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    لوئ رمزي
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    تاريخ التسجيل: Jul 2006
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    APPENDIX A
    SAMPLE DESIGN PROBLEM
    A-1 . Problem . Design a natural-draft incinerator for burning an
    average of 2,000 pounds of mixed refuse per hour consisting of 35
    percent nonedible garbage containing 50 percent water, and 65 percent
    rubbish containing 10 percent water and 15 percent solid inerts ;
    atmospheric temperature, 60 degrees F . (519 degrees F . absolute) ;
    combustion chamber temperature, 1,600 degrees F . (2,059 degrees F .
    absolute) ; average stack temperature, 1,500 degrees F . (1,959 degrees
    F . absolute) . The chemical analysis of 1 pound of the refuse on a
    moisture free and solid inerts free basis is assumed to be as follows :
    Carbon, 0 .47 pound ; hydrogen, 0 .07 pound ; nitrogen, 0 .04 pound ; oxygen,
    0 .42 pound .
    A-2 . Preliminary design . A type I incinerator should be used to
    provide the required service . Using the preliminary design factors in
    table 2-1 and the capacity requirements set out in paragraph 2-3, the
    preliminary design is as follows :
    Design capacity ------------ 2,000 x 1 .25 --- 2,500 pounds per hour
    Effective grate area ------- 2,500 x 0 .022 -- 55 .0 square feet
    C . I . grate area (assumed) - ---------------- 36 square feet
    Hearth area (firebrick) ---- (55 .0 - 36) ---- 31 .7 square feet
    0 .6
    Inside width of furnace
    To provide the above areas, the dimensions will be :
    Length of C .I . grate ------- ---------------- 6 feet 0 inches
    Length of hearth ----------- ---------------- 5 feet 6 inches
    Length of mixing chamber --- ---------------- 2 feet 3 inches
    Length of combustion chamber ---------------- 5 feet 8 inches
    Width of flue -------------- ---------------- 3 feet 6 inches
    Height of flue to crown of
    arch --------------------- ---------------- 4 feet 0 inches
    .
    Size of stack -------------- ---------------- 3 feet 6 inches square
    EM 1110- 3-176
    9 Apr 84
    (assumed) ----------------
    Height of furnace arch
    ---------------- 6 feet
    above C .I . grate --------- ---------------- 6 feet
    Horizontal cross-sectional
    area of mixing chamber --- 55 .0 x 0 .25 ---- 13 .75 square feet
    Horizontal cross-sectional
    area of combustion chamber 55 .0 x 0 .6 ----= 33 .0 square feet
    Stack cross-sectional area - 55 .0 x 0 .22 ---- 12 .10 square feet
    Flue cross-sectional area -- 55 .0 x 0 .25 ---- 13 .75 square feet
    EM 1110-3-176
    9 Apr 84
    The above dimensions are the dimensions shown in figure A-1 .
    A-3 . Check of design . To assure conformance with the basic
    requirements of paragraph 2-3, a check involving heat release, heat
    balance, quantities of gases, velocities, draft, etc ., should now be
    made of the preliminary design . The areas, volume, and dimensions
    shown on Standard Plan No . 414 :43-369 and figure A-1 are used in this
    check . The specific heats, heats of vaporization, and molecular
    weights of the various substances are taken from standard handbooks .
    The heat absorbed by various gases as the temperature rises over a
    specified range can be ascertained by use of figure A-2 . The following
    illustrates the method of checking the design . The oxygen requirements
    for complete combustion of 1 pound of moisture-free and solid
    inerts-free material of the stated chemical analysis are :
    For burning carbon to C02 ------- 0 .47 x 32 / 12 ----- 1 .25 pounds
    For burning hydrogen to H2O ----- 0 .07 x 16 / 2
    ----- .56 pound
    1 .81 pounds
    Less oxygen in refuse --------------------------------- .42 pounds
    Oxygen to be supplied by air -------------------------- 1 .39 pounds
    The air required to furnish the above amount of oxygen is 1 .39 divided
    by 0 .23 or 6 .04 pounds (oxygen in air is 23 percent by weight) . The
    nitrogen in this quantity of air amounts to 6 .04 x 0 .76 or 4 .59 pounds .
    Therefore, the products of combustion of 1 pound of moisture-free solid
    inerts-free refuse will be :
    H2 0 ----------------------- 0 .07 x 18 / 2 --------- 0 .63 pound
    C02 ----------------------- 0 .47 x 44 / 12 -------- 1 .72 pounds
    N2 ------------------------ 0 .04 + 4 .59 ----------- 4 .63 pounds
    Total weight of gases ----------------------- 6 .98 pounds
    For conditions of burning all rubbish without wet garbage, the severest
    conditions under which the furnace will be required to operate insofar
    as heat release is involved, the products of combustion of 1 pound
    refuse, taking into consideration the ******* of 10 percent water and
    15 percent solid inerts (0 .75 pound on a moisture-free, solid
    inerts-free basis), will be :
    H20 --------------- 0 .10 / 0 .63 x 0 .75 ------------ 0 .57 pound
    C02 --------------- 1 .72 x 0 .75 ------------------- 1 .29 pounds
    N2 --------------- 4 .63 x 0 .75 ------------------- 3 .47 pounds
    Total weight of gases as product of combustion ---- 5 .33 pounds
    The heat of combustion of 1 pound of moisture-free and solid
    inerts-free refuse (using Dulong's'formula for the determination of
    A-2
    U . S . Army Corps of Engineers
    LONGITUDINAL SECTION
    HORIZONTAL SECTION A-A
    A-3
    CONCRETE
    COMMON BRICK
    FIRE BRICE
    FIGURE A-1, INCINERATOR FURNACE AND STACK

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  2. [12]
    لوئ رمزي
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    calorific values) will be 14,500 x 0 .47 + 62,000 [0 .07 - (0 .42/8)]
    equal'to 7,900 Btu . The heat of combustion of 1 pound of the refuse,
    taking moisture and inert solids into consideration, will be 7,900 x
    0 .75 or 5,925 Btu . A portion of this heat combustion will be lost
    through radiation and solid inerts, a portion will be absorbed in
    -heating and evaporating water, and a portion (the larger portion) will
    be absorbed in heating the gases . In figure A-2, which may be used in
    the determination of the heat absorbed by various gases, the difference
    between Btu per mol (defined as m pounds where m denotes molecular
    weight) at two temperatures in question is the heat absorbed by the gas
    as its temperature rises from the lower to the higher value . Btu per
    mol divided by the molecular weight (not atomic weight) gives Btu per
    pound . It should be noted that, for instance, the chart is graduated
    in degrees F . zero on the scale being 32 below the freezing temperature
    of water and not absolute zero which is used in most heat formulas .
    The heat lost or absorbed will be as indicated in the following heat
    balance :
    Evaporating water from 60 degrees F .
    --- 0 .57 x 1122
    ---
    640 Btu
    Heating water vapor from 212 degrees F .
    to 1,600 degrees F . (weight multiplied
    by the difference in heat ******* per
    mol at the two temperatures divided by
    molecular weight)
    --- 0 .57 x 12,300 / 18
    ---
    390 Btu
    Heating C02 from 60 degrees F .
    to 1,600 degrees F .
    --- 1 .29 x 17,100 / 44
    ---
    502 Btu
    Heating N2 from 60 degrees F .
    to 1,600 degrees F .
    --- 3 .47 x 11,200 / 28
    --- 1,388 Btu
    Radiation through furnace walls,
    assuming a loss of 1,000 Btu
    per square feet per hour and a
    total radiating surface of 350
    square feet
    --- 350 x 1,000 / 2,500
    ---
    140 Btu
    Heating 300 gallons of water per
    hour from 60 degrees F . to 180
    degrees F . for can wash
    --- 300 x 8 .33 x 120 / 2,500 ---
    120 Btu
    Loss through solid inerts (assuming
    a specific heat of 0 .20 and a
    temperature of 600 degrees F .)
    --- 0 .15 x 0 .20 x (600-60)
    ---
    16 Btu
    Subtotal ----------------------------------------------- 3,196 Btu
    Balance to be absorbed by excess air (5,925 - 3,196) --- 2,729 Btu
    Total heat of combustion (as above) ----------------- 5,925 Btu
    A-5

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  3. [13]
    لوئ رمزي
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    A-5
    The excess air that will be required to absorb 2,729 Btu so that the
    combustion chamber temperature will not exceed 1,600 degrees F . (see
    fig A-2 for heat absorbed between 60 degrees F . and 1,600 degrees F .)
    will be 2,729 x 28 .9 / 11,200, which is equal to 7 .04 pounds .
    Therefore, the total weight of gases per pound of refuse burned (the
    products of combustion plus the excess air used for controlling maximum
    temperature of the combustion chamber) will be 5 .33 + 7 .04 which is
    equal to 12 .37 pounds . As this gas has a molecular weight which is
    practically the same as air, it will be considered air from this point
    on . The volume of 1 pound of air at 60 degrees F . (519 degrees F .
    absolute) and 14 .7 psi barometric pressure is approximately 13 .1 cubic
    feet . Using the foregoing computations, formulas, quantities,
    temperatures, etc ., the following determinations are made :
    8 .59 pounds
    446 cfs
    13 .1 fps
    `
    31 .8 fps
    33 .0 fps
    Average volume of gas
    passing through the
    stack --------------- 8 .59 x 13 .1 x 1,959 degrees
    / 519 degrees --------------- 425 cfs
    Velocity through stack
    --------------------- 425 / (3 .5 feet x 3 .5 feet) -- 34 .7 fps
    Heat release per hour
    per cubic foot of
    furnace volume ------ 5,925 x 2,500 / 930 ---------- 15,925 Btu
    Combustion time (total
    furnace volume excluding
    charging hood divided
    by volume of gas produced
    per second) --------- 720 / 446 -------------------- 1 .61 seconds
    Combustion chamber volume
    per pound of gas produced
    per second ---------- 5 feet 8 inches x 6 feet x
    7 feet 11 inches / 8 .59 ----- 31 .4 cubic feet
    Draft loss in stack and flue
    (L = 51 .5 feet + 9 feet = 60 .5 feet)
    --------------------- 1 .1 x 10-6 x 1,959 x 8 .59 x
    60 .5 x 14 / 12 .25 3 ---------- 0 .073 inch
    Velocity head --------- 0 .119 x 34 .7 2 x 14 .7
    /
    (14 .7 x 1,959) ------------- 0 .073 inch
    A-6
    Total weight of gas produced
    per second ---------- 12 .37
    Total volume of gas passing
    through the combustion
    chamber ------------- 8 .59
    /519
    x 2,500 / 3,600 --------
    x 13 .1 x 2,059 degrees
    degrees -----------------
    Velocity through combustion
    chamber ------------- 446 / (5 .67 feet x 6 feet) ---
    Velocity through flue
    --------------------- 446 / (3 .5 feet x 4 feet) ----
    Velocity through mixing
    chamber ------------- 446 / (2 .25 feet x 6 feet) --
    Loss through five turns through
    openings which have an average
    area of 14 square feet and an
    average perimeter of 16 feet
    taken as a stack whose height
    is 5 x 12
    14 or 224 feet
    --------- 1 .1 x 10 -6 x 2 059 x 8 .59 2 x
    224 x 16 / 14 1 -------------- 0 .218 inch
    Loss through grate (assumed) ------- ----- ------------- 0 .250 inch
    Total draft requirements
    --------- 0 .073 + 0 .073 + 0 .218
    + 0 .250 ---------------------- 0 .614 inch
    Required stack height
    0 .614
    56 .7 feet
    0 .52 x 14 .7 0/519 - 1/1,959)
    which is 1 foot less than the height above grate shown in figure A-1 .
    From the above analysis the design complies with paragraph 2-4 .

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  4. [14]
    لوئ رمزي
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    APPENDIX B
    STANDARD PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS
    The following standard plans and specifications are available for
    the construction of incinerators when authorized : :
    Type I . Rubbish and Garbage Incinerators :
    Incinerator, 2,500 pounds per hour capacity :
    414:43-368 (formerly 672-310) .
    414:43-369 .(formerly 672-311)
    414:43 .-370 (formerly 672-312) .
    414:43-371 (formerly 672-313) .
    414:43-372 (formerly 672-414) .
    Incinerators, 1,250 pounds per hour capacity :
    414:43-375 .
    414 :43-376 .
    414 :43-377 .
    414 :43-378 .
    414 :43-379 .
    Type II . Wet-Garbage Incinerators :
    3 tons in 8 hours capacity - natural draft :
    414 :43-227 .
    414 :43-227 .1 (700-4437) .
    414 :43-227 .2 .
    5 tons in 8 hours capacity - natural draft :
    414 :43-320,
    414:43-321 .
    414:43-322 .
    414:43-323 .
    414:43-324 .
    414:43-325 .
    414:43-326 .
    414:43-327 .
    414:43-328 (700-4443) .
    414 :43-329 .
    Specifications for the incinerators listd above are covered in
    Mobilization Guide Specification (MOGS) 11171 .2, INCINERATORS,

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  5. [15]
    لوئ رمزي
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    الاخت رشا
    هذا مصدر باللغة الانكليزية ممكن ان تجمعية من الرسائل المتفرقة ثم تجمعية مرة اخرى لكن للاسف الصور والاشكال لم تظهر فية اسف جدا وهو كتابحول المحرقات الممكن استخدامها في المستشفيات فاذا كان الكتاب يفيدك فاخبريني لاجد طريقة اوصله لك

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  6. [16]
    لوئ رمزي
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    هذا رابط مهم جدا وارجو انزال الملف الملحق معة فية الكثير من المعلومات التي تفيدك
    http://www.4eco.com/2004/11/__63.html

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  7. [17]
    لوئ رمزي
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  8. [18]
    لوئ رمزي
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  9. [19]
    لوئ رمزي
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  10. [20]
    rasha10
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    السلام عليكم ياأخ لؤى رمزي الف الف شكر لك وبارك الله فيك لقد استفدت كثيراً من الروابط التي بعثتها فالف الف شكر أما بالنسبة لرسالة الماجستيرفي جامعة العلوم والتكنلوجيا الاردنية في اربد والمصدر باللغة الانكليزية عن المحارق كلاهما مفيدين لي ياريت اذاتستطيع ان تبعث لي نسخة مثل ماتفضلت سابقاً عن طريق البريد وعبر الاتصال بقسم الحاسبات ياريت لان بحاجةماسة اليها الان في هذةالفترةياريت اتحاول تبعثها لي بسرع وقت واكون انا من الشاكرين لك مع خالص شكري وتقديري لك. أمابلنسبة لرسالةماجستيرعبد المولى علي البلعزي فلدي نسخة منها فالف الف شكرلك وبارك الله فيك ياأخ لؤى وسوف انتظر جوابك على رسالتي وشكراً

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