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  1. [11]
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    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2006
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    Post Crank Substitute Engine

    Crank Substitute Engine

    Like the Coomber, this engine also came from Marlyn Hadley's wonderful book.6 I can do no better than to quote him



    This elaborate arrangement of gears and linkages enabled the builder to eliminate the crank as we know it. While this engine required more labor to construct, it did make a compact engine which did not require a heavy crosshead as the connecting rod connection on the bar between the two gears moves but a very small amount. This means the piston rod guides can be made of a lighter construction

    I do not know who invented it, when, or what prompted the inventor to think this arrangement is better than a crank...:) :)


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  2. [12]
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    Post Revolving Cylinder Engine

    Revolving Cylinder Engine



    This is yet another of Marlyn Hadley's6 model engines. The inventor is not known

    The valve is not illustrated, but is apparently a rotary type, admitting steam to one end of the cylinder at a time

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  3. [13]
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    Watt Beam Engine

    Watt Beam Engine





    This illustration shows the general arrangement of a typical beam engine. Beam engines were used in many factories to drive machinery of all types and were sometimes built to enormous proportions. I have omitted the valve gear, as it was substantially the same as the locomotive engine.

    It was important to restrict the motion of the piston and rod to a straight line in order to reduce friction and wear on the upper cylinder seal. The Watt linkage illustrated here is one of many contrivances for accomplishing this linear motion.

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    عـوده مره أخري الي هذا الملتقي الاكثر من رائع :)

  4. [14]
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    Post Grasshopper Beam Engine

    Grasshopper Beam Engine




    The "Grasshopper" beam5 is another type of linear motion linkage, obviously named for the beam's resemblance to a grasshopper's hind leg.


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  5. [15]
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    Post Another Beam Engine

    Another Beam Engine




    This illustration shows a beam engine with yet another linear motion linkage. I found this linkage in Five Hundred and Seven Mechanical Movements. The book did not say who invented this linkage or what it is called :)

    اي شخص عنده معلومه عن هذا المحرك .. فليتفضل و يتكرم و يعطيها الينا
    لاني لم اجد عنه اااي معلومات مفيده

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  6. [16]
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    Post Newcomen Atmospheric Engine

    Newcomen Atmospheric Engine

    This magnificent engine was patented in 1705 by Thomas Newcomen, and is generally regarded as the first 'modern' steam engine. Unlike later steam engines, the Newcomen works on the atmospheric principle.


    The Newcomen was first used to pump water from mines in England. The pump rod at left is coupled to the driving piston by a large rocking beam.

    Water is boiled continuously to produce steam. During the piston's upward stroke this low pressure steam (about 5 p.s.i.) is admitted to the cylinder.
    The pressure is insufficient to lift the piston on its own -- the weight of the pump rod does most of the work



    At the top of the stroke the steam valve is closed and a water jet is briefly turned on, cooling the steam in the cylinder.


    The cool steam contracts, sucking the piston downward. ...Or stated another way: the higher atmospheric pressure drives the piston downward, hence the name atmospheric engine. At the end of the stroke, the cooling water is drained from the cylinder by an extra passage not illustrated here.


    During the upward stroke, an auxiliary pump fills the cooling water reservoir.



    Newcomen engines were successful in part because they were very safe to operate.. Since the steam was under such low pressure, there was no risk of a dangerous boiler explosion.
    As near as I can tell, the earliest Newcomen engines featured manually operated valves, as illustrated here.
    An operator apparently stood on a platform near the cylinder base and threw the valve levers on each stroke. (From the illustrations I have available, this engine seems to have stood at least 20 feet tall).
    Later Newcomen engines featured automatic valves which were coupled to a pushrod attached to the main beam.

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  7. [17]
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    Post Two Cylinder Stirling Engine

    Two Cylinder Stirling Engine

    The Stirling engine is one of my favorites. It was invented in 1816 by Rev. Robert Stirling of Scotland. The Stirling is a very simple engine, and was often billed as a safe alternative to steam (since there's no boiler to explode).


    Stirling engines feature a completely closed system in which the working gas (usually air but sometimes helium or hydrogen) is alternately heated and cooled by shifting the gas to different temperature locations within the system.

    In the two-cylinder or alpha configured3 Stirling, one cylinder is kept hot while the other is kept cool. In the illustration the lower-left cylinder is heated by burning fuel. The other cylinder is kept cool by an air cooled heat sink (a.k.a. cooling fins).

    Expansion.
    At this point, most of the gas in the system has just been driven into the hot cylinder. The gas heats and expands driving both pistons inward.


    Transfer
    At this point, the gas has expanded (about 3 times in this example). Most of the gas (about 2/3rds) is still located in the hot cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crankshaft the next 90 degrees, transferring the bulk of the gas to the cool cylinder.


    Contraction
    Now the majority of the expanded gas has been shifted to the cool cylinder. It cools and contracts, drawing both pistons outward.


    Transfer
    The now contracted gas is still located in the cool cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crank another 90 degrees, transferring the gas to back to the hot cylinder to complete the cycle.



    This engine also features a regenerator, illustrated by the chamber containing the green hatch lines. The regenerator is constructed of material that readily conducts heat and has a high surface area (a mesh of closely spaced thin metal plates for example).

    When hot gas is transferred to the cool cylinder, it is first driven through the regenerator, where a portion of the heat is deposited.
    When the cool gas is transferred back, this heat is reclaimed; thus the regenerator "pre heats" and "pre cools" the working gas, dramatically improving efficiency.3


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  8. [18]
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    Post Single Cylinder Stirling Engine

    Single Cylinder Stirling Engine

    This type of Stirling engine, known as the beta configuration3, features just one cylinder with a hot end and a cool end.
    The working gas is transferred from one end of the cylinder to the other by a device called a displacer (here illustrated in blue).
    The displacer resembles a large piston, except that it has a smaller diameter than the cylinder, thus its motion does not change the volume of gas in the cylinder - it merely transfers the gas around within the cylinder.


    Expansion.
    At this point, most of the gas in the system has just been driven to the hot end of the cylinder. The gas heats and expands driving the piston outward.


    Transfer
    At this point, the gas has expanded. Most of the gas is still located in the hot end of the cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crankshaft the next quarter turn. The bulk of the gas is transferred around the displacer to the cool end of the cylinder.


    Contraction
    Now the majority of the expanded gas has been shifted to the cool end. It contracts, drawing the piston inward.


    Transfer
    The contracted gas is still located near the cool end of the cylinder. Flywheel momentum carries the crank another quarter turn, moving the displacer and transferring the bulk of the gas back to the hot end of the cylinder



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  9. [19]
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    Post Stirling Engine with Ross yoke

    Stirling Engine with Ross yoke



    Andy Ross
    , a prominent Stirling engine experimenter, invented the linkage illustrated here.3
    The engine is identical in operation to the two cylinder Stirling. In this illustration, the left cylinder is the hot cylinder

    The linkage allows the engine to be more compact and reduces side loads
    on the pistons and connecting rods (since their travel is almost linear



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  10. [20]
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    Post Gnome

    Gnome

    The Gnome was one of several rotary engines popular on fighter planes during World War I.
    In this type of engine, the crankshaft is mounted on the airplane, while the crankcase and cylinders rotate with the propeller

    قم بفتح الصوره المرفقه

    The Gnome was unique in that the intake valves were located within the pistons. Otherwise, this engine used the familiar Otto four stroke cycle. At any given point, each of the cylinders is in a different phase of the cycle
    In the following discussion, follow the master cylinder with the green connecting rod

    Intak
    During this portion of the stroke, a vacuum forms in the cylinder, forcing the intake valve open and drawing the fuel-air mixture in from the crankcase

    Compression
    The mixture is compressed during this phase. The spark plug fires toward the end of the compression stroke, slightly before top dead
    center

    Power
    The power stroke happens here. Note that the exhaust valve opens early -- well before bottom dead center

    Exhaust
    This engine has a fairly long exhaust stroke. In order to improve power or efficiency, engine valve timing often varies from what one might expect

    Nonetheless, a number of engines were designed this way, including the Gnome, Gnome Monosoupape, LeRhone, Clerget, and Bentley to name a few. It turns out there were some good reasons for the configuration

    Balance... Note that the crankcase and cylinders revolve in one circle, while the pistons revolve in another, offset circle. Relative to the engine mounting point, there are no reciprocating parts. This means there's no need for a heavy counterbalance

    Air Cooling... Keeping an engine cool was an ongoing challenge for early engine designers. Many resorted to heavy water cooling systems. Air cooling was quite adequate on rotary engines, since the cylinders are always in motion

    No flywheel... The crankcase and cylinders provided more than adequate momentum to smooth out the power pulses, eliminating the
    need for a heavy flywheel


    All these factors gave rotary engines the best power-to-weight ratio of any configuration at the time, making them ideal for use in fighter planes. Of course, there were disadvantages as well

    Gyroscopic effect... A heavy spinning object resists efforts to disturb its orientation (A toy gyroscope demonstrates the effect nicely). This made the aircraft difficult to maneuver.

    Total Loss Oil system. .. Centrifugal force throws lubricating oil out after its first trip through the engine. It was usually castor oil that could be readily combined with the fuel. (The romantic-looking scarf the pilot wore was actually a towel used to wipe the slimy stuff off his goggles


    The aircraft's range was thus limited by the amount of oil it could carry as well as fuel. Most conventional engines continuously re-circulate a relatively small supply of oil.

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