دورات هندسية

 

 

lean manufacturing

صفحة 2 من 3 الأولىالأولى 1 23 الأخيرةالأخيرة
النتائج 11 إلى 20 من 23
  1. [11]
    Shibani
    Shibani غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2006
    المشاركات: 81
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Lean Glossary 1





    5 Why's
    The 5 why's typically refers to the practice of asking, 5 times, why the failure has occurred in order to get to the root cause/causes of the problem. There can be more than one cause to a problem as well. In an organizational context, generally root cause analysis is carried out by a team of persons related to the problem. No special technique is required.

    5S
    Five terms beginning with 'S' utilized to create a workplace suited for visual control and lean production. 'Seiri' means to separate needed tools, parts, and instructions from unneeded materials and to remove the latter. 'Seiton' means to neatly arrange and identify parts and tools for ease of use. 'Seiso' means to conduct a cleanup campaign. 'Seiketsu' means to conduct seiri, seiton, and seiso at frequent, indeed daily, intervals to maintain a workplace in perfect condition. 'Shitsuke' means to form the habit of always following the first four Ss.

    SORT
    Eliminate everything not required for the current work, keeping only the bare essentials.

    STRAIGHTEN
    Arrange items in a way that they are easily visible and accessible.

    SHINE
    Clean everything and find ways to keep it clean. Make cleaning a part of your everyday work.

    STANDARDIZE
    Create rules by which the first 3 S’s are maintained.

    SUSTAIN
    Keep 5S activities from unravelling

    Absorption Costing
    Accumulates only product costs, direct and indirect, to measure product cost. The gross margin (under absorption costing) is sales revenue minus all product costs, including applied fixed manufacturing overhead. Absorption costing averages all product costs across units produced. When there are large amounts of committed or fixed costs, making more units reduces the average cost per unit, which may be a visible number. Also, placing some units in inventory defers all the costs of those units from being recognized as expense, which could increase currently reported income.

    Activity Based Budgeting
    Grew out of Activity Based Cost System / Activity Based Management Cost System. Activity Based Budgeting uses activities (as opposed to a G/L chart of accounts) as resource allocation targets. Activity Based Budgeting starts with products and services, then extrapolates activities / drivers needed to produce those products and services, and defines the resources required.

    Activity Based Cost System
    A cost methodology that assigns costs to activities and cost objects based on the consumption of resources rather than the traditional costing approach in which costs are allocated to products based on some arbitrary bases such as labor. Activity Based Cost System describes various activities (e.g., unit-level, batch-level, product-level, customer-level, and facility-level) that drive a company’s costs. The integration of Activity Based Cost System into a CVP model thus recognizes the existence of multiple cost drivers, resulting in the production of better information for management.

    Activity Based Management Cost System
    Activity Based Cost System gives us better visibility than the G/L into product cost and customer costs, but does not address improvement activities. Activity Based Cost System and Activity Based Management Cost System are both based on the concept that the work of an organization can be described as a set of related activities or processes. Costs of goods or services can be measured as the costs of the activities performed to provide the good or service. Activity Based Management Cost System goes another major step by analyzing activities for their degree of customer value-added. After identifying activities that add little or no customer value, Activity Based Management Cost System looks for ways to reduce or eliminate them by redesigning activities and processes. Activity Based Management Cost System looks for ways to improve processes by eliminating non-value-added activities.

    Actual Costing
    Attempts to assign costs to specific products (or batches) based on the costs of resources actually used. Due to fluctuations or permanent changes, actual costs may be different from normal or expected costs.

    Attribute Based Cost System
    Integrates ABC cost with Quality Function Deployment. Attribute Based Cost System contribution analysis provides a means for examining profitability at the market segment and customer level. It thus improves management decision-making. It also uses multiple internal as well as external cost objects.


    Balanced Scorecard
    The balanced scorecard is a strategic management system used to drive performance and accountability throughout the organization.The scorecard balances traditional performance measures with more forward-looking indicators in four key dimensions:
    · » Financial
    · » Integration/Operational Excellence
    · » Employees
    · » Customers
    The Balanced Scorecard is an organizational framework for implementing and managing strategy at all levels of an enterprise by linking objectives, initiatives, and measures to an organization’s strategy. The scorecard provides an enterprise view of an organization’s overall performance. It integrates financial measures with other key performance indicators around customer perspectives, internal business processes, and organizational growth, learning, and innovation.

    Batch
    Making or doing activities in groups, lots, or batches in which each part or finished good in the batch is identical. Can happen in both office/admin. and manufacturing environments. Creates 'waste'.

    Batch-and-Queue
    Producing more than one piece of an item and then moving those items forward to the next operation before they are all actually needed there. Thus items need to wait in a queue. Also called "Batch-and-Push." Contrast with continuous flow.

    Benchmarking
    An improvement process in which a company or organization compares its performance against best-in-class companies or organizations, determines how those companies or organizations achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. The subjects that can be benchmarked include strategies, products/programs/services, operations, processes and procedures.

    Black Belt
    Six Sigma team leaders responsible for implementing process improvement projects (DMAIC or DFSS) within the business -- to increase customer satisfaction levels and business productivity. Black Belts are knowledgeable and skilled in the use of the Six Sigma methodology and tools.
    Black Belts have typically completed four weeks of Six Sigma training, and have demonstrated mastery of the subject matter through the completion of project(s) and an exam.Black Belts coach Green Belts and receive coaching and support from Master Black Belts.(See Six Sigma Belts)

    0 Not allowed!



  2. [12]
    Shibani
    Shibani غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2006
    المشاركات: 81
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Lean Glossary 2



    Cell
    An arrangement of people, machines, materials and methods such that processing steps are adjacent and in sequential order so that parts can be processed one at a time (or in some cases in a constant small batch that is maintained through the process sequence). The purpose of a cell is to achieve and maintain efficient continuous flow.

    Changeover
    When a piece of equipment (office and manufacturing) has to stop producing in order to be fitted for producing a different item. For example, the installation of a different processing tool in a metal working machine, a different color paint in a painting system, a new plastic resin & mold in an injection molding machine, loading different software, and so on. See SMED and Quick Changeover


    Concurrent Engineering
    The restructuring of the engineering process so that the input of all concerned parties, including manufacturing, sales and even customers, are heard from during a project's conception.
    Continuous Flow
    Each process (in the office or plant setting) makes or completes only the one piece that the next process needs, and the batch size is one - single-piece flow or one-piece flow – opposite of batch-and-queue.
    Lean Flow
    Flow is the most effective and efficient way to deliver any good or service for a customer. The focus is on aggressively removing process waste. Using flow, you will reduce lead times, operating costs, and improve quality. Your customers will see better, more consistent service. Your operators will work at a steadier pace in a safer, more ergonomically designed environment.
    The participants will be taught by hands-on training methods how to use various techniques to create flow. These include operator balancing, machine balancing, cell layouts, work organization, standardization of work, and implementation.
    The workshop facilitator spends a total of 3.5 days at the sponsoring company. The first half-day is for class preparation, and selection of a live project to work on from the future state value stream map. The workshop facilitator and the value stream manager complete this preparation work. The next three days are in class.

    Continuous Flow Production
    In its purest form continuous flow means that items are processed and moved directly to the next process one piece at a time. Each processing step completes its work just before the next process needs the item, and the transfer batch is one. Also known as "one-piece flow" and "make one, move one".

    Continuous Improvement
    See Kaizen continually make the process better. The process is never perfect.

    Cost
    Cost is defined, in general, as an outlay of a resource, consciously made with the expectation of a benefit to the organization.
    There are various types of costs:
    Variable Cost
    Cost that change in total proportion to changes in the related level of total activity or volume.
    Fixed Cost
    Cost that remains unchanged in total for a given time period despite wide changes in the related level of total activity or volume.
    Direct Cost
    The cost of resources used that can be traced directly to decisions.
    Indirect Cost
    The cost of resources used that are necessary for logistics or infrastructure but that cannot be traced directly to specific products or services provided.
    Period Cost
    The cost of resources used in a period that cannot be traced easily to either products or production processes.
    Product Cost
    The costs of all resources used to produce a product. These include direct and indirect production costs.
    Opportunity Cost
    The forgone value of an alternative that is precluded by choosing another alternative.

    Customer Relationship Management
    Looks at order processing, logistics, packaging and distribution, sales and inventories. The G/L typically lumps most of these items together in SG&A. Customer Relationship Management is Activity Based Cost System applied to the Customer base.
    Cycle Time
    How long it takes a person to complete their total task or activity before starting again.

    DMAIC
    The DMAIC process is the heart of Six Sigma. DMAIC refers to a data-driven quality strategy for improving processes, and is an integral part of the company's Six Sigma Quality Initiative. DMAIC is an acronym for five interconnected phases: Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control.
    Eco Efficiency
    The means by which more and better goods and services are created using fewer resources and minimizing waste and pollution. (Very similar to many definitions of lean manufacturing)
    Promotes the creation of goods and services while optimizing resources use and reducing wastes and pollution. In practice, eco-efficiency has three core objectives:
    · » Increasing product or service values
    · » Optimizing the use of resources
    · » Reducing environmental impacts(Very similar to many definitions of lean manufacturing

    Failure-Proofing Devices
    See Poka Yoke

    Flexible Automation
    The ability to switch quickly from one product to another by shortening setup times.
    Also see Quick Changeover

    Flexible Manufacturing System
    Integrates combinations of various types of capital equipment, primarily in metal-cutting applications. A system is flexible if it is capable of processing a number of different work-pieces simultaneously and automatically, with the machines in the system carrying out the system’s operation in any sequence.
    Flow
    In its purest form continuous flow means that items are processed and moved directly to the next process one piece at a time. Each processing step completes its work just before the next process needs the item, and the transfer batch is one. Also known as "one-piece flow" and "make one, move one".

    Flow Distance
    The distance a part or document travels during the manufacturing operation.
    Green Belt
    An employee of an organization who has been trained on the improvement methodology of Six Sigma and will lead a process improvement or quality improvement team as *part* of their full time job. Their degree of knowledge and skills associated with Six Sigma is less than that of a Black Belt or Master Black Belt. Extensive product knowledge in their company is a must in their task of process improvement.The green belt employee plays an important role in executing the Six Sigma process at an organization level.(See Six Sigma Belts)

    0 Not allowed!



  3. [13]
    Shibani
    Shibani غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2006
    المشاركات: 81
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Lean Glossary 3





    Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing
    A cost system that has been in use successfully in Europe for the past 50 years. The English translation of Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing would be "Flexible Analytic Cost Planning and Accounting." Standard Cost includes DM and DL and adds allocated overhead, which consists of plant facilities, depreciation of equipment, and indirect staff. Standard Cost does this to fully absorb all costs into products. But do we need to do that? Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing does not desire to recover all costs, and is more of a "marginal" cost system. Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing is similar to Attribute Based Cost System but focuses on resources (as in RCA.) Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing is a "cost-pull" system as opposed to ABC, which is a "cost-push" system. In Grenzplankostenrechnung Costing costs begin with outputs based on customer demand. In Attribute Based Cost System, a "cost-push" system, costs are passed from one department to another without regard for resources utilized.




    Heijunka
    The act of leveling the variety and/or volume of items produced at a process over a period of time. Used to avoid excessive batching of product types and/or volume fluctuations, especially at a pacemaker process.

    JIT (Just In Time)
    Producing or conveying only the items that are needed by the next process when they are needed and in the quantity needed. Can even be used between facilities or companies.
    Job Order Costing
    Treats individual jobs as units of output and traces or allocates costs of resources used to each job.

    Kaizen
    This is the Japanese word for improvement. Kaizen implies more than improvement in basic production processes. Kaizen represents a philosophy whereby an organization, and the individuals within it, undertake continual improvements of all aspects of organizational life.

    Kaizen Costing
    Is the process of cost reduction during the manufacturing phase of an existing product. The Japanese word kaizen refers to continual and gradual improvement through small betterment activities, rather than large or radical improvement made through innovation or large investments in technology. Kaizen costing is most consistent with the saying "slow and steady wins the race."

    Kanban
    A signaling device that gives instruction for production or conveyance of items in a pull system.

    Lead Time
    The time that elapses between receiving an order and shipping the product or service to the customer.

    Lean
    Lean is simply a thought process, not a tool, used to look at your business whether it is manufacturing, service or any other activity where you have a supplier and a customer/receiver. The key thought processes within Lean are identifying 'waste' from the customer perspective and then determining how to eliminate it. Waste is defined as the activity or activities that a customer would not want to pay for and/or that add no value to the product or service from the customer's perspective. Once waste has been identified in the Current State, a plan is formulated to reach the Future State in an effective manner that encompasses the entire system.

    Lean Accounting
    Lean Accounting has six primary elements:
    · » Performance measurements
    · » Elimination of most accounting and control transactions (shop floor control, control inventory, inventory records, labour tracking, etc.)
    · » A valid assessment of financial impact of lean improvements
    · » Replacement of standard costing with costing the value stream
    · » Decisions used to involve standard costs now use value stream profitability and contribution margin.
    · » Driving the business from the customer value.



    Malcolm Baldrige Award
    Recognizes continuous improvements in quality management by US manufacturers, service companies, educational institutes and healthcare providers. Also published a criteria for performance excellence with seven categories.
    The annual self-evaluation covers the following seven categories of criteria:
    · » Leadership
    · » Strategic Planning
    · » Customer and Market Focus
    · » Information and Analysis
    · » Human Resource Focus
    · » Process Management
    · » Business Results
    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a federal agency within the Department of Commerce, is responsible for managing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. The American Society for Quality (ASQ) administers the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award under a contract with NIST.

    Master Black Belt
    Six Sigma Quality experts that are responsible for the strategic implementations within an organization. Master Black Belt main responsibilities include training and mentoring of Black Belts and Green Belts; helping to prioritize, select and charter high-impact projects; maintaining the integrity of the Six Sigma measurements, improvements and tollgates; and developing, maintaining and revising Six Sigma training materials.The Master Black Belt should be qualified to teach other Six Sigma facilitators the methodologies, tools, and applications in all functions and levels of the company, and should be a resource for utilizing statistical process control (typically just outside the Black Belt's knowledge base) within processes. (See Six Sigma Belts)

    Material Flow
    Movement of physical product through the value stream.

    Mixed Model
    Mixed Model flow is making value flow by taking out the waste in your value stream so that multiple products are made in each time period. This is accomplished by making the mixed model flow part perform as if it were a dedicated asset.
    Each product flows at the rate of customer demand, even though mixed products are being made.

    Monument
    Any design, scheduling, or production technology with scale requirements necessitating that designs, order, and products be brought to the machines to wait in a queue for processing.

    Normal Costing
    Assigns costs to products based on historical, average costs, which may be different from current, actual or expected costs.

    0 Not allowed!



  4. [14]
    Shibani
    Shibani غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2006
    المشاركات: 81
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Lean Glossary 4




    One Piece Flow
    In its purest form continuous flow means that items are processed and moved directly to the next process one piece at a time. Each processing step completes its work just before the next process needs the item, and the transfer batch is one. Also known as "one-piece flow" and "make one, move one".
    Operation Costing
    Have features of job and process costing by treating each job as a unique unit of output but by also allocating costs of standard operations to jobs in a uniform manner.

    Overproduction
    Producing more, sooner or faster than is required by the next process or customer.

    Poka Yoke
    A mistake proofing device or procedure to prevent a defect throughout the system or process (office or manufacturing).

    Product Family
    A group of products that go through the same or similar downstream or "assembly" steps and equipment.

    Productivity
    The ratio of measured outputs over measured inputs (i.e. - widgets produced per man-hour).


    Pull System
    To produce or process an item only when the customer needs it and has requested it. The customer can be internal or external.

    Push
    To produce or process an item without any real demand from the customer – usually creates inventory and all other 'wastes'.

    Quick Changeover
    Quick Changeover is a process that allows a person to reduce the time to changeover a production process from making one part or product to another part or product. The process to reduce the time elapsed from the last good part A to the first good part B at the same station or process.
    Quick Changeover is also referred to as SMED or Single Minute Exchange of Die.
    This quick changeover process must take less than ten minutes (hence single minute).


    Resource Consumption Accounting
    A detailed system analysis of the nature and behavior of resources. We place dollars behind resources, but we do not place dollars on activities, thus it only makes sense to track resources rather than activities (Activity Based Cost System) Resource Consumption Accounting introduces ways to measure and manage capacity, which leads to better management of limited assets. Resource Consumption Accounting also uses "mapping" to identify resources with processes and activities. Resource Consumption Accounting defines resource pools (similar to Activity Based Cost System activity pools) so that "families" having similar technologies, machinery, etc, can be grouped together.

    Sensei
    Teacher, one who has gone before.

    Single Minute Exchange of Dies
    The process that allows a person to reduce the time to change a production process over from making one part or product to another part or product. The process to reduce the time elapsed from the last good part A to the first good part B at the same station or process. This process must take less than ten minutes (hence single minute).

    Six Sigma
    Approximately 3 errors per million. Six Sigma means the elimination of variance in the process in order to allow flow using the necessary analytical tools and process.
    Six Sigma Performance


    Six Sigma Belts
    Master Black Belt
    Black Belt
    Green Belt
    Yellow Belt

    SMED
    The process that allows a person to reduce the time to change a production process over from making one part or product to another part or product. The process to reduce the time elapsed from the last good part A to the first good part B at the same station or process. This process must take less than ten minutes (hence single minute).

    Standard Costing
    Assigns costs to products based on expected costs of resources used, which may differ from both normal and actual costs. Under a standard-costing system, standard costs are used for product-costing purposes as well as for control purposes. The costs entered into Work-in-Process Inventory are standard costs. From that point forward, standard costs flow through all the manufacturing accounts. When goods are finished, the standard cost of the finished goods is removed from the Work-in-Process Inventory account and transferred to the Finished-Goods Inventory account. When goods are sold, the standard cost of the goods sold is transferred from the Finished-Goods Inventory account to Cost of Goods Sold.

    Standard Work
    A precise description of each work activity specifying cycle time, takt time, the work sequence of specific tasks, and the minimum inventory of parts on hand needed to conduct the activity.

    Supermarket
    A controlled inventory of items that is used to schedule production at an upstream process. Very visible.



    Takt Time
    The rate of demand from the customer. Takt Time = Available Operating Time/Requirement

    0 Not allowed!



  5. [15]
    Shibani
    Shibani غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2006
    المشاركات: 81
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    Lean Glossary 5




    Target Cost
    Is a function of the sales price and the organization’s target profit margin. Target Cost is profit management. The four major steps of target costing are:
    · » Determine the target price – this is the amount customers are willing to pay for a product or service with specified features and functions
    · » Set the target cost, per unit and in total – the target cost is the market price less the required return. The total target cost is the per unit target cost multiplied by the expected number of sales units of product or service over its life.
    · » Compare the total target cost to the currently feasible total cost to measure the cost reduction target – currently feasible total cost is the cost to make the product given current design and process capabilities. The difference between the total target cost and currently feasible cost is the cost reduction target.
    · » Redesign or design products and processes to achieve the cost reduction target – this can be an iterative process until both the product or service and its cost meet marketing and financial objectives.



    Total Productive Maintenance
    A series of methods, originally pioneered by Nippondenso (a member of the Toyota group), to ensure that every machine in a production process is always able to perform its required tasks so that production is never interrupted.

    Total Quality Management
    A systematic customer focused approach to continuous performance improvement. A philosophy and set of guiding principles which represent the foundation for continuously improving the organization through employee involvement. The application of quantitative methods and human resources to improve the materials and services supplied to and by an organization and all the processes within the organization and the degree to which the needs of the customer are met. The integration of fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools, under a disciplined approach to focus on continuous improvement.





    TPM
    A series of methods, originally pioneered by Nippondenso (a member of the Toyota group), to ensure that every machine in a production process is always able to perform its required tasks so that production is never interrupted.

    Value
    A product or service's capability provided to a customer at the right time, at an appropriate price, as defined in each case by the customer.


    Value Added
    Activities or work essential to ensure a product or service meets the needs of the customer.

    Value Stream
    All activities, both value added and non value added, required to bring a product group or service from order to the hands of the customer, and a design from concept to launch to production to delivery.

    Value Stream Mapping
    A pencil-and-paper tool used: a) to follow a product or information (or both) activity path from beginning to end and draw a visual representation of every process (value and non-value) in the material and information flows. b) then to design a future state map which has 'waste' removed and creates more flow and c) to end up with a detailed implementation plan for the future state.

    Visual Factory
    An environment where it is easy for everyone to 'see' the current status of the process or 'system' and the visual give immediate information to the individuals to understand 'how the operation is doing'.


    Waste
    Anything that does not add value to the final product or service, in the eyes of the customer. An activity the customer wouldn't want to pay for if they knew it was happening.

    WIP (Work In Progress)
    Items (material or information) between machines or processes or activities waiting to be processed.


    Work Cell
    See Cell


    Yellow Belt
    Sometimes referred to as Green Belts (GB) -- varies from business to business. A Yellow Belt typically has a basic knowledge of Six Sigma, but does not lead projects on their own, as does a Green Belt or Black Belt. In addition, Yellow Belts may often be responsible for running smaller process improvement projects using the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) methodology. PDCA, often referred to as the Deming Wheel, enables Yellow Belts to identify processes that could benefit from improvement. These smaller Yellow Belt projects often get escalated to the Green Belt or Black Belt level where a DMAIC methodology is used to maximize cost savings using Statistical Process Control. (See Six Sigma Belts)



    0 Not allowed!



  6. [16]
    صناعة المعمار
    صناعة المعمار غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو شرف


    تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2005
    المشاركات: 1,365

    وسام الشكر

     وسام كبار الشخصيات

    Thumbs Up
    Received: 8
    Given: 0

    الف شكر

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

    شكر وتقدير للأخوة جميعا وخاصة لصاحبة الموضوع الأخت ربى

    سنفتح المجال لمناقشة الموضوع في أحد مواضيع الاسبوع لكن باللغة العربية وأتمنى منكم جميعا المشاركة خاصة اذا عملتم في هذا المجال

    0 Not allowed!



  7. [17]
    Eng.Foam
    Eng.Foam غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
    المشاركات: 668
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 3
    Given: 0
    sister Ruba,
    thx very much (jzake allah 5yarn) plz i read about
    LM what i understood that LM is the Just in TIme .
    ?is that right

    0 Not allowed!



  8. [18]
    elnasser_ruba
    elnasser_ruba غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2006
    المشاركات: 7
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    eng foam,
    thanx alot for ur reading but lean manufacture focus on time and cost but it doesnot mean that it is just in time because just in time means to produce the required quantity in a required time in a required and needed quality in the time you really need but lean means to reduce waste from all process to gain more profit and improve your productivity, also there are many branches in lean , i mean there is a lean discussing healthcare how to improve it also in customer service how to reach the peakness of justifiness for customers so in conclusion JIT is diffrent from lean and thank you for this note many people mix with them.Best regard

    0 Not allowed!



  9. [19]
    elnasser_ruba
    elnasser_ruba غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2006
    المشاركات: 7
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 0
    Given: 0
    peace be upon you all,
    i am really like to take the chance and suggest to you that i am reading a book( lean solutions) for Daniel and i am having it in summary if you want it just tell me and tell me if you like the idea to write my summary down so you can read it?

    0 Not allowed!



  10. [20]
    Eng.Foam
    Eng.Foam غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2006
    المشاركات: 668
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 3
    Given: 0
    .i wish u to writting ur summury
    .thx for answer

    :dear sister
    ?.what about the the practical application of lean system
    ? can toy help me in this

    0 Not allowed!



  
صفحة 2 من 3 الأولىالأولى 1 23 الأخيرةالأخيرة
الكلمات الدلالية لهذا الموضوع

عرض سحابة الكلمة الدلالية

RSS RSS 2.0 XML MAP HTML