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تصميم وحدات التحلية r.o uint

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  1. [1]
    kadhim ali
    kadhim ali غير متواجد حالياً

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    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2009
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    تصميم وحدات التحلية r.o uint


    How to Design an RO / NF System

    Select Membrane and Element Type
    Elements are selected according to feed water salinity, feed water fouling tendency, required rejection and energy requirements. The standard element size for systems greater than 10 gpm (2.3 m3/hr) is 8-inch in diameter and 40-inch long. Smaller elements are available for smaller systems.
    For high quality water applications where very low product salinity is required, ion exchange resins are frequently used to polish RO permeate.
    Membrane Type
    Feed TDS (ppm)
    System Permeate Flow (gpm)
    Permeate Quality (ppm)
    TW
    <5000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    <50
    XLE, LE
    <1000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    <50
    BW, FR
    <5000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    <50
    SW
    3000 - 15000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    <150
    SWHR, SWHR LE
    10000 - 50000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    Varies (<500)
    NF
    <1000
    4-inch element: max. 25
    8-inch element: min. 10
    <150


    These recommendations are not binding, but suggestions to select the membrane element for a system that has to be designed. The final choice depends also on specific requirements and operating conditions of the system.
    @@@
    Select Average Membrane Flux (Design Flux)
    RO / NF systems are usually designed for a specific permeate flow rate (GPD or l/h) and a specific system recovery. These numbers, and the specific feed water source, are the information required to estimate the number of membrane elements, pressure vessels and stages as flows:
    Select the design flux (GFD or l/m2h) based on pilot data, customer experience or the typical design fluxes according to the feed source
    @@@@

    Calculate the Number of Elements Needed
    Total number of elements needed = (design permeate flow rate) / (design flux) / (active membrane surface area of selected element)
    Tip: For 8-inch elements, model number indicates active membrane surface area. (e.g. FILMTEC™ BW30-400 element has 400 ft2 of active membrane surface area.
    @@@@
    Calculate the Number of Pressure Vessels Needed
    A) Total number of pressure vessels needed = (total number of elements) / (number of elements in pressure vessel)
    B) Round up to the nearest integer.
    C) For large systems, 6-element vessels are standard, but vessels with up to 8 elements are available. For smaller and / or compact systems, shorter vessels may be selected.
    D) Although the approach described in the following sections apply for all systems, it is especially applicable for 8-inch systems with a larger number of elements and pressure vessels, which then can be arranged in a certain way. Small systems with only one or a few elements are mostly designed with the element in series and a concentrate re-circulation for maintaining the appropriate flow rate through the feed / brine channels.
    @@@

    Select the Number of Stages
    The number of stages defines how many pressure vessels in series the feed will pass through until it exits the system and is discharged as concentrate. Every stage consists of a certain number of pressure vessels in parallel. The number of stages is a function of the planned system recovery, the number of elements per vessel, and the feed water quality. The higher the system recovery and the lower the feed water quality, the longer the system will be, with more elements in series. For example, a system with four 6-element vessels in the first and two 6-element vessels in the second stage has 12 elements in series. A system with three stages and 4-element vessels, in a 42 arrangement has also 12 elements in series. Typically, the number of serial element positions is linked with the system recovery and the number of stages as illustrated in Table 1 for brackish water systems and Table 2 for seawater systems.
    Table 1 Number of Stages of a Brackish Water System
    System Recovery (%)
    Number of Serial Element Positions
    Number of Stages (6-element vessels)
    40 - 60
    6
    1
    70 - 80
    12
    2
    85 - 90
    18
    3

    One-stage systems can also be designed for high recoveries if concentrate recycling is used.
    In seawater systems the recoveries are lower than in brackish water systems. The number of stages depends on recovery as shown in Table 2.
    Table 2 Number of Stages of a Seawater System
    System Recovery (%)
    Number of Serial Element Positions
    Number of Stages (6-element vessels)
    Number of Stages (7-element vessels)
    Number of Stages (8-element vessels)
    35 - 40
    6
    1
    1
    ----
    45
    7 - 12
    2
    1
    1
    50
    8 - 12
    2
    2
    1
    55 - 60
    12 - 14
    2
    2
    ----

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    Select the Staging Ratio (Array Ratio)
    For a system with four vessels in the first stage and two vessels in the second stage the staging ratio is 2:1. A three-stage system with four, three, and two vessels in the first, second, and third stage respectively has a staging ratio of 42. In brackish water systems, staging ratios between two subsequent stages are usually close to 2:1 for 6-element vessels and less than that for shorter vessels. In two-stage seawater systems with 6-element vessels, the typical staging ratio is 3:2.
    Another aspect for selecting a certain arrangement of vessels is the feed flow rate for vessel of the first stage and the concentrate flow rate per vessel of the last stage. Both feed and concentrate flow rate for the system are given (from permeate flow rate and recovery). The number of vessels in the first stage should then be selected to provide a feed flow rate in the range of 35 - 55 gpm (8 - 12 m3h) per 8-inch vessel. Likewise, the number of vessels in the last stage should be selected such that the resultant concentrate flow rate is greater than the minimum of 16 gpm (3.6 m3/h). Flow rate guidelines for different elements are given in the Membrane System Design Guidelines (126KB PDF).
    @@@

    Balance the Permeate Flow Rate
    The permeate flow rate of the tail elements of a system (the elements located at the concentrate end) is normally lower than the flow rate of the lead elements. This is a result of the pressure drop in the feed / brine channel and the increase of the osmotic pressure from the feed to the concentrate. The ratio of the permeate flow rate of the lead element and the tail element can become very high under certain conditions:
    · High system recovery
    · High feed salinity
    · Low pressure membranes
    · High water temperature
    · New membranes
    The goal of a good design is to balance the flow rate of elements in the different positions. This can be achieved by the following means:
    · Boosting the feed pressure between stages: preferred for efficient energy use
    · Apply a permeate backpressure only to the first stage of a two-stage system: low system cost alternative
    · Hybrid system: use membranes with lower water permeability in the first positions and membranes with higher water permeabilities in the last positions: e.g. high rejection seawater membranes in the first and high productivity seawater membranes in the second stage of a seawater RO system
    The need for flow balancing and the method used to balance the flow can be determined after the system has been analyzed with ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis).
    @@@

    example
    Given Conditions:
    · Feed source: brackish surface supply water, SDI <5
    · Required permeate flow = 132 gpm (720 m3/d)
    · 6-element pressure vessels to be used
    Steps:
    1. Brackish surface supply water with SDI <5; total permeate flow = 132 gpm (720 m3/d)
    2. Select plug flow
    3. FILMTEC™ BW30-365 element (BW element with active membrane area of 365 ft2 (33.9 m2))
    4. Recommended average flux for surface supply water feed with SDI <5 = 15.0 gfd (25 L/m/h).
    5. Total number of elements =
    (132 gpm)(1440 gpd/gpm) / (15 gfd)(365 ft2) = 35
    OR
    (720 m3/d)(41.67 L/h)/(m3/d) / (33.9 m2)(25 L/m2/h) = 35

    6. Total number of pressure vessels = 35/6 = 5.83 = 6
    7. Number of stages for 6-element vessels and 75% recovery = 2
    8. Staging ratio selected: 2:1. Appropriate stage ratio = 4:2
    9. The chosen system must then be analyzed using the Reverse Osmosis System Analysis (ROSA) computer program. This program calculates the feed pressure and permeate quality of the system as well as the operting data of all individual elements. It is then easy to optimize the system design by changing the number and type of elements and their arrangement.

  2. [2]
    fatima80
    fatima80 غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


    تاريخ التسجيل: May 2011
    المشاركات: 2
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    SAALAM
    I HAVE A PROBLEME DURING USING THE ROSA SOFTWARE.

    1) THE RECOVERY SYSTEME HAS ALWAYS LESS THAN 15
    2) i want the value of feed flow exeded 2000m3/D

    i have several problems can you help me please

    thanks

    0 Not allowed!



  
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