوع الديزل الحيوى جميل جدا وان شاء الله انا هاعمله هنا فى مصر لانى من فترة اجمع معلومات عنه

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    سنين ضايعه
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    ممكن تساعدوني لو عندكم معلومات اضافيه
    انا كمان ابحث ف هدا الموضوع
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