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الرجل المعجزة - مهندس نجح فى استخدام الطاقة الحرة والمجانية والمتجدة لكل اغراض الحياة

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  1. [1]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو متميز جداً

    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2009
    المشاركات: 1,151
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    الرجل المعجزة - مهندس نجح فى استخدام الطاقة الحرة والمجانية والمتجدة لكل اغراض الحياة

    السلام عليكم
    من خلال الازمة الكاذبة للطاقة وارتفاع اسعارها بدون اسباب وازدياد الفقر والبطالة والمرض

    وارتفاع اسعار البنزين والسولار الديزل والغاز الطبيعي
    يخرج لنا رجل يكشف عن كل تلك الالعاب الخفية اللتى الغرض منها زيادة الاغنياء بالمليارات وزيادة الفقراء فقرا
    وفى ظل الجشع وتغيير الاخلاق وانتشار الفساد والنصب والسرقات
    وفى ظل الاستيلاء على البلاد اللتى تملك مصادر البترول والتحكم فيها

    يخرج الينا هذا الرجل

    انه مهندس اجتهد فى البحث والدراسة والعمل على توفير مصادر للطاقة شبه مجانية وكشف عن مصادر الطاقة المجانية واللتى يتم التعتيم عليها من وسائل الاعلام واصحاب مصالح رؤس الاموال وجشعهم

    ولذالك لقبونه فى العالم بالرجل المعجزة

    هذا هو الرجل المعجزة

    نعم لانه حول الحلم الي حقيقة وواقع
    واستحق فعلا ان يستمتع بتوفير الالاف بل الملايين من الدولارات
    من انفاقها على شراء بنزين لسيارته كل اسبوع

    ودفع فاتورة الكهرباء الغالية جدا لانه فى بلده يحتاج المنزل الى نظام تدفئة فى فصل الشتاء والثلوج
    بالاضافة الى شراء زيت ديزل التدفئة لفصل الشتاء

    رجل استطاع ان يستغنى عن الطاقة التقليدية الملوثة للبيئة و الغالية جدا
    واستطاع ان يشغل سيارته بوقود الماء = ونقصد هنا ماء = البحر المطر او حتى ماء الصرف الصحى

    للحصول على غازى الهيدروجين والاكسجين

    وذالك باستخدام الواح الطاقة الشمسية

    فبدلا من تخزين الطاقة الشمسية فى بطاريات مخصصة لذالك == وهى مكلفة وغالية جدا جدا =وتحتاج الى صيانة وتغيير كل فترة
    و استخدم تلك الكهرباء الصادرة من الواح الطاقة الشمسية فى تحليل الماء مباشرة الى هذان الغازين

    والاكسجين يتم تحريرة واطلاقه الى الهواء الجوى

    والهيدروجين
    يتم تخزينه فى خزانات كبيرة لا ستخدامها فى فصل الشتاء عندما تختفى اشعه الشمس وارء السحاب والثلوج

    وبهذا استطاع توفير مصدر للطاقة الكهربية طوال العام
    وتدفئة لمنزل كبير يسع لعدة اسر تقيم به
    وبالاضافة الى تشغيل مواقد الطهي بالمجان

    وتشغيل سيارته طوال العام بالمجان

    فالتكلفة خلال السنوات القادمة تنحصر فى مصاريف الصيانه و اللتى لاتكلفه الكثير لانها مجال عمله الهندسي


    فقام بعمل خزانات كبيرة جدا
    لتخزين ما يحتاجه من غاز الهيدروجين طوال العام بها

    ففي الصيف يكون انتاج وقود الماء عالى جدتا وكثير جدا
    وفى الشتاء يقل

    وبالتالى تلك الخزانات تكفى العام بالكامل


    فهنيئا له نجاحه

    فهذا مهندس يتعلم ويبحث ويدرس المشروع وينفذه

    ولا يجلس ويحلم ولا يتحرك الى الامام

    فهل سنجد يوما ما امثاله لدينا





    ==============

    Solar hydrogen home Michael Strizki

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEdQR...eature=related

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEdQRVQtffw&feature=related

    CBC Green Builders

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Huh6bBbJStU


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Huh6bBbJStU


    ================================================
    ACTION NEWS ABC 6

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42nUew26Tao



    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=42nUew26Tao

    =========================================

    NJ man pioneers nations' first solar-hydrogen home


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djg_l7cEtWg


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djg_l7cEtWg


    ================================================== ====================

    Eco-Tech: Building Green

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5_BknLD2PU

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r5_BknLD2PU

    ================================================== ======
    ABC World News (Off the Grid)

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKNCZ7eEafU

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKNCZ7eEafU

    ================================================== ===========

    CNBC

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6XZavLwQSc
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o6XZavLwQSc


    ================================================== ==========
    CNBC

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiF13NET5fw

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iiF13NET5fw

    ================================================== ==

    DIY Solar Hydro generator.


    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjxLHrudANE

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SjxLHrudANE

    =============================================
    TFI USA (French TV)

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-VbaDmGkKEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-VbaDmGkKE

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v-VbaDmGkKE






    ================================================== ===

    News 12 NJ

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOLp_XRdXVc

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOLp_XRdXVc

    ================================================== ======

    CBS News

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FWpwiIemdk

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FWpwiIemdk

    ================================================== ===
    Green Home Energy Schematic (1 of 2)

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CG3y7FFXHtM

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CG3y7FFXHtM========

    ================================================
    WZBN News 25

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyV3vHTAtWc

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RyV3vHTAtWc


    =========================================

    الحمد له الذى هدانا لهذا العلم وما كنا لنهتدى لولا ان هدانا الله تعالي

    فله الحمد فى الدنيا والاخرة

    ================

    هذا هو الرجل المعجزة

    هكذا يسمونه ويلقبونه
    على شاشات التلفاز وفى وسائل الاعلام

    انه استطاع تحويل مصدر من مصادرة الطاقة المتجددة وهو اشعه الشمس

    من مصدر عاجز وضعيف وغير عملى ومكلف جدا

    الى

    مصدر قوى ونظيف ورخيص جدا

    بل
    ومن افضل مصادر الطاقة على الاطلاق

    كيف ذالك

    ببساطه لانه علم ان الحياة لا تكون الا باشعه الشمس والماء

    ياسبحان الله

    نعم فقد جعل الله تعالى من الماء كل شئ حى ولكننا نسينا هذا كما نسينا الكثير

    وهملنا هذا العلم كما اهملنا الكثير

    ==========
    ولكن فى بلاد العلم والتكنولوجيا

    لا يجلسون يحلمون ويعيشون فى مدينه الاوهام والاحلام

    بل ان الحياة والتجارب اثقلتهم الى ارض الواقع فاصبحوا اكثر ايجابية وانتاجا

    بعض الصور

    الاولى لوحة ارشادية لهذا المنزل

    الثانية لالواح الطاقة الشمسية
    الاخيرة لخزانات غاز الهيدروجين الناتج من تحليل الماء







    ماذا سنقول لربنا ان سألنا عن تلك الفتاه وما الت اليه ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟












  2. [2]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2009
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    فقد استخدم الرجل المعجزة

    الواح للطاقة الشمسية تزيد بنسبة 160 % عن ما يحتاجه
    وهي بقدرة 10 كيلووات


    وتستخدم كل الطاقة الزائدة عن الاستخدام طوال اليوم فى شحن البطاريات وتحليل الماء الى الهيدروجين والاكسجين

    ويتم تحرير الاكسجين الى الهواء الجوى

    والاحتفاظ بغاز الهيدروجين ونخزينه
    في 10 خزانات ضخمة كانت مخصصة لغاز البروبان فى الماضى والان لتخزين الهيدروجين

    وبعد شحن البطاريات يتم استخدام هذا الفائض من الكهرباء فى تشغيل خلايا اضافية لتحليل الماء
    الى غازى الهيدروجين والاكسجين
    و الاحتفاظ بالهيدروجين

    ===============
    وتلك الطاقة الشمسية بقدرة 10 كيلوات

    اكثر بكثير جدا من احتياجات المنزل اللتى تقدر ب 2 كيلووات

    واللتى تاتى الى غرفة التحكم بقوة 500 فولت DC

    و عن طريق عدد 4 محولات لنوع الكهرباء

    يتم تحويلها الي 240 فولتAC

    ويتم منع تشغيل كل ما يحتاجه

    ويتم شحن البطاريات

    و يذهب فائض كبير الى جهاز تحليل الماء
    لتصنيع قود الماء

    او
    وقود من الماء
    او
    غازى الهيدروجين والاكسجين

    ويتم تحرير الاكسجين الى الهواء الجوى والاحتفاظ بالهيدروجين فى خزانات مخصصة لذالك الغاز
    وذالك لاستخدام هذا الوقود الجديد في فصل الشتاء عندما تغيب الشمس وراء السحاب الكثيف وتتغطي الواح الطاقة بالثلوج

























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    الصور المرفقة
    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
    l

  3. [3]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2009
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    فقد استخدم الرجل المعجزة

    الواح للطاقة الشمسية تزيد بنسبة 160 % عن ما يحتاجه
    وهي بقدرة 10 كيلووات


    وتستخدم كل الطاقة الزائدة عن الاستخدام طوال اليوم فى شحن البطاريات وتحليل الماء الى الهيدروجين والاكسجين

    ويتم تحرير الاكسجين الى الهواء الجوى

    والاحتفاظ بغاز الهيدروجين ونخزينه
    في 10 خزانات ضخمة كانت مخصصة لغاز البروبان فى الماضى والان لتخزين الهيدروجين

    وبعد شحن البطاريات يتم استخدام هذا الفائض من الكهرباء فى تشغيل خلايا اضافية لتحليل الماء
    الى غازى الهيدروجين والاكسجين
    و الاحتفاظ بالهيدروجين

    ===============
    وتلك الطاقة الشمسية بقدرة 10 كيلوات

    اكثر بكثير جدا من احتياجات المنزل اللتى تقدر ب 2 كيلووات

    واللتى تاتى الى غرفة التحكم بقوة 500 فولت DC

    و عن طريق عدد 4 محولات لنوع الكهرباء

    يتم تحويلها الي 240 فولتAC

    ويتم منع تشغيل كل ما يحتاجه

    ويتم شحن البطاريات

    و يذهب فائض كبير الى جهاز تحليل الماء
    لتصنيع قود الماء

    او
    وقود من الماء
    او
    غازى الهيدروجين والاكسجين

    ويتم تحرير الاكسجين الى الهواء الجوى والاحتفاظ بالهيدروجين فى خزانات مخصصة لذالك الغاز
    وذالك لاستخدام هذا الوقود الجديد في فصل الشتاء عندما تغيب الشمس وراء السحاب الكثيف وتتغطي الواح الطاقة بالثلوج

















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    الصور المرفقة
    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
    l

  4. [4]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2009
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    والان ننتقل معه الى خارج المنزل

    لنشاهد

    محطة تزويد سيارته بالهيدروجين

    = فهى تعمل مثل السيارات اللتى تعمل بالغاز الطبيعي وذالك ببعض الاضافت الفنية لها

    فقد تحول من البنزين الى الهيدروجين

    وستشاهدون بالصور خزان الهيدروجين بحقيبة السيارة و طريقة تعبئته

    = بنزين مجانى وغير ملوث للبيئة =
    فهل تشعرون بمدى سعادته لعدم شراءوى بنزين لسيارته مدى الحياة

    فالوقود مجانى من الشمس وماء المطر والثلوج

    كثير من الشرح على الصور بالمرفقات












    0 Not allowed!


    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
    l

  5. [5]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً


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    والان مع وحدة تحضير الكهرباء

    وتسمي خلايا الهيدروجين

    وهى تعمل من خلال دمج الهيدروجين الذى تم تجميعه على مدار الصيف بالخزانات بغاز الاكسجين من الهواء الجوى

    ==
    ملحوظة مهمة جدا = غاز الاكسجين هذا قد تم اطلاقه من قبل عند التحضير والان يتم اعادة استرجاعه

    ==
    لنحصل على كهرباء كطاقة كهربية بالاضافه الى العادم يكون قطرات من الماء

    لا تلوث

    بيئة نظيفة
    تم تحليل المار وتخزين الطاقة الشمسية والان اعادة من غازات الى صورته الاولي وهي الماء

    فسبحان الله احسن الخالقين


    ===============

    ووستجدون الصور بالمربيات عليها الشرح

    والجهاز المستخدم بقدرة كهربية 6 كيلوات

    وقد ذكر صاحب المشروع انه لم يجد حجم اصغر من هذا للاستخدام المنزلى

    فهو يحتاج الى 2 كيلووات لاستخداماته والباقى فائض

    ===
    وهنا ملحوظة لم يذكرها ولكننا نعلم لماذا

    وهى ان تلك الخلايا تنتج كم كبير من الكهرباء وبالتالى يمكن استخدامها فى تحليل الماء عند تعطل الالواح الشمسية =

    او الصيانة لها

    والان مع وحدة تحضير الكهرباء

    وتسمي خلايا الهيدروجين

    وهى تعمل من خلال دمج الهيدروجين الذى تم تجميعه على مدار الصيف بالخزانات بغاز الاكسجين من الهواء الجوى

    ==
    ملحوظة مهمة جدا = غاز الاكسجين هذا قد تم اطلاقه من قبل عند التحضير والان يتم اعادة استرجاعه

    ==
    لنحصل على كهرباء كطاقة كهربية بالاضافه الى العادم يكون قطرات من الماء

    لا تلوث

    بيئة نظيفة
    تم تحليل المار وتخزين الطاقة الشمسية والان اعادة من غازات الى صورته الاولي وهي الماء

    فسبحان الله احسن الخالقين


    ===============

    ووستجدون الصور بالمربيات عليها الشرح

    والجهاز المستخدم بقدرة كهربية 6 كيلوات

    وقد ذكر صاحب المشروع انه لم يجد حجم اصغر من هذا للاستخدام المنزلى

    فهو يحتاج الى 2 كيلووات لاستخداماته والباقى فائض

    ===
    وهنا ملصوظة لم يذكرها ولكننا نعلم لماذا

    وهى ان تلك الخلايا تنتج كم كبير من الكهرباء وبالتالى يمكن استخدامها فى تحليل الماء عند تعطل الالواح الشمسية =

    او الصيانة لها


















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    الصور المرفقة
    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
    l

  6. [6]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jun 2009
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    مازال هذا الرجل المعجزة
    يقدم لنا انجزات فى عالم الطاقة المتجددة

    وكيف توجد لدينا مصادر للطاقة مهملة ومهدرة


    ففى فصل الصيف يحتاج المنزل الى نظام تكييف مركزى

    فكيف يعمل هذا النظام

    انه استغل الحرارة الناتجة من جهاز التكييف فى عملية تدوير واعادة تشغيل لتلك الطاقة كيف

    عن طريق ادخالها فى خزانات للتبريد وتسخين للماء وتجميع الماء الساخن للاستخدام المنزلى

    وبالتالى يتم عمل توفير للطاقة الكهربية اللازمة لتسخين الماء بالمنزل للا ستخدام الشخصي

    الشرح على الصور بالمرفقات
















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    الصور المرفقة
    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
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  7. [7]
    fagrelsabah
    fagrelsabah غير متواجد حالياً
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    رسم توضيحي بسيط
    لطرق عمل انظمة الطاقة بهذا المشروع الرائع




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    32 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994
    Solar Hydrogen
    Production by
    Electrolysis
    Walt Pyle, Jim Healy, Reynaldo Cortez
    ©1994 Walt Pyle, Jim Healy, Reynaldo Cortez Why would anyone want to



    produce hydrogen at home?


    Hydrogen can be used as a
    non-toxic energy storage and transport
    medium. Hydrogen that is made from
    water using solar energy is a
    sustainable and renewable home
    energy supply. Make hay (or hydrogen)
    while the sun shines. Then use the
    stored hydrogen to produce heat and
    electricity on demand, day or night!


    We got excited about solar hydrogen production during
    the seventies and the first oil shocks. What happened
    between the seventies and nineties? For the most part
    we worked with thermolysis (splitting water with
    concentrated solar heat) and photoelectrolysis (splitting
    water in a liquid solar cell). We also followed the work
    of other hydrogen pioneers, such as Roger Billings and
    his associates, who produced and used hydrogen in
    home appliances and vehicles.


    The article by Richard Perez about the Schatz PV
    Hydrogen Project (HP #22, pp. 26–30) and a
    subsequent visit to Humboldt State University’s Trinidad
    Marine Laboratory launched us into designing and
    making a “home-sized” system based on electrolysis of
    water. Electrolysis is the competition for thermolysis
    and photoelectrolysis at this juncture.


    Hydrogen and oxygen can be produced from water
    using electricity with an electrolyzer. This article
    describes the installation and operation of a 12 cell
    Hydrogen Wind Inc. 1000 Watt electrolyzer. This
    electrolyzer can produce 170 liters/hour (6 cubic
    feet/hour) of hydrogen and 85 liters/hour (3 cubic
    feet/hour) of oxygen (at standard temperature and
    pressure).


    In addition, we describe a homebrew purification and
    storage system for the hydrogen and oxygen produced
    by the electrolyzer. With proper after-treatment, the
    gases produced can be stored safely. The purified
    hydrogen and oxygen can be used in fuel cells (to
    produce direct current electricity) and catalytic burners
    (for heating and cooking) without poisoning or
    damaging the noble metal catalyst materials. The gases
    can also be used for welding and cutting, as well as for
    motor vehicle fuel.
    !!!!Safety First!!!!

    Making and storing hydrogen and oxygen is not kid’s
    stuff — this is “rocket fuel”! Use flashback flame
    arrestors on the hydrogen and oxygen outlets from the
    electrolyzer. Secure dangerous caustic from small
    prying hands. Make sure your gases are pure before
    storing them. More on safety follows.




    How Much Hydrogen Do I Need?


    This varies tremendously from household to household,
    depending on how well the Demand Side Management
    job has been done. We can run our Platinum Cat space
    heater for about three hours on a cubic meter of
    hydrogen. The amount of gas needed can be estimated
    from the energy consumption of any appliance.
    Amanda Potter and Mark Newell’s article in HP #32 (pp.
    42–45) describes the operation of an electrolyzer and
    shows how to calculate the amount of gas needed to
    run appliances. See articles on hydrogen space heating
    in HP #34, hydrogen cooking in HP #33, and making
    electricity from hydrogen with a fuel cell in HP #35.



    How Much Power Does It Take?


    A cubic meter (35.3 cubic feet) of hydrogen gas takes
    about 5.9 hours to produce in this electrolyzer, when
    operated at its rated input power of 1000 Watts. This
    means the energy required to produce a cubic meter of
    hydrogen and 0.5 cubic meter of oxygen is about 5.9
    kW-hr. This translates to an efficiency of 51%, where 3
    kW-hr/m3 equals 100% efficiency at 20°C. Typical
    industrial scale plants operate at about 4.5 kW-hr/m3 or
    67% efficiency at high current density. The efficiency is
    better at lower current density.



    What Is Needed to Produce Hydrogen at Home?
    Our system includes the following components and
    sub-systems (see the block diagram next page):
    • Solar electric power and/or utility grid power
    • Power Controller
    • Electrolyzer
    • Hydrogen Purifier
    • Oxygen Purifier
    • Hydrogen and Oxygen Storage Tanks
    • Electrolyte Storage Tank and Transfer Pump
    • Makeup-water Purifier
    Hydrogen
    33 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994
    Hydrogen
    Where Can I Get An




    Electrolyzer?

    The Hydrogen Wind electrolyzer
    was introduced by its designer
    Lawrence Spicer in HP #22 (pp.
    32–34). Hydrogen Wind Inc.
    electrolyzers are available in
    single cell units for small demand
    or educational use, and in multiple
    cell configurations which provide
    higher gas production rates.

    We purchased a 12 cell 1000 Watt
    system with the gas pressure
    controls and electrical metering.
    Larger systems with up to 24 cells
    or smaller three cell and six cell
    systems are available. Another
    article by Spicer, describing the
    individual cells in more detail along
    with an introduction to cell arrays,
    appears in HP #26 (pp. 34–35).
    The cell electrodes are fabricated
    from rectangular metal plates with
    tabs on one end. Both the anode
    and the cathode metal plates are
    made from porous, sintered nickel.
    Two clusters of nickel electrode
    plates, 14 for the anode and 14 for
    the cathode, are separated by
    porous plastic sheets folded
    accordion style within a separator
    container.

    The plastic separator container is open at the horizontal ends, and closed at
    the top and bottom. This lets the larger hydrogen gas bubbles (which escape
    from the negative electrode or cathode) rise in the electrolyte, due to their
    buoyancy, and exit the separator container on one side. The hydrogen
    remains separate from the smaller oxygen bubbles
    which evolve from the positive electrode (anode) and
    exit on the opposite side.


    The micro-porous polypropylene separator container
    and the electrode clusters are housed inside sections
    of steel pipe with flat steel plates welded on one end
    and bolted on the other end. The steel cell housings
    hold the water and potassium hydroxide electrolyte,
    and keep the hydrogen and oxygen gases apart after
    they rise from each end of the separator container.
    We installed our electrolyzer inside a small weatherprotected


    shelter made from box tubing and sheet
    metal. We chose stainless steel sheet metal for its
    corrosion resistance to caustic electrolyte and longlasting
    “perma-culture” value. The photograph above
    shows an overview of the system.
    Solar Power and Utility Grid Backup Power
    Our solar electric power is produced by two 16-panel
    Carrizo Solar “Mud” photovoltaic arrays and a gaggle
    of other smaller panels. On a good summer day we
    get up to 75 Amperes at 14 Volts for charging the
    Above: An overview of the electrolyzer system. The power supplies and
    electrical controls are on the far left. Purification equipment is to the right of
    the power controls. The electrolyte reservoir and hydrogen and oxygen float
    valves with pressure gauges are to the right of the purification equipment.
    Twelve electrolyzer cells are shown on the far right. A feedwater purification
    system is just below the twelve electrolyzer cells. The caustic electrolyte
    storage tank is on the ground below the float valves.
    Photo by Reynaldo Cortez
    Solar
    electric
    modules
    Makeup water
    purifier
    Electrolyzer
    Electric
    utility grid
    Oxygen
    purifier
    Hydrogen
    purifier
    Electric
    power
    controller
    Hydrogen gas
    Hydrogen gas Oxygen gas
    Electrolyte tank
    Solar
    Hydrogen
    Production
    34 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994


    Hydrogen

    house batteries. When the two house battery banks are
    fully charged, our two 50 Amp SCI charge controllers
    disconnect the PV power, and the PV voltage rises. An
    Enermaxer controller senses the voltage rise and
    transfers the PV power to the electrolyzers to make
    hydrogen and oxygen during the
    remainder of the day. A utility grid
    electrolyzer power supply is used to
    make hydrogen and oxygen when
    there is insufficient solar power
    available.



    How Do We Purify the Gases?

    The gas purification system is shown
    in more detail in the diagram on right.
    The hydrogen gas and the oxygen gas
    are purified by two different systems.
    Bubblers
    First, each gas is scrubbed by passing
    it through a water bubbler column.
    Each of the gas scrubbing bubblers is
    made from two vertical plastic tubes
    with end caps. A pair of fish-aquarium
    type bubbler frits was glued into holes
    drilled in the inside bottom caps of
    each acrylic plastic tube, using
    methylene chloride solvent. Flow of
    gas into or out of a bubbler can then
    be seen by the operator. The bubblers
    are filled about one-third full with
    distilled water using the
    drain and fill valves on the
    bottoms.
    We call these “Bidirectional
    Bubblers”. The
    bubblers are tolerant of
    flow in any direction,
    without letting the scrubwater
    into the product
    storage system or the
    electrolyzer. We got the
    idea for making these
    bubblers from Dr. Peter
    Lehman and his
    associates at Humboldt
    State University (Schatz
    Solar Hydrogen and Fuel
    Cell Laboratory.)
    The gases entering the
    purifier are saturated with
    water vapor and may
    contain minute amounts of
    caustic electrolyte aerosol

    and particulates like rust.

    After passing through the bubblers the gases are still
    saturated with water vapor, but virtually caustic- and
    particulate-free. Installing another coalescer before the
    bubbler would prevent particulates and some aerosol
    from entering the bubblers.
    H2 bubbler O2 bubbler
    Water
    coalescer
    Electrolyzer
    Fill
    Drain
    H2 delivery O2 delivery
    De-oxygenation
    catalytic recombiner
    Oxidation catalytic
    recombiner
    (future)
    H2
    purifier
    Gas Purification System
    Power
    Controller
    Water coalescer
    O2
    purifier
    Water
    coalescer
    Water coalescer
    P P
    Sample Sample
    Flashback arrestor
    acetylene check valve
    Flashback arrestor
    acetylene check valve
    Flashback arrestor
    oxygen check valve
    Flashback arrestor
    oxygen check valve
    Fill
    Drain
    Above: The bi-directional bubblers and purification systems. Photo by Reynaldo Cortez
    35 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994


    Hydrogen


    Coalescers
    Next, the gases are partially dried by passing them
    through coalescing filters. Special materials were
    required for the oxygen coalescer filter to prevent
    spontaneous combustion, and no oil or hydrocarbons
    can be present.


    Recombiners


    The hydrogen gas purifier treats the hydrogen gas in a
    catalytic recombiner. The purpose of the recombiner is
    to recombine any oxygen impurity in the hydrogen
    product, and make water. The noble metal catalytic
    recombiner removes the oxygen impurity to make the
    hydrogen gas safe to store and handle. As a safety
    measure, we installed flashback arrestors between the
    first and second coalescers and the recombiners. The
    flashback arrestors prevent flashback of poor purity
    gases (oxygen impurity in the hydrogen produced)
    when they reach the recombiner and ignition source.
    The recombiners must be installed with their major axis
    vertical and the entry at the top.


    Some data recently published by W. Hug et al from the
    German Aerospace Research Establishment
    (International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 18 No.
    12, pp. 973–977) shows that purity of the gases
    produced by an alkaline electrolyzer is affected by the
    current density and temperature of the cells. From the
    graphs we see that the purities of the hydrogen and
    oxygen gases are poorer at low current densities (such
    as when a cloud covers the sun for example). This is
    because diffusion of the gases through the liquid
    electrolyte is a more significant fraction of the total
    production at low current densities.

    The data also imply that there is more danger of having
    hydrogen impurity in the oxygen than the reverse. Note
    that the lower flammable limit, 4% for hydrogen impurity
    in bulk oxygen, is approached at low current densities.


    How Does One Store the Gases?


    The hydrogen will be stored in two 0.47 cubic meter
    (125 gallon) propane tanks, and the oxygen will be
    stored in one propane tank.


    REMEMBER: hydrogen gas is safe to store —
    hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen mixtures are NOT
    safe to store! Put safety first! Safety is your
    responsibility. It is our intention to give you the
    information you need to follow safe practices.
    Each of our used propane tanks was cleaned
    thoroughly and hydrostatically tested to 13.8 bar (200
    psig.). Pressure relief valves on each tank are set for
    10.3 bar (150 psig.). A pressure switch is installed on
    the hydrogen tank feed line to shut off the electrolyzer
    power supply when the pressure reaches 6.9 bar (100
    psig.), the rated maximum output pressure of the
    electrolyzer.


    The produced hydrogen gas is pressurized by the
    electrolyzer to its maximum rated pressure of 6.9 bar or
    less. Our two hydrogen tanks hold the equivalent of: 6.9
    bar x 2 tanks x 0.47 cubic meter = 6.5 cubic meters (at
    standard temperature and 6.9 bar pressure).
    Makeup-water Treatment System
    As hydrogen and oxygen are produced in the
    electrolyzer, water is consumed and it must be
    replaced. We produce our makeup-water using the
    local Utility District water, which is piped into the home.
    We want to prevent the formation of “mineral scale” on
    the surface of the electrodes inside the electrolyzer
    because we want them to last a long time. First, the
    Amount of Hydrogen in Oxygen
    Current Density (mA/cm2) Gas Impurity H2 in O2 (
    Vol%)
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    0 100 200 300 400 500 600
    90°C
    60°C
    30°C
    Taken from measurements by Hug et al, IJH 18:12, 1993
    lower flammable limit
    Current Density (mA/cm2)
    Gas Impurity O2 in H2 (Vol%)
    Taken from measurements by Hug et al, IJH 18:12, 1993
    90°C
    30°C
    Amount of Oxygen in Hydrogen
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    0 100 200 300 400 500 600
    lower flammable limit
    60°C
    36 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994
    Hydrogen

    water is passed through a 20 micron interference filter
    to remove particulates like rust and sand. Second, the
    water passes through a charcoal drinking water filter to
    remove organics and chlorine. Third, the water passes
    through a de-ionizing column to remove metallic ions.
    The water before and after the purifier was analyzed.
    The results are shown in the table above.

    As you can see, we removed some scale-forming
    material. Other elements were below the lower
    detectable level of the instrument (approximately one
    ppb). Our water before the deionizer and charcoal filter
    is not very “hard” at this location; it does not contain
    very many dissolved minerals. After the de-ionizer there
    is a marked reduction in elemental concentrations of
    everything except silicon.


    Why Conduct a Hydrostatic Test on the Electrolyzer?

    Prior to filling the electrolyzer with caustic electrolyte,
    we conducted a hydrostatic leak test by filling the cells
    with purified water and pressurizing the cells and
    electrolyte reservoir to 6.9 bar (100 psig) using utility
    line pressure. Several tubing fittings leaked until
    tightened. Fixing water leaks during the initial
    hydrostatic test is much better than fixing leaks when
    they involve caustic electrolyte! Getting caustic on your
    tools, gloves, safety glasses, and clothes is a real drag.
    Plan ahead!

    When installing the tubing clamps, position them so you
    can tighten them later when the cells are tied together.
    An improvement would be to mount the cells higher to
    allow for access to the clamps from below.


    Why Do You Need the Caustic Electrolyte?

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the water makes it
    electrically conductive, so that ions can be transported
    through the electrolyte during electrolysis. See graph
    showing the conductivity of the KOH electrolyte as a
    function of weight percent KOH in water on right.
    We have chosen KOH as the caustic. The twelve
    electrolysis cells and the electrolyte reservoir hold
    about 61 liters (16 gallons) of water plus 15 kilograms
    (33 pounds) of KOH. This solution is about 23% KOH
    Water Purification Results

    Before After
    Element Purifier, ppm Purifier, ppm
    barium 0.009 nil
    calcium 7.3 0.006
    potassium 0.37 nil
    magnesium 0.7 nil
    sodium 1.8 nil
    silicon 3.8 3.8
    Concentration % Weight
    Conductivity (Siemens/cm @ 20°C)
    0
    0.01
    0.02
    0.03
    0.04
    0.05
    0.06
    0 10 20 30 40 50
    Conductivity vs. KOH Concentration
    Omega Conductivity and pH Measurement Catalog
    by weight. The strength of the electrolyte solution can
    be tested with a battery hydrometer. The specific
    gravity should be about 1.1.


    Safety is a Must When Handling Caustic Electrolyte!
    DANGER!! Potassium hydroxide is very corrosive and
    hazardous to handle. KOH deserves great respect.
    Goggles or safety glasses with side protectors, and
    plastic or rubber gloves are absolutely necessary when
    handling KOH. When caustic comes into contact with
    the skin, the natural oils of the skin are chemically
    converted to a soap, which initially gives a slippery
    feeling. Prolonged contact will dissolve the skin and
    give a chemical burn similar but more severe than that
    given by handling lime or fresh wet concrete with bare
    hands. The best treatment for any accidental spill is
    flushing with copious amounts of water, or
    neutralization with a weak acid such as vinegar. Always
    have a water hose hooked up and operational before
    handling KOH caustic. Keep the electrolyzer outdoors
    and locked so only qualified people can service it. A
    cyclone fence with top and sides might be the solution.
    DANGER!! The mucous membranes of the eye are
    especially susceptible to caustic damage. It has been
    estimated that 15 seconds of contact to the eye with
    concentrated KOH caustic is enough to produce
    permanent blindness. If any KOH comes into contact
    with the eyes, the best treatment is to flush the eyes
    immediately with pure water for at least 15 minutes and
    seek medical attention.
    37 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994



    Hydrogen


    What Provisions Need to be Considered When
    Handling Caustic?

    To service any of the cells, we need a way to drain the
    electrolyte and store it for re-use. We have a drain valve
    and line on the bottom of the electrolyte reservoir that
    allows the KOH solution to gravity drop into a stainless
    steel tank at a lower level on the ground. A tubing roller
    pump is used to refill the electrolyzer cells with KOH
    after the maintenance is completed. Our KOH tank was
    previously used as a swimming pool filter case.


    We mixed the water and KOH in the ground level
    caustic storage tank. Water and KOH mixing produces
    chemical heat, the “heat of solution”, which is
    surprisingly high. After we mixed in all of the KOH
    flakes, the water temperature rose from 20°C (68°F) to
    about 82°C (180°F).


    At this point we made our first big mistake. After the
    KOH and water electrolyte solution was mixed (and
    hot), we immediately started pumping it into the
    electrolyzer reservoir and cells, using the tubing pump.
    Within minutes, the tubing pump began leaking. We
    stopped the pump and drained the KOH back to the
    ground level tank. After cleaning up the mess, we found
    that the silicone tubing had split open. We let the KOH
    solution cool overnight. The next day we replaced the
    tubing in the pump, and tried again. This time the
    transfer proceeded without pump tubing problems.
    By the time the caustic was about half pumped into the
    cells, we found that six of the tubing fittings on the first
    two cells were dripping KOH onto the floor of the
    shelter. The hot KOH the night before had damaged
    some of the pipe thread seals which were made with
    five minute epoxy. The threads in cells further away
    from the caustic KOH entry point were not damaged,
    presumably because the caustic KOH solution had
    cooled by the time it reached those points. We drained
    the caustic KOH back to the ground storage tank,
    removed the affected fittings and replaced the epoxy
    thread sealant. The next day we filled the cells back up
    with KOH solution for the third try.
    More caustic KOH leaks! This time we had leaks on the
    tubing fittings on the gas-trap tubing loops where the
    hydrogen and oxygen come out of the cells at the top.
    Additional tightening of the tubing clamps with a 12 point
    box wrench stopped some leaks. Other fittings had to be
    removed and thread epoxy had to be reapplied.

    When
    will solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer cells be
    available at a reasonable price so we won’t have to
    hassle with KOH???



    What Were the Cell Operating Conditions?

    The cells require about 1.7 volts each to begin
    operating; at higher currents there is a greater voltage
    requirement. The direct current requirement is about 40
    Amperes for each cell at rated gas output. In a twelvecell
    system the cells are wired in series, so that all of
    the cells get the same current and the voltages add up
    to 12 x 1.7 V or 20.4 Volts total at 20 Amperes of
    current. The cells can also be wired in series-parallel for
    10.2 Volts total.


    Our solar photovoltaic system and grid back-up power
    supplies can only produce about 25 Amperes at the
    moment, so we cannot yet achieve full gas output. The
    20.4 Volt operating voltage was not a problem with our
    Carrizo solar electric arrays, however, since they have
    an open circuit voltage of about
    25 Volts.


    Strange and Unusual Behavior?


    When operating the electrolyzer the first day on direct
    current power, the power controller behaved
    predictably. We measured about 22 Volts and 25
    Amperes flowing into the electrolyzer cells. We had gas
    flow only through the oxygen bubbler however!! And
    occasionally, the oxygen float valve “burped” some
    KOH solution upward with a release of gas. The fix for
    this problem was to raise the electrolyte level from
    about 5 cm (2 inch) on the reservoir level gauge to 20
    cm (8 inch).

    At first startup the gas comes out after a delay of about
    an hour while the cells are “charging” and the gas
    bubbles on the electrodes get large enough to break
    away. Voltage across the cell array gradually rises
    during “charging” from 18 to 19 to 20 Volts before gas
    comes out.


    On restart, hydrogen comes out later than oxygen since
    it must first fill the top of the electrolyte reservoir tank to
    pressure-pump the system. When both gases were
    coming out of the electrolyzer pressure control float
    valves, the pressure on the reservoir was 2.5 bar (36
    psig) when discharging to atmospheric pressure.
    The next day we may have had our first personal
    demonstration of William Grove’s astonishing
    observation that an electrolyzer can run backwards and
    become a power source. Grove discovered in the early
    19th century that the reverse reaction — supplying
    oxygen and hydrogen to electrodes — causes an
    electrolyzer to produce direct current electricity and act
    as a fuel cell.


    Before we turned on our power supply the next day, the
    voltmeter showed about 16 Volts DC on the electrolyzer
    terminals indicating it was acting as a “source”. After
    that we put a resistive load on the electrolyzer leads
    and generated about 16 Volts and 10 Amps for several
    hours (160 Watts) before it “ran out of gas”. Was the
    cell acting as a fuel cell, as an alkaline nickel-iron
    battery, or a combination of both?
    38 Home Power #39 • February / March 1994




    Hydrogen
    Grunting and Wheezing Sounds are Normal!
    Inside the Hydrogen Wind gas pressure control system
    there are three float control valves. Two float valves are
    used for the oxygen and one is used for the hydrogen.
    When the float valves are filled with gas (vertical acrylic
    tubes with top caps), they float on the electrolyte in the
    chambers. As each chamber fills with gas the
    electrolyte is gradually displaced and the the buoyancy
    of the float decreases. When the buoyancy is low
    enough, the float falls which releases the elastomer
    plug from the exit passage and allows the gas to leave
    the system.
    The float valves cycle over and over again to release
    “bursts” of gas to the purifiers. You can hear grunting
    and wheezing sounds when standing alongside the
    unit. A little back pressure on the discharge lines makes
    the release less violent and quieter. With 1 bar (14.5
    psig) back pressure we had good results.
    Budget & Economics for Gas Production & Storage
    The approximate cost for the solar hydrogen system
    equipment is listed below, broken down by sub-system.
    The labor used for this installation was our own and
    was not tallied. Normally, for a “first time” system such
    as this, a rule of thumb is that the labor costs will about
    equal the capital equipment costs. Labor on any future
    clone would be significantly less. Capital equipment
    costs could have been reduced by using fewer stainless
    steel and more plastic components.
    We didn’t work out the “payout” or ROCE for this
    system before going for it. We made it because we
    thought it was nifty stuff!
    It would probably take quite a while to pay for this
    system. However, don’t forget, it’s a prototype. Mass
    production has a way of cutting costs by factors of ten.
    How does a cloned system capital cost of $678 sound?
    Status and Future Direction
    Startup of this system occurred during the first week of
    December 1993. Our next task is to measure the purity
    Hydrogen System Cost
    Equipment Cost %
    12 cell electrolyzer system (incl S&H) $2,300 34%
    Photovoltaic modules (used) $1,500 22%
    Gas storage tanks, relief valves, tubing $1,100 16%
    Hydrogen purification system $950 14%
    Oxygen purification system $350 5%
    Caustic storage and transfer $300 4%
    Feedwater purification system $275 4%
    Total $6,775
    of the hydrogen and oxygen product gas streams
    before we attempt storage.
    Eventually, when we have a use for the oxygen gas
    product in a large fuel cell, we plan to add an oxidation
    recombiner to the oxygen side. This will remove any
    hydrogen impurity from the oxygen side and make it
    safe to store and handle. For now, we are not storing
    the oxygen. Instead, we will supply the oxygen to the
    root system of vegetables in some experiments with a
    horticultural friend of ours, but that’s another story......
    A future article will focus on safe storage of hydrogen
    and oxygen. We plan to cover compressed hydrogen
    and oxygen gas storage and hydrogen storage in metal
    hydride.
    Acknowledgements
    Alternative Energy Engineering, David Booth and David
    Katz, for the upgrade to our Enermaxer power
    controller.
    Jim Robbers and Mike Robbers for the used stainless
    steel swimming pool filter cases which we use for
    electrolyte storage.
    Access
    Walt Pyle, WA6DUR, Richmond, CA • 510-237-7877
    Jim Healy, WH6LZ, Richmond, CA • 510-236-6745
    Reynaldo Cortez, Richmond, CA • 510-237-9748
    Electrolyzer
    Hydrogen Wind Inc. RR 2 Box 262, Lineville, IA 50147 •
    515-876-5665
    Purifier and Storage Components
    Hydrogen Coalescer (Coilhose 27C3-S): Weill Industrial
    Supply Inc. • FAX 510-235-2405
    Bi-directional Bubbler: H-Ion Solar Co. • FAX 510-232-
    5251
    Flame Arrestors: Check valve flashback arrestor, flash
    arrestor body with female inlet check valve. Part # FA-
    3CV. Western Enterprises • FAX 216-835-8283
    Oxygen Coalescer Finite Housing S2M-2C10-025: A F
    Equipment Co. • 408-734-2525
    Hydrogen Recombiner Deoxo Purifier D50-1000: GPT
    Inc. • FAX 908-446-2402
    Pressure Relief Valves (Nupro 177-R3A-K1-A):
    Oakland Valve & Fitting Co. • FAX 510-798-9833
    Power Sources
    Solar arrays: Carrizo Solar Corp. • 800-776-6718
    Enermaxer controller: Alternative Energy Engineering
    (see ad index) • 800-777-6609

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    الصور المرفقة
    الحمد لله الذى جعل فى الماء اسرار الحياة

    سيارة تعمل بالماء بدلا من البنزين - اسرار و خفايا تكشف لاول مرة


    ‏http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/t137893.htm
    l

  9. [9]
    محمد حمدى ناصف
    محمد حمدى ناصف غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2007
    المشاركات: 263
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    الحمد له الذى هدانا وما كنا لنهتدى لولا ان هدانا الله

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  10. [10]
    aminabdulhady
    aminabdulhady غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال
    الصورة الرمزية aminabdulhady


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2005
    المشاركات: 131
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    أنا متفق تماما مع صدق كل هذا ومتأكد تماما أن هذه الفيديوهات ليست مفبركة ، لكن احقاقا للحق فالرجل يعتمد على مصدر طاقة (الشمس) يعني لم يأتي بها من العدم ، لكن هل منتوج الخلايا الشمس يعطينا كل هذه الطاقة ؟ وبالاضافة لذلك أرى خزانات الهيدروجين في الهواء الطلق رغم علمي(غير المؤكد) أن الهيدروجين ينفجر اذا لم يحفظ في جو بارد
    لكن يا عزيزي هل هذا المهندس المعجزة تنازل ونشر التصميمات بالأرقام لتكون في متناول الجميع توفيرا للوقت والمال ، أم أنه بخل و تركنا نرتطم بجدران المحاولة و الخطأ
    تحياتي له ولك
    أمين عبدالهادي

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    خلق الله الكثير من صور الطاقة الحرة كالرياح والشمس والمد والجذر وغيرها ، لكن الابداع في كيفية تطويعها للاستفادة منها

  
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