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السيارة الهجينة hev

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  1. [11]
    الشخيبي
    الشخيبي غير متواجد حالياً
    V.I.P
    الصورة الرمزية الشخيبي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2005
    المشاركات: 7,931
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 223
    Given: 335
    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة العقاب الهرم مشاهدة المشاركة
    موضوع شيق مشرفنا الفاضل
    وبانتظار الجديد
    حياك الله أخي... وشكرا لمرورك العطر...

    0 Not allowed!



  2. [12]
    يحي الحربي
    يحي الحربي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية يحي الحربي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jan 2005
    المشاركات: 3,033
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 16
    Given: 0
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    كنت قد جهزت هذا الموضوع للمشاركة، فلما قرات موضوع الاخ العزيز الشخيبي وجدت ان هذا النوع من السيارات لم يشمله الموضوع فاحببت اضافته ليكمل جزء من الصورة
    واتمنى من الزملاء اصحاب الاختصاص ان يدرجوا مقارنة بين هذه الانواع من السيارات، وان كان الاخ الشخيبي قد اوضح ذلك بصورة مجملة
    Water Fuel Cells and Water Powered Cars
    Alternative Fuel Saves the Environment and Cuts Energy Expenses
    Water powered cars have been a speculation for many years. It is obvious that using water fuel has many advantages, which are not limited only to its price.
    Every time gas prices go up, the idea of water powered cars becomes more and more attractive. Water as a fuel is not a myth and even today there are devices, which help to convert water into fuel. There are cheap and reliable ways to convert water into fuel and one of them is via a water fuel cell. Water fuel cells do not need special knowledge, so practically everybody can use them to convert water into fuel.
    Water Fuel Cells Can Convert Water into Fuel
    The principle of functioning of water fuel cells is simple. Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Water fuel cells take the hydrogen from the water and convert it into Brown's gas (or HHO), which in turn powers the car. There is a battery, which converts the water into HHO, releasing energy in the process. The process of converting water into fuel is really simple and straightforward
    Advantages of Water Fuel Cells
    Water fuel cells have many advantages and it is really surprising that they haven't become mainstream yet. But most likely the next wave of increased gas prices will amend this. Here are some of the main advantages of water fuel cells

    A Japanese startup appears to be using a fuel cell (left) to convert hydrogen and oxygen into electricity for its buzz-worthy water-powered prototype (middle), though an HHO mod like the one in PM's garage (right) might be a more practical solution. (Photographs by Genepax Co. and Mike Allen)
    في المرفقات معلومات اضافية + رسومات وصور

    0 Not allowed!


    الملفات المرفقة
    • نوع الملف: rar REACTOR.rar‏ (1.50 ميجابايت, 12 مشاهدات)
    • نوع الملف: rar WFC.rar‏ (2.10 ميجابايت, 7 مشاهدات)
    • نوع الملف: rar wp.rar‏ (555.0 كيلوبايت, 8 مشاهدات)
    اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ
    خَلَقْتَنِي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ وَأَنَا عَلَى عَهْدِكَ وَوَعْدِكَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ
    أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا صَنَعْتُ
    أَبُوءُ لَكَ بِنِعْمَتِكَ عَلَيَّ وَأَبُوءُ لَكَ بِذَنْبِي
    فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ
    .

  3. [13]
    يحي الحربي
    يحي الحربي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فائق التميز
    الصورة الرمزية يحي الحربي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jan 2005
    المشاركات: 3,033
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 16
    Given: 0
    اضافة قد تفيد للمقارنة
    على الرابط
    http://www.driveclean.ca.gov/popularPrint.php?id=1

    تجدون دراسات ومقارنات بين انواع السيارات حسب نوع الوقود كما في القائمة وماركات مختلفة تشمل تايوتا وفورد وهنداي .... الخ

    • Gasoline.
    • Alcohols - ethanol and methanol.
    • Compressed natural gas (CNG) - natural gas under high pressure.
    • Electricity - stored in batteries.
    • Fuel Cell Vehicles - zero-emission vehicles of the future?
    • Hybrid Vehicles - using a couple of different energy sources or motors.
    • Hydrogen - a very special type of gas.
    • Liquefied natural gas (LNG) - natural gas that is very, very cold.
    • Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - hydrocarbon gases under low pressure.
    • Liquids made from coal - gasoline and diesel fuel that doesn't come from petroleum.
    • Biodiesel - a lot like diesel fuel, but made from plant oil or animal fat.

    نموذج من مواصفات ومديلات بعض السيارات

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell
    View Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles >
    Background
    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are zero emission and run on compressed hydrogen fed into a fuel cell "stack" that produces electricity to power the vehicle. A fuel cell can be used in combination with an electric motor to drive a vehicle – quietly, powerfully and cleanly.
    How It Works
    An individual fuel cell consists of two electrodes, one positively charged (cathode) and one negatively charged (anode), with a substance that conducts electricity (electrolyte) sandwiched between them. Oxygen from the air passes over the cathode and hydrogen over the anode, generating electricity and water. The hydrogen fuel for a fuel cell electric vehicle can be supplied in several ways. Most vehicles carry a tank of pure hydrogen. Individual fuel cells must be combined into groups called fuel cell stacks in order to achieve the necessary power required for motor vehicle applications.
    Availability
    All of the major auto makers are working on fuel cell vehicles. Honda and GM are placing a limited number of these vehicles (100-200) in the hands of real customers, concentrating in the Los Angeles area whereas most other manufacturers are placing their cars in fleets.
    Cost
    Since fuel cells and hydrogen fueling infrastructure are in the early stages of development, the cost of both the vehicles and the fuel are quite high. However, when fuel cell vehicles hit the showrooms and the fueling infrastructure is in place to meet the demand, the cost of both the fuel and the vehicles will be comparable to their gasoline counterparts.
    Incentives
    Check out the incentives page for information about incentives.
    Fueling
    Currently, there are over 25 research, public and private hydrogen fueling stations operating in California with several more in the planning or development stages. Below are some resources for finding fueling stations for hydrogen fuel cell cars:
    • California Fuel Cell Partnership: The CaFCP maintains a map of all hydrogen fueling stations planned and in operation in California.
    • CleanCarMaps.com: Searchable database of EV chargers and alternative fueling stations in California, including compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum, ethanol (E85), hydrogen and biodiesel.
    • U.S. Department of Energy Alternative Fuels Data Center: A site developed by the Department of Energy that provides maps to refueling stations in the US for CNG, LPG/propane, ethanol, electric, biodiesel, hydrogen, and liquefied natural gas (LNG).
    Performance
    Hydrogen fuel cell cars are quiet, very energy efficient, have zero emissions and have equivalent range and performance as their gasoline counterparts.
    Benefits
    When operating directly with hydrogen, there are no polluting emissions and no greenhouse gases from a fuel cell – only water and heat. If the hydrogen is generated by reforming fossil fuels, some greenhouse gases are released, but much less than the amount produced by conventional vehicles. In addition to these benefits, fuel cells could dramatically reduce urban air pollution, decrease oil imports, reduce the trade deficit and produce American jobs.
    The Global Warming Score for fuel cell vehicles reflects the upstream greenhouse gas emissions associated with producting the hydrogen used in these cars. Using the current adjustment factors, fuel cell vehicles have a Global Warming Score of 9. This adjustment factor will be revisited at a later date to reflect the newer state of the technology which may lead to an improved Global Warming Score for these cars.
    Hydrogen Production
    Hydrogen can be produced from many domestic feed stocks, such as natural gas and renewable resources like water, using electrolysis. While the most common method of making hydrogen, using natural gas reformation, results in fewer smog-forming and greenhouse gas emissions than traditional vehicles, California is working to increase use of renewable production sources.
    The Global Warming Score for fuel cell vehicles reflects the upstream greenhouse gas emissions associated with producing the hydrogen used in the vehicles, therefore you may notice that these vehicles receive a Global Warming Score of 9 even though they are zero emission vehicles. These adjustment factors will be revisited at a later date which may lead to an improved Global Warming Score.
    Perks & Conveniences
    Fuel cell engines offer a combination of the range of conventional combustion engines with low fuel consumption, minimal or no harmful emissions, low noise emissions, and the comfort of an electric vehicle.
    Safety
    Fuel cell vehicles are being developed with levels of safety, comfort, and cost comparable to those of a conventional vehicles. Like all fuels, hydrogen has energy and needs to be treated with respect. Because hydrogen is lighter than air it disperses very quickly. Manufacturers are committed to building fuel cell vehicles that meet or exceed safety standards

    Vehicle Summary
    2009 Nissan ALTIMA 2.5
    Starting MSRP: $19,000.00
    Displacement: 2.5L
    Engine: 4-Cylinder
    Transmission: N/A
    Fuel/Technology: Gasoline
    Annual Fuel Costs: $1,010.00


    For More Information
    Visit vehicle web site

    Emission Ratings
    Global Warming Score: Learn More >

    Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 6883 lbs

    Smog Score: Learn More >

    Annual Smog Emissions: 360 g

    Emissions Certification Standard: PZEV

    Equipment & Specifications
    Engine Family: 9NSXV02.585A

    Category: Sedans
    Class: Passenger Car
    Occupancy: N/A


    Purchase Considerations
    Availability: N/A
    Warranty: N/A
    Incentives: N/A
    Vehicle Summary
    2009 Mazda TRIBUTE HYBRID 2WD/4WD
    Starting MSRP: $28,000.00
    Displacement: 2.5L
    Engine: 4-Cylinder
    Transmission: Other
    Fuel/Technology: Hybrid Electric
    Annual Fuel Costs: $953.00


    For More Information
    Visit vehicle web site

    Emission Ratings
    Global Warming Score: Learn More >

    Annual Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 6883 lbs

    Smog Score: Learn More >

    Annual Smog Emissions: 360 g

    Emissions Certification Standard: ATPZEV

    Equipment & Specifications
    Engine Family: 9FMXT02.52ZF

    Category: SUVs
    Class: Light Duty Truck 0-3750 LVW
    Occupancy: N/A


    Purchase Considerations
    Availability: N/A
    Warranty: N/A
    Incentives: images/

    0 Not allowed!


    اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ رَبِّي لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ
    خَلَقْتَنِي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ وَأَنَا عَلَى عَهْدِكَ وَوَعْدِكَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ
    أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا صَنَعْتُ
    أَبُوءُ لَكَ بِنِعْمَتِكَ عَلَيَّ وَأَبُوءُ لَكَ بِذَنْبِي
    فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَإِنَّهُ لَا يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ
    .

  4. [14]
    الشخيبي
    الشخيبي غير متواجد حالياً
    V.I.P
    الصورة الرمزية الشخيبي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Dec 2005
    المشاركات: 7,931
    Thumbs Up
    Received: 223
    Given: 335
    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة يحي الحربي مشاهدة المشاركة
    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    كنت قد جهزت هذا الموضوع للمشاركة، فلما قرات موضوع الاخ العزيز الشخيبي وجدت ان هذا النوع من السيارات لم يشمله الموضوع فاحببت اضافته ليكمل جزء من الصورة
    واتمنى من الزملاء اصحاب الاختصاص ان يدرجوا مقارنة بين هذه الانواع من السيارات، وان كان الاخ الشخيبي قد اوضح ذلك بصورة مجملة
    water fuel cells and water powered cars
    alternative fuel saves the environment and cuts energy expenses
    water powered cars have been a speculation for many years. It is obvious that using water fuel has many advantages, which are not limited only to its price.
    Every time gas prices go up, the idea of water powered cars becomes more and more attractive. Water as a fuel is not a myth and even today there are devices, which help to convert water into fuel. There are cheap and reliable ways to convert water into fuel and one of them is via a water fuel cell. Water fuel cells do not need special knowledge, so practically everybody can use them to convert water into fuel.
    Water fuel cells can convert water into fuel
    the principle of functioning of water fuel cells is simple. Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. Water fuel cells take the hydrogen from the water and convert it into brown's gas (or hho), which in turn powers the car. There is a battery, which converts the water into hho, releasing energy in the process. The process of converting water into fuel is really simple and straightforward
    advantages of water fuel cells
    water fuel cells have many advantages and it is really surprising that they haven't become mainstream yet. But most likely the next wave of increased gas prices will amend this. Here are some of the main advantages of water fuel cells

    a japanese startup appears to be using a fuel cell (left) to convert hydrogen and oxygen into electricity for its buzz-worthy water-powered prototype (middle), though an hho mod like the one in pm's garage (right) might be a more practical solution. (photographs by genepax co. And mike allen)
    في المرفقات معلومات اضافية + رسومات وصور
    جزاك الله خيرا أخي يحيى وسلمت يداك على إضافتك الرائعة....

    0 Not allowed!



  
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