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About The Space Shuttle "Colombia".. Brief History

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    About The Space Shuttle "Colombia".. Brief History



    This is a brief history about the space shuttle Colombia, mainly concentrating on the last flight and the accedent analysis according to NACA.


    About COLOMBIA

    The Columbia space shuttle is the oldest Orbiter in its entire fleet of spacecraft, built for NASA by Rockwell International. It has continued the pioneering legacy of its ancestors, becoming the first spacecraft to into Earth orbit in 1981. This was its first flight, which happened on April 12th to the 14th. Its last flight was from January 16th to February 1st 2003. It flew 28 flights in its life.

    Columbia belonged to a fleet of four other shuttles which joined over the next 10 years. Their names were Challenger, 1982; Discovery. 1983; Atlantis, 1985; and Endeavour, 1991.

    The Columbia shuttle has had modifications during this time. On August 10th 1991 it underwent 50 modifications at Rockwell International’s assembly plant. These included carbon brakes, drag chutes and even an enhancement of its thermal protection system.
    On October 8th 1994 it returned for an “Orbiter maintenance down period” (OMDP) for another 90 modifications. After this, there was a mission to the Hubble telescope in 2001 and up until its 28th final flight; there was a fatal accident with the space shuttle STS-107.


    Final Flight of Columbia

    STS-107 was a scientific research mission, unlike the standard International Space Station programs. The launch was on the 16th of January 2003 at 10:39am. On the approach home, on the 1st of February, there was a fatal accident. There were seven crew members each with a specific job, because many scientific investigations were needed to be completed.The shuttle carried SPACEHAB Double Module in its cargo bay, which allowed the astronauts to conduct experiments in a hostile environment. The crew on board carried out a research program involving 32 payloads, with 59 separate experiments. The crew were needed to work around-the-clock to complete this. Some data, however, was transmitted to ground-based researchers during the flight, which did survive.

    The commander of the shuttle was Air Force Colonel Rick D. Husband, who was making his second flight into space, having served as a pilot in a previous mission in 1999.
    The pilot was Navy Commander William McCool, making his first flight into space.

    The payload commander and the mission specialist, number 3, was Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael P. Anderson and mission specialist 2 was Dr. Kalpana Chawla, both flying for the second time.

    The fourth mission specialist was Navy Commander Laurel Blair Salton Clark, and the first specialist was Navy Captain David M. Brown, both flying for the first time.

    NASA assumed that during liftoff that a 2.5 pound, 20 inch piece of insulation from the tank fell off and hit the shuttle, damaging the heat-protection tiles on the shuttle's left wing. The tragedy has thought to have been caused by this.


    COLOMBIA's Accident analysis

    Colombia's accident investigation is considered a challenging task as the expulsion of the Orbiter occurred at very extreme environments, hypersonic speed while travelling at 12,500 mph (Mach 18.3) at an altitude of 207,135ft resulting in loss of Orbiter and its crew. It is believed that a beach in the thermal protection of the leading edge on the left hand wing led to the break-up. The breach was caused by a piece of insulating foam separated from the left bipod ramp of the external tank, hitting the lower half of the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on panel 8 around a minute 22 seconds after launch. This breach, during re-entry led to further damage to insulation system of the left wing while superheated air melted aluminium structure resulting in unbalanced aerodynamic forces, thus loss of control and break-up of Orbiter.

    The external tank of the shuttle is a large component where the solid rocket boosters and the Orbiter are joined, mainly used in launch and ascent. It is constructed of aluminium alloy for the main body, titanium and steel for the joints and the attachment points. The tank is coated with two materials, dense composite ablators and low density closed-cell foam providing together a thermal insulation to maintain the oxygen and hydrogen in a liquid state. It is attached to the Orbiter by two bipod struts at the top, to the right and left of the centreline. A computational testing carried out monitoring the complex flow field and the pressure coefficient during investigation proved that pre existing defects on the foam were the main secret responsible for the failure and the loss of the piece of foam from the external tank.

    For the re-entry operation the Orbiter is designed to withstand the excessive temperature generated due to the movement into a high density atmosphere, while decelerating in order to land. At high velocity shock waves generated from the nose and the leading edge of the wing intersect somewhere near panel 9 where the highest temperature is expected on all RCC panels, around 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. The RCC and the internal insulation protect the aluminium structure inside the wing.

    The Orbiter wing leading edge is manly RCC panels; two stainless steel spar attachments connect each RCC panel to the leading edge spar. The mid-wing area where the breach was located is supported by a series of trusses. This is the point where the superheated air entered from (reaching 8000 degrees F), then travelled into the leading edge spar towards the wheel well. As aluminium melts at 1200 degrees F, a significant structural damage had probably occurred and the wing deformed.

    The modular auxiliary data system recorder, where all the data stored for after mission processing found near Hemphill, Texas in nearly excellent condition when it was not designed to take such impact. It is capable of recording only the first and last two hours of the mission, which at least helped specifying the order things went wrong in Colombia. Deorbit burn occurred at 8:15am, while planning to land at approximately 8:52. Colombia was travelling at Mach 20.9 at 224,390ft crossing over the coast of California. 8:52:20 left main gear brake line temp raises 2degrees/min then further increase to 6degrees/min at 8:52:39, Followed by hydraulic failures up to 8:53.

    Over 5 minutes period left side increased 60 degrees vs 15 F on the right side. Shortly before 8:58, over New Mexico, sensor indicated drag increase on left wing and flight controls were automatically compensating. Main landing gear outboard wheel sensor went offline then all wheel sensors including temp and pressure went offline at 835. Communication with the crew and data were lost later and the vehicle broke up at Mach 18.3 over east central Texas at 207,135ft.


    Developments After Colombia

    The Columbia accident was caused by a two-pound chunk of insulating foam, which was about the size of a briefcase. The small piece of foam from the shuttle’s external fuel tank ripped away during its launch and hit a seal on the left wing. This created a slit, which was large enough to let in hot atmospheric gases during re-entry.

    Since that disaster many actions were taken to improve the safety of the spacecraft to make sure that such an accident doesn’t happen again. The next mission planned to be launched is the “Discovery” and it will be launched around May. To make this mission a safe and successful mission some modifications have been made to it. Firstly the external Tank has been modified. It will prevent the shedding of insulating foam during launch. Engineers still expect little pieces of foam to fly off after launch but they are thought to be harmless.

    NASA officials are trying to develop repair capabilities for astronauts if they discover damage to the shuttle’s heat resistant tiles of reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Panels in orbit. It should be noted that foam damage to the RCC panels on Columbia’s left wing during the launch was believed to be the reason behind the disaster.

    NASA is also trying to introduce the ‘Safe Haven’. This means that if a shuttle is damaged then it will be diverted to the Pacific Ocean and the astronauts will be stranded at the International Space Station. But this also means that a lot food needs to be taken on the spacecraft for 80 days so that another rescue shuttle can be launched.

    Therefore it is extremely unlikely that NASA go ahead with that idea.

    It is also planned that a video camera will be attached to the shuttle to see the launch and to see whether there is any flyaway foam. The camera will be placed towards the top of the fuel tank in a recessed spot. It will transmit live footage for about 15 minutes after launch and the images will be used to determine how much insulating foam flew off the tank. Camera will be positioned on the opposite side of the tank away from the shuttle so that the vessel’s exhaust doesn’t smear the lens when the tank detaches.

    But eliminating external tank foam debris and developing techniques to make inspections and repair in orbit will make the shuttle a lot safer.

    Thanks

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    This is a brief history about the space shuttle Colombia, mainly concentrating on the last flight and the accedent analysis according to NACA.


    About COLOMBIA

    The Columbia space shuttle is the oldest Orbiter in its entire fleet of spacecraft, built for NASA by Rockwell International. It has continued the pioneering legacy of its ancestors, becoming the first spacecraft to into Earth orbit in 1981. This was its first flight, which happened on April 12th to the 14th. Its last flight was from January 16th to February 1st 2003. It flew 28 flights in its life.

    Columbia belonged to a fleet of four other shuttles which joined over the next 10 years. Their names were Challenger, 1982; Discovery. 1983; Atlantis, 1985; and Endeavour, 1991.

    The Columbia shuttle has had modifications during this time. On August 10th 1991 it underwent 50 modifications at Rockwell International’s assembly plant. These included carbon brakes, drag chutes and even an enhancement of its thermal protection system.
    On October 8th 1994 it returned for an “Orbiter maintenance down period” (OMDP) for another 90 modifications. After this, there was a mission to the Hubble telescope in 2001 and up until its 28th final flight; there was a fatal accident with the space shuttle STS-107.


    Final Flight of Columbia

    STS-107 was a scientific research mission, unlike the standard International Space Station programs. The launch was on the 16th of January 2003 at 10:39am. On the approach home, on the 1st of February, there was a fatal accident. There were seven crew members each with a specific job, because many scientific investigations were needed to be completed.The shuttle carried SPACEHAB Double Module in its cargo bay, which allowed the astronauts to conduct experiments in a hostile environment. The crew on board carried out a research program involving 32 payloads, with 59 separate experiments. The crew were needed to work around-the-clock to complete this. Some data, however, was transmitted to ground-based researchers during the flight, which did survive.

    The commander of the shuttle was Air Force Colonel Rick D. Husband, who was making his second flight into space, having served as a pilot in a previous mission in 1999.
    The pilot was Navy Commander William McCool, making his first flight into space.

    The payload commander and the mission specialist, number 3, was Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael P. Anderson and mission specialist 2 was Dr. Kalpana Chawla, both flying for the second time.

    The fourth mission specialist was Navy Commander Laurel Blair Salton Clark, and the first specialist was Navy Captain David M. Brown, both flying for the first time.

    NASA assumed that during liftoff that a 2.5 pound, 20 inch piece of insulation from the tank fell off and hit the shuttle, damaging the heat-protection tiles on the shuttle's left wing. The tragedy has thought to have been caused by this.


    COLOMBIA's Accident analysis

    Colombia's accident investigation is considered a challenging task as the expulsion of the Orbiter occurred at very extreme environments, hypersonic speed while travelling at 12,500 mph (Mach 18.3) at an altitude of 207,135ft resulting in loss of Orbiter and its crew. It is believed that a beach in the thermal protection of the leading edge on the left hand wing led to the break-up. The breach was caused by a piece of insulating foam separated from the left bipod ramp of the external tank, hitting the lower half of the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on panel 8 around a minute 22 seconds after launch. This breach, during re-entry led to further damage to insulation system of the left wing while superheated air melted aluminium structure resulting in unbalanced aerodynamic forces, thus loss of control and break-up of Orbiter.

    The external tank of the shuttle is a large component where the solid rocket boosters and the Orbiter are joined, mainly used in launch and ascent. It is constructed of aluminium alloy for the main body, titanium and steel for the joints and the attachment points. The tank is coated with two materials, dense composite ablators and low density closed-cell foam providing together a thermal insulation to maintain the oxygen and hydrogen in a liquid state. It is attached to the Orbiter by two bipod struts at the top, to the right and left of the centreline. A computational testing carried out monitoring the complex flow field and the pressure coefficient during investigation proved that pre existing defects on the foam were the main secret responsible for the failure and the loss of the piece of foam from the external tank.

    For the re-entry operation the Orbiter is designed to withstand the excessive temperature generated due to the movement into a high density atmosphere, while decelerating in order to land. At high velocity shock waves generated from the nose and the leading edge of the wing intersect somewhere near panel 9 where the highest temperature is expected on all RCC panels, around 3000 degrees Fahrenheit. The RCC and the internal insulation protect the aluminium structure inside the wing.

    The Orbiter wing leading edge is manly RCC panels; two stainless steel spar attachments connect each RCC panel to the leading edge spar. The mid-wing area where the breach was located is supported by a series of trusses. This is the point where the superheated air entered from (reaching 8000 degrees F), then travelled into the leading edge spar towards the wheel well. As aluminium melts at 1200 degrees F, a significant structural damage had probably occurred and the wing deformed.

    The modular auxiliary data system recorder, where all the data stored for after mission processing found near Hemphill, Texas in nearly excellent condition when it was not designed to take such impact. It is capable of recording only the first and last two hours of the mission, which at least helped specifying the order things went wrong in Colombia. Deorbit burn occurred at 8:15am, while planning to land at approximately 8:52. Colombia was travelling at Mach 20.9 at 224,390ft crossing over the coast of California. 8:52:20 left main gear brake line temp raises 2degrees/min then further increase to 6degrees/min at 8:52:39, Followed by hydraulic failures up to 8:53.

    Over 5 minutes period left side increased 60 degrees vs 15 F on the right side. Shortly before 8:58, over New Mexico, sensor indicated drag increase on left wing and flight controls were automatically compensating. Main landing gear outboard wheel sensor went offline then all wheel sensors including temp and pressure went offline at 835. Communication with the crew and data were lost later and the vehicle broke up at Mach 18.3 over east central Texas at 207,135ft.


    Developments After Colombia

    The Columbia accident was caused by a two-pound chunk of insulating foam, which was about the size of a briefcase. The small piece of foam from the shuttle’s external fuel tank ripped away during its launch and hit a seal on the left wing. This created a slit, which was large enough to let in hot atmospheric gases during re-entry.

    Since that disaster many actions were taken to improve the safety of the spacecraft to make sure that such an accident doesn’t happen again. The next mission planned to be launched is the “Discovery” and it will be launched around May. To make this mission a safe and successful mission some modifications have been made to it. Firstly the external Tank has been modified. It will prevent the shedding of insulating foam during launch. Engineers still expect little pieces of foam to fly off after launch but they are thought to be harmless.

    NASA officials are trying to develop repair capabilities for astronauts if they discover damage to the shuttle’s heat resistant tiles of reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Panels in orbit. It should be noted that foam damage to the RCC panels on Columbia’s left wing during the launch was believed to be the reason behind the disaster.

    NASA is also trying to introduce the ‘Safe Haven’. This means that if a shuttle is damaged then it will be diverted to the Pacific Ocean and the astronauts will be stranded at the International Space Station. But this also means that a lot food needs to be taken on the spacecraft for 80 days so that another rescue shuttle can be launched.

    Therefore it is extremely unlikely that NASA go ahead with that idea.

    It is also planned that a video camera will be attached to the shuttle to see the launch and to see whether there is any flyaway foam. The camera will be placed towards the top of the fuel tank in a recessed spot. It will transmit live footage for about 15 minutes after launch and the images will be used to determine how much insulating foam flew off the tank. Camera will be positioned on the opposite side of the tank away from the shuttle so that the vessel’s exhaust doesn’t smear the lens when the tank detaches.

    But eliminating external tank foam debris and developing techniques to make inspections and repair in orbit will make the shuttle a lot safer.

    Thanks
    بعد ازن اخي العزيز افيونكس قمت بترجمت مقالك القيم
    حول مكوك الفضاء " كولومبيا " . . مختصر التاريخ

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------



    هذا مختصر تاريخ حول مكوك الفضاء كولومبيا، يركّز بشكل رئيسي على الطيران الأخير وتحليل accedent طبقا لـNACA.


    حول كولومبيا

    إنّ مكوك فضاء كولومبيا المتتبّع الأقدم في كامل أسطوله من المركبة الفضائية، بنى لناسا من قبل روكويل دولية. إستمرّ بالتراث الرائد من أسلافه، يصبح المركبة الفضائية الأولى إلى مدار الأرض في 1981. هذا كان طيرانه الأول، الذي حدث ثاني عشر في أبريل/نيسان إلى الرابع العشر. طيرانه الأخير كان من يناير/كانون الثّاني السادس العشر إلى الأول من فبراير/شباط 2003. طيّر 28 رحلة في حياتها.

    عادت كولومبيا إلى أسطول من أربعة آخر يتنقّل الذي إنضمّ على مدى السنوات الـ10 القادمة. أسمائهم كانت متحدية، 1982؛ الإكتشاف. 1983؛ أطلانطس، 1985؛ ومسعى، 1991.

    مكوك كولومبيا كان عنده التعديلات أثناء هذا الوقت. في أغسطس/آب 1991 عاشر مرّ ب50 تعديل في مصنع روكويل التجميعي الدولي. هذه كابحات الكاربون المتضمّنة، مزالق عائق وحتى تحسين نظام حمايته الحراري.
    في أكتوبر/تشرين الأول 1994 ثامنة عادت لـ“ صيانة متتبّع أسفل الفترة ” (OMDP) لـ90 تعديل آخر. بعد هذا، كان هناك مهمّة إلى منظار Hubble في 2001 وإلى أن طيرانه النهائي الثامن والعشرون؛ كان هناك حادث عرضي قاتل بمكوك الفضاء STS-107.


    الطيران النهائي لكولومبيا

    STS-107 كان مهمّة بحث علمي، على خلاف برامج المحطة الفضائية الدولية القياسية. الإنطلاق كان في السادس العشر من يناير/كانون الثّاني 2003 في 10:39 صباحا. على بيت النظرة، على الأوّل من فبراير/شباط، كان هناك حادث عرضي قاتل. كان هناك سبعة أفراد طاقم كلّ بشغل معيّن، لأن العديد من التحقيقات العلمية إحتجت لكي تكمل. حمل المكوك وحدة Spacehab المضاعفة في خليج شحنها، الذي سمح لروّاد الفضاء بإجراء التجارب في بيئة عدائية. نفّذ الطاقم برنامج بحث في الداخل يتضمّن 32 حمولة، ب59 تجربة منفصلة. الطاقم إحتج للعمل حول الساعة لإكمال هذه. بعض البيانات، على أية حال، أرسل إلى الباحثين الأرضي أثناء الطيران، الذي بقى على قيد الحياة.

    قائد المكوك كان قوة جوية العقيد ريك D. Husband، الذي كان يحوّل طيرانه الثاني إلى فضاء، بعد أن عمل كطيار في مهمّة سابقة في 1999.
    الطيار كان قائد بحرية وليام ماكول، يجعل طيرانه الأول في الفضاء.

    قائد الحمولة وإختصاصي المهمّة، عدد 3، كان قوة جوية المقدّم مايكل P. أندرسن وإختصاصي المهمّة 2 كان الدّكتور Kalpana Chawla، كلا الطيران للمرّة الثانية.

    إختصاصي المهمّة الرابع كان غار قائد بحرية بلير Salton كلارك، والإختصاصي الأول كان نقيب بحري ديفيد M. براون، كلا الطيران للمرة الأولى.

    إفترضت ناسا بأنّ أثناء إقلاع بأنّ 2.5 باون، 20 بوصة قطعة العزل من الدبابة سقطت وضربت المكوك، يضرّ ببلاط حماية الحرارة على جناح المكوك الأيسر. المأساة لها يعتقد بأنها كانت نتيجة هذه.


    تحليل حادث كولومبيا العرضي

    تحقيق حادث كولومبيا العرضي يدرس مهمّة صعبة كطرد المتتبّع حدث في البيئات المتطرّفة جدا , hypersonic سرعة بينما سير بسرعة 12,500 ميل بالساعة (Mach 18.3) في إرتفاع من 207,135 قدم يؤدّي إلى خسارة المتتبّع وطاقمه. من المعتقد أنّ شاطئ في الحماية الحرارية للمرحلة الأكثر تقدّما على جناح اليدّ اليسرى أدّت إلى التقسيم. الخرق كان سببه قطعة عزل الرغوة فصلت من التعلية اليسرى bipod للدبابة الخارجية، يضرب الأوطأ نصف كاربون الكاربون المدعوم (RCC) على لجنة 8 حول في الدقيقة بعد 22 ثانية إنطلاق. هذا الخرق، أثناء إعادة دخول أدّى إلى ضرر آخر إلى نظام عزل الجناح الأيسر بينما تركيب ألمنيوم مائع جوي مسخّن جدا يؤدّي إلى قوّات ديناميكية هوائية غير متوازنة، هكذا خسارة السيطرة وتقسيم المتتبّع.

    إنّ الدبابة الخارجية من المكوك مكوّن كبير حيث مقويات الصاروخ الصلبة والمتتبّع إنضمّا، مستعمل بشكل رئيسي في الإنطلاق والإعتلاء. هي مبني من سبيكة الألمنيوم للجسم الرئيسي وتيتانيوم وفولاذ للمفاصل ونقاط الإرتباط. إنّ الدبابة مكسوة بالمادتين، غلقت مقصّات مركّبة كثيفة وكثافة منخفضة رغوة خلية التي تزوّد سوية عزل حراري لإبقاء الأوكسجين والهيدروجين في حالة سائلة. هو يربط بالمتتبّع بإثنان دعامات bipod في القمّة، إلى اليمين واليسار centreline. نفّذ إختبار حسابي مراقبة حقل التدفّق المعقّد ومعامل الضغط أثناء تحقيق أثبتا بأنّ العيوب الحالية قبل على الرغوة كانت السرّ الرئيسي مسؤول عن الفشل وخسارة قطعة الرغوة من الدبابة الخارجية.

    لعملية إعادة الدخول، المتتبّع يصمّم لمقاومة درجة الحرارة المفرطة التي ولّدت بسبب الحركة في جوّ كثافة عالي، بينما تباطأ لكي يهبط. في موجات إهتزاز السرعة العالية ولّدت من الأنف والمرحلة الأكثر تقدّما الجناح يتقاطعان في مكان ما قرب لجنة 9 حيث أنّ درجة الحرارة الأعلى متوقّعة على كلّ لجان RCC، حوالي 3000 درجة فهرنهايتية. يحمي RCC والعزل الداخلي تركيب الألمنيوم داخل الجناح.

    إنّ المرحلة الأكثر تقدّما جناح المتتبّع لجان RCC رجولية؛ توصل ملحقا سارية حديد مقاوم للصدأ كلّ لجنة RCC إلى سارية المرحلة الأكثر تقدّما. منطقة منتصف الجناح حيث الخرق حدّد مكان مدعومة من قبل سلسلة من الجملونات. هذه النقطة حيث الهواء المسخّن جدا دخل من (وصول 8000 درجة F)، ثمّ سافر في سارية المرحلة الأكثر تقدّما نحو العجلة حسنا. بينما يذوب ألمنيوم في 1200 درجة F، حدث ضرر إنشائي هامّ من المحتمل والجناح شوّه.

    مسجّلة نظام بيانات modular المساعدة، حيث كلّ البيانات خزنت لبعد معالجة المهمّة وجدت قرب Hemphill، تكساس تقريبا في الحالة الممتازة متى هي لم تصمّم لأخذ مثل هذا التأثير. هو قادر على التسجيل فقط أولا وأخيرا ساعتان من المهمّة، الذي ساعد على تحديد أشياء الطلب فشل على الأقل في كولومبيا. حرق إخراج من المدار حدث في 8:15 صباحا، بينما التخطيط للهبوط في تقريبا 8:52. كولومبيا كانت تسير بسرعة Mach 20.9 في 224,390 قدم يعبّر ساحل كاليفورنيا. 8:52:20 عمل خطّ كابح ترس المؤقّت رئيسي يسار يرفع درجتان /min ثمّ زيادة أخرى إلى 6 درجات /min في 8:52:39، تلى بحالات الفشل الهيدروليكية بحدود 8:53.

    أكثر من 5 فترة دقائق تركت جانبا زاد 60 درجة مقابل 15 F على الجانب الأيمن. قبل فترة قليلة من 8:58، على نيو مكسيكو، أشار محسّس إلى زيادة عائق على الجناح الأيسر وسيطرة الطيران كانا يعوّضان آليا. محسّس عجلة أجهزة الهبوط والإقلاع الرئيسية الخارجي ذهب غير متّصلة ثمّ كلّ محسّسات العجلة بضمن ذلك العمل المؤقّت والضغط ذهبا غير متّصل في 835. الإتصال مع الطاقم والبيانات فقدا فيما بعد والسيارة تحطّمت في Mach 18.3 على شرق وسط تكساس في 207,135 قدم.


    تطوّرات بعد كولومبيا

    حادث كولومبيا العرضي كان سببه قطعة باونين من عزل الرغوة، الذي كان حول حجم حقيبة. القطعة الصغيرة للرغوة من خزّان وقود المكوك الخارجي مزّق بعيدا أثناء إنطلاقه وضرب ختما على الجناح الأيسر. هذا خلق شقّا، الذي كان كبير بما فيه الكفاية لإدخال الغازات الجوّية الحارة أثناء إعادة دخول.

    منذ تلك الكارثة العديد من الأعمال أخذت لتحسين سلامة المركبة الفضائية لتأكيد ذلك مثل هذه الحادث العرضي لا يحدث ثانية. خطّطت المهمّة القادمة لكي تطلق "الإكتشاف" وهي ستطلق حول مايو/مايس. لإجراء هذه المهمّة المهمّة الآمنة والناجحة بعض التعديلات أجرت إليه. أولا الدبابة الخارجية عدّلت. هو سيمنع إراقة عزل الرغوة أثناء إنطلاق. المهندسون ما زالوا يتوقّعون قطع صغيرة من الرغوة للطيران بعد الإنطلاق لكنّهم يعتقد بأنهم كانوا غير مؤذون.

    مسؤولو ناسا يحاولون تطوير قابليات التصليح لروّاد الفضاء إذا يكتشفون الضرر إلى بلاط المكوك المقاوم للحرارة لكاربون الكاربون المدعوم (RCC) لجان في المدار. يجب ملاحظة ذلك الضرر الرغوي إلى لجان RCC على جناح كولومبيا الأيسر أثناء الإنطلاق يعتقد بأنه كان السبب وراء الكارثة.

    ناسا تحاول تقديم 'الملجأ الآمن' أيضا. هذا يعني بأنّ إذا مكوك متضرّر ثمّ هو سيحوّل إلى المحيط الهادي وروّاد الفضاء سيحاصرون في المحطة الفضائية الدولية. لكن هذا يعني بأنّ أيضا الكثير غذاء من الضّروري أن يواجه المركبة الفضائية لمدّة 80 يوم لكي مكوك إنقاذ آخر يمكن أن يطلق.

    لذا من الغير محتمل جدا أنّ موافقة ناسا بتلك الفكرة.

    من المخطّط أيضا أنّ آلة تصوير فيديو ستربط بالمكوك لرؤية الإنطلاق وللرؤية سواء هناك أيّ رغوة flyaway. آلة التصوير ستوضع نحو قمّة خزّان الوقود في بقعة مثبّتة. هو سيرسل فلم حيّ لبعد 15 دقيقة تقريبا إنطلاق والصور سيستعملان لتحديد كيف كثير يعزل رغوة طارت الدبابة. آلة التصوير ستوضع على الجانب المعاكس للدبابة بعيدا عن المكوك لكي عادم السفينة لا يلطّخ العدسة عندما الدبابة تفصل.

    لكن يزيل حطام دبابة خارجية الرغوي والأساليب النامية لجعل عمليات التفتيش ويصلّحان في المدار سيجعلان المكوك الكثير أكثر أمانا.

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