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اضف لنا اي معلومة لديك عن السيارات لتعم الفائدة لجميع الاعضاء!!!لا تتردد ادخل وشارك

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  1. [1]
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي
    حسن هادي
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    اضف لنا اي معلومة لديك عن السيارات لتعم الفائدة لجميع الاعضاء!!!لا تتردد ادخل وشارك

    All Information, Including Photos And Illustrations, In These Pages Is Believed To Be Correct And Reliable. The Information Contained In These Pages Is Given As General Information For The Installation Of Audio, Video, Security, Communications,
    And Other Accessory Products Into Mobile And/Or Vehicle Applications. The Install Doctor, Any Subsidiaries Or Divisions Thereof, Or Any Member Of These Companies Shall Not Be Held Liable For Any Damages And/Or Injuries Resulting From
    The Use Of Information Contained In These Pages. All Information Contained In These Pages Should Be Checked And Verified With Appropriate Test Equipment To Assure The Safety And Proper Operation Of Equipment Installed And The Vehicle
    Itself. Careful Attention Should Be Given To All Electronic/Electric Circuits. High Voltages And Currents Can Cause Bodily Injury, Skin Damage, And Even Death. Installs Are Taken At The Risk Of Each Installer, And/Or Individual.
    Publication, Duplication, or Retransmission Of This Document Not Expressly Authorized In Writing By The Install Doctor Is Prohibited. Protected By U.S. Copyright Laws. © 1997,1998,1999,2000.
    www.installdr.com
    Up To 1983-1986
    Toyota Radio Wire Harnesses
    1987 And Newer
    AS VIEWED FROM MATING END OF CONNECTOR
    C D
    A B
    H I
    F G
    E K
    J
    N
    M
    L
    AS VIEWED FROM MATING END OF CONNECTOR
    E F G H I J
    A B C D
    M N O P
    K L
    Typical Toyota Typical New Radio
    Pin What It Is In Dash Wire Color Equivalent Wire Color
    A Right Front Speaker (+) Green Gray
    B Left Front Speaker (+) Pink White
    C +12 Volt Ignition Wire Gray Red
    D +12 Volt Battery Wire Blue w/ Yellow Stripe Yellow
    E Right Front Speaker (-) Blue Gray w/ Black Stripe
    F Left Front Speaker (-) Purple White w/ Black Stripe
    G Ground Wire Black Black
    H Power Antenna Wire 1 Blue (join wires 1 & 2
    I Power Antenna Wire 2 together to this blue wire)
    J
    Do Not Use

    K Right Rear Speaker (+) Red Purple
    L Left Rear Speaker (+) Black Green
    M Right Rear Speaker (-) White Purple w/ Black Stripe
    N
    Do Not Use

    O
    Do Not Use

    P Left Rear Speaker (-) Yellow Green w/ Black Stripe
    Typical Toyota Typical New Radio
    Pin What It Is In Dash Wire Color Equivalent Wire Color
    A Right Front Speaker (+) Green Gray
    B Left Front Speaker (+) Pink White
    C Right Front Speaker (-) Blue Gray w/ Black Stripe
    D Left Front Speaker (-) Purple White w/ Black Stripe
    E Ground Wire Black Black
    F +12 Volt Ignition Wire Gray Red
    G Power Antenna Wire 1 Blue (join wires 1 & 2
    H Power Antenna Wire 2 together to this blue wire)
    I
    Do Not Use

    J Right Rear Speaker (+) Red Purple
    K Right Rear Speaker (-) White Purple w/ Black Stripe
    L +12 Volt Battery Wire Blue w/ Yellow Stripe Yellow
    M Left Rear Speaker (+) Black Green
    N Left Rear Speaker (-) Yellow Green w/ Black Stripe
    Note:
    using an optional snap on wire harness adapter will simplify the wiring. Most snap on wire harness adapters have already converted and color coded
    the wires from the auto makers in dash wire harness to match typical aftermarket radio wire colors.
    ** The wire colors listed in the chart above are typical for these vehicles during these years but may not be the exact colors for this vehicle. This is another
    reason to use a snap on wire harness adapter. **
    استخدم الرابط اذا كنت تحتاج الموضوع معلومات بسيطة عن الربط الكهربي للراديو تويوتا 1986
    http://www.installdr.com/Harnesses/Toyota-Wiring.pdf


  2. [2]
    حسن هادي
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    1986 Toyota 22RTE/RE EFI Wiring Diagram
    1
    1986 Toyota 22RTE/RE EFI Wiring Diagram
    2
    1986 Toyota 22RTE/RE EFI Wiring Diagram
    3
    Wire Colors:
    B = Black
    BR = Brown
    G = Green
    GR = Gray
    L = Light Blue
    LG = Light Green
    O = Orange
    P = Pink
    R = Red
    V = Violet
    W = White
    Y = Yellow
    معلومات عن EFI system لسيارات تويوتا ولكن لموديلات قديمة اذا كنت تحتاج الموضوع استخدم الرابط ادناه*
    http://www.well.com/~mosk/Images/22RTE_EFI.pdf

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  3. [3]
    حسن هادي
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    http://www.iedtexas.org/sbdctech/sou...Tier1Needs.pdf

    نرجوا من الاخوة اذا كان لديهم اي استفسار او اي سؤال عن اي موضوع في السيارات سواء بالجانب الكهربي او الميكانيكي توجيه السؤال عسى ان يحصلو على الاجابة

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  4. [4]
    حسن هادي
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    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    VRX925VD
    65
    English


    Installation and Wire
    connection manual
    VRX925VD
    Installation and Wire connection manual
    n


    *******s
    1. BEFORE STARTING .................................................. ............. 65
    2. PACKAGE *******S .................................................. ......... 65
    3. GENERAL CAUTIONS .................................................. .......... 66
    4. CAUTIONS ON INSTALLATION .............................................. 66
    5. INSTALLING THE MAIN UNIT ................................................. 67
    6. REMOVING THE MAIN UNIT .................................................. 69
    7. CAUTIONS ON WIRING .................................................. ........ 69
    8. WIRE CONNECTION .................................................. ............ 70
    9. SAMPLE SYSTEMS .................................................. .............. 73
    1.


    BEFORE STARTING
    2.


    PACKAGE *******S
    1. This set is exclusively for use in cars with a
    negative ground 12 V power supply.
    2. Read these instructions carefully.
    3. Be sure to disconnect the battery “


    v” terminal
    before starting. This is to prevent short
    circuits during installation. (Figure 1)
    Car battery
    Figure 1
    1


    Main unit
    2


    Tuner Amp unit
    3


    Manuals
    Owner’s manual & Installation manual
    Warranty card
    Guide label for SIRIUS radio
    4


    Power supply lead (For the main unit)
    5


    Power supply lead (For the tuner amp
    unit)
    6


    Connection cord (Main unit « Tuner amp unit)
    7


    Antenna extension cord
    8


    Bag for accessories of the main unit (No. 1)
    Flat head screw (M5


    ´ 8) ............................ 4
    Sems hexagonal bolt (M5


    ´ 8) ..................... 5
    Electro tap
    Machine screw (M4


    ´ 3) ............................... 4
    9


    Bag for accessories of the main unit (No. 2)
    Hook plate .................................................. . 2
    Cord clamp
    Rubber cap
    Special screw
    0


    Bag for accessories of tuner amp unit
    Maunting bracket ......................................... 2
    Canoe clip .................................................. . 4
    Machine screw (M4


    ´ 8) .............................. 4
    !


    Universal mounting bracket
    *


    Remote control unit
    #


    Battery
    (for remote control unit)
    $


    Outer Escutcheon
    %


    DCP Case
    66


    VRX925VD English Installation and Wire
    connection manual
    3.


    GENERAL CAUTIONS
    4.


    CAUTIONS ON INSTALLATION
    1. Do not open the case. There are no user serviceable
    parts inside. If you drop anything
    into the unit during installation, consult your
    dealer or an authorized CLARION service
    centre.
    2. Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the case. Never
    use a rough cloth, thinner, benzine, or alcohol,
    etc. For tough dirt, apply a little cold or
    warm water to a soft cloth and wipe off the
    dirt gently.
    1. Prepare all articles necessary for installing
    the main unit before starting.
    2. This model is used with the LCD panel slid
    forwards (shell loading system). On some
    types of cars, the LCD panel may touch the
    dashboard or shift lever, in which case it cannot
    be installed. Check that the set will not
    hamper operation of the shift lever before
    choosing the place of installation.(Figure 2)
    5. Use the enclosed screws for installation. Using
    other screws can cause damage. (Figure
    4)
    3. Install the unit within 30° of the horizontal
    plane. (Figure 3)
    4. If you have to do any work on the car body,
    such as drilling holes, consult your car dealer
    beforehand.
    6. The source unit has mounting screw holes
    for NISSAN (N marks) and TOYOTA (T
    marks) vehicles.
    Dashboard
    Shift leveShift lever r
    (check that it does not
    touch the LCD.)
    Figure 2
    Max. 30°
    Figure 3
    Chassis Chassis
    Damage
    Max. 8 mm (M5 screw)
    Figure 4
    Figure 5
    T
    N T N
    T N
    VRX925VD


    67
    English


    Installation and Wire
    connection manual
    5.


    INSTALLING THE MAIN UNIT
    n



    الرابط التالي يحوي على الموضوع كاملا


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  5. [5]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    About > AllExperts > Experts Search
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    thousands of questions
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    You are here: Experts > Home/Garden > Auto Repair > American Motors > Fuel Injection

    Topic: American Motors


    Expert: Chris Schurrer
    Date: 1/25/2005
    Subject: Fuel Injection

    Question
    Hello I have a 83 Alliance with only 22K miles on it but it has a problem.

    It has a throttle body fuel injection setup and is running WAY to rich, so much that it wont run other than to idle it. Indications are thick black soot out the exhaust and the air filter gets soaked with fuel. ALso the engine backfires through the throttle body. Ive read the chilton book and performed the basic tests and it has not helped. Basically something is telling the injector to pump in too much fuel.

    From the trouble shooting guide it suggested to change the Oxygen sensor on the exhaust which I did and no improvement. Getting the trouble code out of the ECU is a 3 which indicates a bad wide open throttle switch and or closed (idele) throttle switch which of course the book doesnt tell how to test either.

    One thing I have observed, while its running for its brief time before stalling from flooding out there appears to be a leak at a gasket between the intake manifold and the throttle body lower base, can this cause this symptom?

    So any suggestions are greatly appreciated. Its a car for my son and even though its 22 years old its like new if I could fix this problem.

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    Answer
    Throttle body leak probably makes the car run lean and the compuyer sensors keep trying to richen the mixture. When the engine RPM increases the percentage of leaking air is less but the the extra rich mixture floods out the engine.

    I would try to replace the gasket and check for other vaccum leaks to see if it resolves the problem. Remember to change the oil because it is probably fouled & thinned from fuel washing into the crankcase.



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  6. [6]
    حسن هادي
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    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


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    You can support Wikipedia and the Wikimedia Foundation by making a tax-deductible donation.

    Gasoline direct injection

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    (Redirected from Gasoline Direct Injection)
    Jump to: navigation, search
    Gasoline direct injection or GDI is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern four stroke petrol engines. The gasoline or biobutanol is injected right into the combustion chamber of each cylinder, as opposed to conventional multi point fuel injection that happens in the intake manifold.
    GDI enables stratified charge (ultra lean burn) combustion for improved fuel efficiency and emission levels at low load. Further improving efficiency and high-load output-power, the engine power is governed by modulating fuel injection, like a diesel engine; as opposed to restricting intake airflow, like a conventional gas internal combustion engine.
    *******s

    [hide]
    //
    [edit] Theory of operation

    The major advantages of a GDI engine are increased fuel efficiency and high power output. This is achieved by the precise control over amount of fuel and injection timings which are varied according to the load conditions. In addition, there are no throttling losses when compared to a conventional fuel injected or carburated engine, which greatly improves efficiency (only in engines that are using no throttle plate). Basically, the engine management system continuously chooses between three different modes of combustion: ultra lean burn combustion, stoichiometric combustion, and high power output mode.
    Each mode is characterized by air-fuel ratio, the amount of fuel in the air-fuel mixture; the stoichiometric ratio for petrol is 14.7 to 1 by weight, but in ultra lean mode, it could be as high as 65 to 1. These leaner mixtures than those ever achieved in the conventional engines are desired because of reduced fuel consumption.
    • Ultra lean combustion mode is effective under normal running conditions, when little acceleration is required. The fuel is not injected at the intake stroke but rather at the latter stages of the compression stroke, so that the small amount of air-fuel mixture is optimally placed just near the spark plug. This stratified charge is surrounded by mostly air which keeps the fuel away from the cylinder walls for lowest emissions. The combustion takes place in a toroidal cavity on the piston's surface. This technique enables the usage of ultra lean mixtures with very high air-fuel ratio, impossible with traditional carburetors or even intake port injection.
    • Stoichiometric combustion mode is activated for moderate load conditions. In this mode, fuel is injected during the intake stroke. The air-fuel mixture is homogeneous with the stoichiometric rates necessary for the catalytic converter to remove a maximum of the major pollutants CO and NOx from the exhaust gas.
    • In full power mode, the air-fuel mixture is homogeneous as well and contains the minimum mass of fuel over the amount required for stoichiometric that is possible to ignite without knocking out, as defined by the compression ratio of the engine and the mass of air in the combustion chamber. The fuel is injected during the intake stroke. This mode activates at high load conditions and provides maximum output and







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  7. [7]
    حسن هادي
    حسن هادي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية حسن هادي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2006
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    WITH OVER 20 YEARS EXPERIENCE!
    The leader in Fuel Injection Specialty Products and Services!
    Photos

    Click on image for larger view
    General Motors LT1 Fuel Injection Wiring Harness

    Notice our attention to detail, every Injection Technology wiring assembly has been covered in heat shrink for added protection from engine he
    at, grime, and chemicals prevalent in all engine bays!

    Click on image for larger view
    General Motors Tuned Port Injection Wiring Harness

    All Injection Technology harnesses have fuel pump relay, fuse block and diagnostic connectors. Many of the competitors leave these small but important details off!


    Click on image for larger view
    General Motors Vortech 350 Fuel Injection Wiring Harness

    All Injection Technology harnesses are available in street rod - off road versions or fully emissions legal versions.



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    Ford 5.0 Fuel Injection Wiring Harness

    All Injection Technology harnesses are made in the USA! No cheap overseas imitations here! Our staff is ready to answer any questions you may have about your installation, call today at 501-888-4399.



    All wiring harnesses come with a one year warranty.

    Considering an engine conversion?
    Call
    501-888-4399 for technical advice.



    Injection Technology
    6328 Dena Drive
    Little Rock, Arkansas 72206
    Telephone (501) 888-4399
    Email:
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    njtech*injectiontechnology.com

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  8. [8]
    حسن هادي
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    function lastpage(){ history.back(); }

    Olympus Imported Auto Parts Corporation With permission from ImportCar Magazine TOYOTA FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM SERVICE: DIAGNOSING FUEL-RELATED DRIVEABILITY PROBLEMS

    edited from an article by Larry Carley, ImportCar, November 2000

    Toyota’s multi-port fuel injection system, based on Bosch L-Jetronic technology, has been used since the early 1980s on its family of engines. The system has evolved over the years, earning a reputation for being relatively trouble-free. Even so, older high-mileage cars and trucks can develop problems that are common to all fuel injection systems: Pumps wear out; regulators fail; injectors become dirty or worn; cold start injectors can leak; and intake systems can become restricted due to accumulated carbon and fuel varnish. So if you’ve encountered a Toyota with fuel-related driveability problems, here are some pointers on how the system works and tips on how to diagnose and repair those applications.MEASURING AIR FLOW
    To regulate the air/fuel mixture, the engine computer needs to know how much air is being sucked into the engine. On the older Toyota EFI systems, air flow is measured mechanically with a flap-style air flow meter. A flap inside the meter rotates when incoming air pushes against it. Connected to the flap is an arm that rubs across a resistor grid (potentiometer). This changes the air flow meter’s output voltage in proportion to air flow. The greater the air flow, the higher the resistance created by the potentiometer. So the meter’s output voltage drops as air flow increases.
    Over time, the potentiometer’s contacts inside the air flow meter can wear, causing erratic or inconsistent readings. Shorts or opens in the circuitry will also disrupt the voltage signal, depriving the engine computer of this vital bit of information. The result can be poor cold driveability, hesitation or poor performance.
    The TCCS (Toyota Computer Control System) should set a code 2, 31 or 32 if the air flow meter signal is missing or out of range, but it may not always detect an intermittent problem. To find this kind of fault, an oscilloscope can help you analyze the air flow meter’s output voltage as a waveform. If you don’t see a nice linear change in the output voltage as the flap moves from idle to wide open throttle, it means the potentiometer is skipping and the air flow meter needs to be replaced.
    Another way to check the operation of the air flow meter as well as the entire feedback circuit through the computer is to use a scope to compare injector dwell (on time) to the air flow signal. If you have a good air flow signal but injector dwell fails to increase as air flow goes up, there’s a control problem in the computer.
    The flap-type air flow meters should also be inspected by pushing the flap with your finger. There should be no binding when the flap is pushed open, and spring pressure should return it to its closed position. A buildup of varnish or dirt may cause binding, so be sure to inspect the air filter if you find any dirt in the unit.
    A temperature sensor located in the intake plumbing is used to measure air temperature so the computer can calculate how much air is actually entering the engine. Cold air is denser than warm air, and requires a slightly richer fuel mixture. The air temperature sensor changes resistance, so if the signal goes flat or disappears, it too can upset the air/fuel mixture and cause driveability problems. Codes that would indicate a fault in the air temperature sensor circuit include 8, 23 and 24. You can use an ohmmeter to check the sensor’s output. If the reading is out of specifications or fails to change as the temperature increases, the sensor is bad and needs to be replaced.
    Starting in the mid-’90s, Toyota introduced a second-generation air flow sensor that combines the functions of the air flow meter and air temperature sensor into one unit. The new mass air flow sensor uses a hot wire to measure air mass rather than volume and has no moving parts. A reference voltage is applied to a thin wire inside the sensor that heats it to about 100°C hotter than ambient air temperature. As air flows through the sensor and past the hot wire, it carries away heat and cools the wire. The electrical control circuit for the wire is designed to maintain a constant temperature differential, so the amount of extra voltage that’s required to offset the cooling effect and keep the wire hot tells the control box how much air is entering the engine.
    With both the early and late-style air flow sensors, vacuum leaks can cause driveability problems by allowing unmetered air to enter the engine. Air leaks around the throttle body, injector O-rings, intake manifold gaskets or vacuum hose connections can cause the air/fuel ratio to go lean. So if you find a code 25 (lean air/fuel ratio), start looking for leaks.
    Another often-overlooked cause of air leakage is the EGR valve. If the valve sticks open, it will act much like a vacuum leak, causing a lean misfire at idle and hesitation problems.
    THE FUEL CIRCUIT
    Fuel flows from a tank-mounted pump through the fuel line to an in-line filter usually located in the engine compartment. It then goes to a common fuel rail (which Toyota calls the "fuel delivery pipe") on the engine to supply the injectors. The fuel injectors plug into the rail and are removed as an assembly with the rail. On V6 applications, there’s a separate rail for each cylinder bank. Unfortunately, Toyota doesn’t include a test valve on the fuel rail for checking fuel pressure. To perform a pressure check, you have to disconnect the cold start injector fuel fitting and attach a pressure gauge.
    The pressure regulator is mounted on the end of the fuel rail, and maintains pressure at a constant level as engine load and intake vacuum change. A vacuum hose connects the regulator to the intake manifold so the diaphragm inside can react to changes in intake vacuum. A bypass valve inside the regulator routes excess fuel through a return line back to the fuel tank.
    System operating pressure varies depending on the application, but typically ranges from 30 to 37 psi with the vacuum hose connected to the regulator, and 38 to 44 psi with the hose disconnected and plugged.
    Note: If you’re replacing a regulator on a turbocharged engine, make sure you get the correct replacement because the regulator on these applications is calibrated differently from those on non-turbo motors.
    Also, don’t confuse the pressure regulator with a little round plastic gizmo that may be mounted on the end of the fuel rail. This is a pulse damper that helps dampen noise and resonance caused by the pulsing of the injectors.
    Starting in 1996, some Toyota EFI systems have a "returnless" design, in that the regulator is located in the fuel tank with the pump.PRESSURE PROBLEMS
    If fuel pressure reads low, or the engine seems to starve for fuel under load, don’t overlook the fuel pickup filter inside the fuel tank as a possible cause. In many instances, the system may flow enough fuel at idle to develop normal pressure, but run out of fuel at higher speeds or loads. Rust, dirt and scum inside the tank may be blocking the flow of fuel into the pump. Likewise, accumulated dirt and debris may be clogging the in-line filter.
    Toyota says the best method for confirming a suspected fuel starvation problem is to road test the vehicle with a fuel pressure gauge safely installed on the engine. If the pressure reading drops when the engine is under load, it means the system isn’t maintaining normal pressure. But is it the pump, filter or what?
    You can rule out the pressure regulator if the system maintains normal pressure at idle, and the pressure rises when you disconnect the regulator’s vacuum hose. No change in pressure would indicate a defective regulator or plugged vacuum line.
    A good way to check out the pump, pickup filter and inline filter is to measure fuel delivery volume. Relieve system pressure, then disconnect the fuel supply line at the fuel filter or fuel rail, or disconnect the return hose from the rail. Place the open end of the fuel hose in a measuring cup or graduated cylinder. If you’re disconnecting the return hose, you’ll have to attach another piece of hose to the fuel rail and use that to route fuel into the container. With the engine off, use jumpers to bypass the pump relay. Energize the pump for 30 seconds and measure the volume of fuel delivered.
    As a rule, a good pump should deliver about one quart of fuel in 30 seconds.
    If a pump’s output volume and/or pressure is low, the pump motor might be running slow due to internal wear. A typical fuel pump runs at 5,000 to 6,000 rpm and pulls about 3 to 6 amps. But as the armature brushes become worn and the brush springs weaken, increased resistance will reduce the pump’s current draw and cause the motor to run slower and deliver less fuel.
    The pump motor can be checked using an ohmmeter to measure the motor’s internal resistance. As a rule, most good pumps should read 2 to 50 ohms. If the pump is open (reads infinity) or shows zero resistance (shorted), the motor is bad and the pump needs to be replaced.
    Another way to check the operation of the pump while it is still inside the tank is to view the pump’s current flow with an oscilloscope. Connect a milliamp current probe to the pump’s voltage supply wire and start the engine. The waveform can reveal the condition of the motor’s brushes and armature. A "good" waveform will generally seesaw back and forth with relative consistency and minimal variation between the highs and lows. A "bad" waveform will show large or irregular drops in the pattern, with large differences between the highs and lows. In other words, the greater the sawtooth in the pattern, the greater the wear in the pump.
    Even if the pump motor is OK, fuel delivery problems can be caused by the pump’s voltage supply. Low battery voltage, low system operating voltage, a poor ground connection or excessive resistance in the pump’s wiring connectors or the relay can all have an adverse effect on the operating speed of the pump. The pump must have normal voltage to run at full speed, so always check the pump’s wiring connectors and voltage supply when you encounter a pump with low pressure or volume output.
    The pump’s supply voltage should be within half a volt of normal battery voltage. If low, check the wiring connectors, relay and ground. A good connection should have less than 1/10 of a volt drop (ideally no voltage drop) across it. A voltage drop of more than 0.4 volts can create enough resistance to cause a problem.RESIDUAL PRESSURE
    If an engine is hard to start when hot, fuel may be boiling in the rail because the system isn’t holding residual pressure when the ignition is shut off. To prevent vapor lock and reduce the cranking time when restarting the engine, a check valve inside the fuel pump holds the pressure in the line. Toyota says pressure should remain above 21 psi for five minutes after the engine is turned off. If the system fails to hold pressure, either the check valve or pressure regulator is leaking, or an injector is leaking. Regulator leaks can be ruled out by pinching off the return line. Injector leaks can be checked by removing the fuel injector and rail assembly from the manifold and pressurizing the rail. No fuel drips? Then it’s the pump check valve.INJECTORS
    Four different types of injectors may be used in Toyota engines: Pintle-style, hole-type (cone valve and ball valve), high-resistance and low-resistance. Bosch pintle-style injectors are used on the older TCCS applications, while Nippondenso hole-type injectors are used on newer engines. The hole-type injectors spray fuel through holes drilled in a director plate at the injector tip. There are currently three different types including side-feed injectors used on the 3S-GTE and 2TZ-FE engines.
    The valve design of the older pintle-style injectors makes them more susceptible to deposit buildup than the hole-type injectors. So if you’re diagnosing a lean fuel condition on a Toyota with pintle-style injectors, the injector may need to be cleaned.
    Low resistance injectors are found on older Toyotas up to about 1990, and measure 2 to 3 ohms at room temperature. They are used with an external resistor in a voltage-controlled driver circuit, or without an external resistor in a current-controlled driver circuit. High-resistance injectors (13.8 ohms) are used on the newer applications and do not require an external resistor.
    When the ignition is turned on, voltage is supplied to the fuel injectors directly through the ignition circuit or through the EFI main relay, depending on the application. The driver circuits in the computer then provide a ground to complete the connection and energize the injectors.
    Toyota says never to apply battery voltage directly to a low resistance injector to test it because doing so can overheat and damage the windings in the solenoid. Use a resistor wire to protect the injector.
    If an engine is misfiring and has a dead cylinder, and you’ve already ruled out ignition misfire or loss of compression as possible causes, use a stethoscope to listen to the injector. A steady buzz would tell you the injector is working and that the driver circuit is OK. No buzzing means a wiring or control problem. Check for voltage at the injector terminal when the key is on. No voltage? Check the EFI relay, fuse and wiring circuit. If there is voltage, use a logic probe or oscilloscope to see if the computer driver circuit is grounding the injector. No on-off signal would indicate a wiring problem or bad computer.
    Injector resistance can be measured directly with an ohmmeter. An open, short or out-of-specification reading would tell you the injector has failed and needs to be replaced.
    If the injector is buzzing but the cylinder is running lean or misfiring, the problem is likely a buildup of fuel varnish in the injector orifice or valve. Cleaning is the solution here, either on or off the vehicle. On-car cleaning saves time and can often restore the injectors to like-new performance. Off-car cleaning means you have to pull the injectors, but it gives you the opportunity to examine their spray pattern. There should be no solid streamers of liquid fuel, only a cone-shaped mist. If cleaning fails to restore the pattern, it’s time for a new injector.
    Something else that should be done if you’re using off-car injection cleaning equipment is to compare the volume of fuel delivered by each injector. A difference of more than 10 percent can cause noticeable driveability and emissions problems.
    If injectors need to be replaced, always install new O-rings lightly lubricated with clean gasoline. Fuel rail banjo connections should also have new copper gaskets installed to prevent fuel leaks.
    On 1991-’94 1456cc Tercel engines, cylinders #1 and #3 use a different injector than #2 and #4, so be sure you install the correct injectors in each cylinder.COLD START INJECTOR
    Toyota uses a cold start injector on most applications to squirt extra fuel into the manifold when a cold engine is first started. The "on time" of the injector is controlled by a start injector time switch and the computer. The number of seconds the cold start injector is energized (typically 2 to 8 seconds) is limited by a heater circuit inside the timer, that has two coils. A bimetallic switch inside the timer is normally closed so, when the engine is started, current flows through the cold start injector solenoid and both heater coils inside the timer. Within a few seconds, the heater coils trip the bimetallic switch causing it to open and turn off the cold start injector.

    If the timer fails, the cold start injector will never come on and the engine may be hard to start when cold. The circuit can be checked by using a voltmeter to test for voltage at the cold start injector when the ignition is turned on. You should also check the resistance across the injector’s terminals to check for an open or shorted solenoid. A good cold injector should read 2 to 4 ohms.
    On most TCCS engines, an alternate ground may be supplied to the cold start injector by the computer at the STJ terminal. Using inputs from the engine’s coolant temperature sensor, the computer can operate the cold start injector for up to three seconds regardless of the status of the timer switch. The maximum coolant temperature at which the computer will cycle on the cold start injector is 113°F. Above that temperature, the injector will not be energized by either the timer switch or computer.
    Sometimes a cold start injector will hang open and leak fuel. The dribble may not seem like much but it may be enough to upset the air/fuel ratio and cause an increase in idle roughness and emissions. The cold start injector can be checked for leaks by removing it and pressurizing the fuel system.

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    Home / Articles/Help / Cars / Minivans / Pickups / SUVs / GM / Toyota / Chrysler / Asian / European / SSR

    The amazing General Motors XV8 concept V-8 engine

    Shawn pointed to the new XV8 concept engine, shown in the Opel Signum concept car. (Opel is GM's European division, and includes Vauxhall). The all-new engine provides the power of a full-size, high-end V8, but has greater fuel efficiency, the width of a V-6, and the length of a four-cylinder.
    With an aluminum block and head, the 4.3 liter XV8 has three valves per cylinder with an air-assisted direct fuel injection system and two camshafts in the block. Power ratings are 300 horsepower (224 kW) and 295 lb-ft (400 Nm) of torque.
    Other features include variable inlet systems (currently the main feature of Chrysler's Magnum engines), cam phasing, and displacement on demand (first seen on the ill-fated Cadillac 4-6-8 engines), variable inlet valve timing (common to Toyota and Honda engines), a narrow 75-degree bank angle, twin oil pumps, and an integrated air compressor. A GM spokesman said this combination was possible, in its best form, because of the engine's clean-sheet design: there was no need to compromise new features to co-exist with existing designs. That was especially important for direct injection.
    The XV8's compression ratio of 10.75:1 is achieved with regular gasoline.
    Key features

    The all-aluminum 4.3-liter XV8 utilizes a unique three-valves-per-cylinder combustion chamber configuration, supporting the optimization of an air-assisted direct fuel injection system. The configuration features an industry first: two camshafts in the block. The XV8 produces 224 kW (300 horsepower) and 400 Nm (295 lb-ft) of torque.
    The air-assisted direct injection gasoline system was developed by Orbital Engine Corp. of Australia, and is integrated into three-valve cylinder heads and dual cams in the block. The three valve system (two inlet valves, one exhaust) provides more room in the combustion chamber for optimal positioning of the injector and the spark plug, vertical and nearly central in the chamber - positioned as they would be in a Hemi engine.
    Having two cams in the block rather than dual overhead cams provides considerable packaging benefits and combined with the direct injection fuel system, contributes to the XV8's outstanding performance numbers. The clean burning also means that after-combustion pollution control can be milder.
    GM's Displacement on Demand technology allows the V8 to shut down half of its cylinders seamlessly at predetermined times to significantly reduce fuel consumption without hampering performance.
    The unique twin oil pump design allows the engine to run Displacement on Demand at idle, since the system and cam phasing system have their own dedicated oil pump, which provides enough pressure to deactivate the cylinders at idle and reactivate them immediately upon throttle engagement.
    In May 2001, GM announced that it will implement Displacement on Demand in its trucks and SUVs beginning in 2004.
    The use of a camshaft "phaser" separates the timing functions of the intake and exhaust valves. This is accomplished in the XV8 engine by having two in-block camshafts, one for inlet operation and one for exhaust. The camshafts are located in a vertical plane above the crankshaft and parallel to its center of rotation. The intake camshaft is the lower camshaft and is approximately in the center of the block. The exhaust cam is positioned above the intake. Because the intake camshaft rather than the exhaust is "phased," the XV8's camshaft drive provides the ability to better modify and enhance full-load engine torque characteristics. In the stratified combustion mode of operation, it can be used to increase the charge dilution by advancing the intake cam timing. The set-up reduces friction and fuel consumption, particularly at idle and part-load, and also contributes to the engine's outstanding low-end torque. Having two camshafts in the engine block with the ability to "phase" one of the cams is unique to GM.
    "With the cams in the block," GM's Fritz Indra said, "the valve timing precision is better than with a DOHC configuration. The different heat levels with long belts and chains in a DOHC set-up always changes the valve timing."
    The air-assist direct injection system requires port geometries that generate a minimum of "in-cylinder" motion when the system is operating in stratified mode. During homogeneous operating conditions, in-cylinder motion is required in similar fashion to port fuel injected engines. The inlet manifold design supports these design objectives to achieve maximum fuel economy. The resulting design also allows the engine to deliver a broad torque band suited to spirited driving styles, supports the peak power objectives, and fully accommodates the Displacement on Demand system.
    The XV8 is unique not only in that it has two oil pumps, but also in that the engine's balance shaft doubles as the oil pump drive shaft. The former allows for such functions as cam phasing and Displacement on Demand at idle and the latter contributes to the engine's compact packaging.
    Because the XV8 requires extensive hydraulic function, two oil pumps were used in a serial fashion. If the lubrication system was designed with the typical single oil pump, its displacement would have to be substantially increased to provide minimum pressure to the entire engine. The primary pump supplies low pressure filtered oil to the bearings, valve lifters and secondary pump inlet. The secondary pump acts to intensify the pressure for supply to the cam phaser and Displacement on Demand systems. In doing this, parasitic power consumption to the oil pump is minimized.
    Because of packaging constraints, the oil pump drive was combined with the balance shaft assembly. To get the necessary 1:1 counter-rotation of the balance shaft, it is driven by a helical gear pressed on the rear of the crankshaft.
    "The drive for the pumps is the balance shaft, which has to go opposite engine rotation at engine speed because of our narrow bank angle," GM's Alan Hayman said. "So we get the balance shaft basically for free and this is all packaged in the sump that bolts to the bottom of the block. That is unique. Also, placing the oil pumps at each end of the balance shaft helps to damp vibrations."
    The XV8's air compressor is integrated into the engine assembly. "That's another unique aspect of the engine," Hayman said. "The air compressor is part of the engine assembly itself, not just a component bolted onto the accessory drive somewhere as a stand alone pump. It's integrated to the back of the cylinder head and all of the fluids are transferred through this interface. This avoids the requirement for the myriad of hoses that would have traditionally been required including the avoidance of having to run a separate air-assist rail."
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  10. [10]
    حسن هادي
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