Computed tomography (CT) SCAN
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
الحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على سيدنا رسول الله ...أما بعد...
اردت ان اقدم لكم نموذج من جهاز المسح الطبقي في موضوع يتناول شرح الجهاز حيث قمت بعمل الموضوع وتعديله ......
وقمت بتقديم الموضوع باللغة الأنكليزية لانه يعتبر اسهل للمهندسين حسب الدراسة ؟؟؟؟؟
مع بعض الشروحات العبية للمبتدئين ...
Computed tomography (CT) is a medical imaging method employing tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. The word "tomography" is derived from the Greek tomos (slice) and graphein (to write). Computed tomography was originally known as the "EMI scan" as it was developed at a research branch of EMI, a company best known today for its music and recording business. It was later known as computed axial tomography (CAT or CT scan) and body section röntgenography.
CT produces a volume of data which can be manipulated, through a process known as "windowing", in order to demonstrate various bodily structures based on their ability to block the X-ray/Röntgen beam. Although historically the images generated were in the axial or transverse plane, orthogonal to the long axis of the body, modern scanners allow this volume of data to be reformatted in various planes or even as volumetric (3D) representations of structures. Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. Another example is the DigiMorph project at the University of Texas at Austin which uses a CT scanner to study biological and paleontological specimens.
The CT scan peripheral consist of :
1.scan room : in which the patient located and scanning .
2.operating room : in which the image are processed and controlled .
And both of theme are separated by a lead shielded wall .
1.The Computer Room :
تحوي هذه الغرفة على نظام إعادة بناء الصورة و ذلك اعتماداً على بيانات الأشعة السينية النافذة من المريض , حيث يوجد في هذه الغرفة
-معالج عالي السرعة High Speed Processor System .
-مولد فولتية عالية لأنبوب الأشعة السينية X-ray High Voltage System .
-محولات طاقة System Transformer .
تحوي على نظام لعرض الصورة و التحكم بها , كما تحوي على نظام لتخزين الصور و أرشفتها .
The basic components of CT scan :
6. data Acquisition System (DAS)
7. Image Reconstruction System
8. Image Display And Storage System
And as shown in the following :
A form of tomography can be performed by moving the X-ray source and detector during an exposure. Anatomy at the target level remains sharp, while structures at different levels are blurred. By varying the extent and path of motion, a variety of effects can be obtained, with variable depth of field and different degrees of blurring of 'out of plane' structures.:25
Although largely obsolete, conventional tomography is still used in specific situations such as dental imaging (orthopantomography) or in intravenous urography.
Digital tomosynthesis combines digital image capture and processing with simple tube/detector motion as used in conventional radiographic tomography. Although there are some similarities to CT, it is a separate technique. In CT, the source/detector makes a complete 360-degree rotation about the subject obtaining a complete set of data from which images may be reconstructed. In digital tomosynthesis, only a small rotation angle (e.g., 40 degrees) with a small number of discrete exposures (e.g., 10) are used. This incomplete set of data can be digitally processed to yield images similar to conventional tomography with a limited depth of field. However, because the image processing is digital, a series of slices at different depths and with different thicknesses can be reconstructed from the same acquisition, saving both time and radiation exposure.
Because the data acquired is incomplete, tomosynthesis is unable to offer the extremely narrow slice widths that CT offers. However, higher resolution detectors can be used, allowing very-high in-plane resolution, even if the Z-axis resolution is poor. The primary interest in tomosynthesis is in breast imaging, as an extension to mammography, where it may offer better detection rates with little extra increase in radiation exposure.
Reconstruction algorithms for tomosynthesis are significantly different from conventional CT, because the conventional filtered back projection algorithm requires a complete set of data. Iterative algorithms based upon expectation maximization are most commonly used, but are extremely computationally intensive. Some manufacturers have produced practical systems using off-the-shelf GPUs to perform the reconstruction.
Advantages and hazards
Advantages over traditional radiography
There are several advantages that CT has over traditional 2D medical radiography. First, CT completely eliminates the superimposition of images of structures outside the area of interest. Second, because of the inherent high-contrast resolution of CT, differences between tissues that differ in physical density by less than 1% can be distinguished. Finally, data from a single CT imaging procedure consisting of either multiple contiguous or one helical scan can be viewed as images in the axial, coronal, or sagittal planes, depending on the diagnostic task. This is referred to as multiplanar reformatted imaging.
CT is regarded as a moderate to high radiation diagnostic technique. While technical advances have improved radiation efficiency, there has been simultaneous pressure to obtain higher-resolution imaging and use more complex scan techniques, both of which require higher doses of radiation. The improved resolution of CT has permitted the development of new investigations, which may have advantages; compared to conventional angiography for example, CT angiography avoids the invasive insertion of an arterial catheter and guidewire; CT colonography (also known as virtual colonoscopy or VC for short) may be as useful as a barium enema for detection of tumors, but may use a lower radiation dose. CT VC is increasingly being used in the UK as a diagnostic test for bowel cancer and can negate the need for a colonoscopy.
The greatly increased availability of CT, together with its value for an increasing number of conditions, has been responsible for a large rise in popularity. So large has been this rise that, in the most recent comprehensive survey in the United Kingdom, CT scans constituted 7% of all radiologic examinations, but contributed 47% of the total collective dose from medical X-ray examinations in 2000/2001. Increased CT usage has led to an overall rise in the total amount of medical radiation used, despite reductions in other areas. In the United States and Japan for example, there were 26 and 64 CT scanners per 1 million population in 1996. In the U.S., there were about 3 million CT scans performed in 1980, compared to an estimated 62 million scans in 2006.
The radiation dose for a particular study depends on multiple factors: volume scanned, patient build, number and type of scan sequences, and desired resolution and image quality. Additionally, two helical CT scanning parameters that can be adjusted easily and that have a profound effect on radiation dose are tube current and pitch.
The increased use of CT scans has been the greatest in two fields: screening of adults (screening CT of the lung in smokers, virtual colonoscopy, CT cardiac screening and whole-body CT in asymptomatic patients) and CT imaging of children. Shortening of the scanning time to around one second, eliminating the strict need for subject to remain still or be sedated, is one of the main reasons for large increase in the pediatric population (especially for the diagnosis of appendicitis). CT scans of children have been estimated to produce non-negligible increases in the probability of lifetime cancer mortality leading to calls for the use of reduced current settings for CT scans of children. These calculations are based on the assumption of a linear relationship between radiation dose and cancer risk; this claim is controversial, as some but not all evidence shows that smaller radiation doses are less harmful. Estimated lifetime cancer mortality risks attributable to the radiation exposure from a CT in a 1-year-old are 0.18% (abdominal) and 0.07% (head)—an order of magnitude higher than for adults—although those figures still represent a small increase in cancer mortality over the background rate. In the United States, of approximately 600,000 abdominal and head CT examinations annually performed in children under the age of 15 years, a rough estimate is that 500 of these individuals might ultimately die from cancer attributable to the CT radiation . The additional risk is still very low (0.35%) compared to the background risk of dying from cancer (23%). However, if these statistics are extrapolated to the current number of CT scans, the additional rise in cancer mortality could be 1.5 to 2%. Furthermore, certain conditions can require children to be exposed to multiple CT scans. Again, these calculations can be problematic because the assumptions underlying them could overestimate the risk.
CT scans can be performed with different settings for lower exposure in children, although these techniques are often not employed. Surveys have suggested that currently, many CT scans are performed unnecessarily. Ultrasound scanning or magnetic resonance imaging are alternatives (for example, in appendicitis or brain imaging) without the risk of radiation exposure. Although CT scans come with an additional risk of cancer, especially in children, the benefits that stem from their use outweighs the risk in many cases. Studies support informing parents of the risks of pediatric CT scanning.
Typical scan doses
Examination Typical effective dose (mSv)
Chest X-ray 0.1 10
Head CT 1.5
Abdomen CT 5.3
Chest CT 5.8
Chest, Abdomen and Pelvis CT 9.9
CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy)
3.6 - 8.8 360 - 880
Cardiac CT angiogram 6.7-13
670 - 1300
Neonatal abdominal CT 20
For comparison, survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were exposed to an average of 40 mSv of radiation. This dose is comparable to two or three extensive CT scans, and can increase the risk of cancer.[dubious – discuss]
Adverse reactions to contrast agents
Because contrast CT scans rely on intravenously administered contrast agents in order to provide superior image quality, there is a low but non-negligible level of risk associated with the contrast agents themselves. Many patients report nausea and discomfort, including warmth in the crotch which mimics the sensation of wetting oneself. Certain patients may experience severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reactions to the contrast dye.
The contrast agent may also induce kidney damage. The risk of this is increased with patients who have preexisting renal insufficiency, preexisting diabetes, or reduced intravascular volume. In general, if a patient has normal kidney function, then the risks of contrast nephropathy are negligible. Patients with mild kidney impairment are usually advised to ensure full hydration for several hours before and after the injection. For moderate kidney failure, the use of iodinated contrast should be avoided; this may mean using an alternative technique instead of CT e.g. MRI. Perhaps paradoxically, patients with severe renal failure requiring dialysis do not require special precautions, as their kidneys have so little function remaining that any further damage would not be noticeable and the dialysis will remove the contrast agent.
Low-Dose CT Scan
The main issue within radiology today is how to reduce the radiation dose during CT examinations without compromising the image quality. Generally, a high radiation dose results in high-quality images. A lower dose leads to increased image noise and results in unsharp images. Unfortunately, as the radiation dose increases, so does the associated risk of radiation induced cancer - even though this is extremely small. A radiation exposure of around 1200 mrem (similar to a 4-view mammogram) carried a radiation-induced cancer risk of about a million to one. However, there are several methods that can be used in order to lower the exposure to ionizing radiation during a CT scan.
1. New software technology can significantly reduce the radiation dose. The software works as a filter that reduces random noise and enhances structures. In this way, it is possible to get high-quality images and at the same time lower the dose by as much as 30 to 70 percent.
2. Individualize the examination and adjust the radiation dose to the body type and body organ examined. Different body types and organs require different amounts of radiation.
3. Prior to every CT examination, evaluate the appropriateness of the exam whether it is motivated or if another type of examination is more suitable.
Computed Tomography versus MRI
See the entries or paragraphs of the same name in the MRI and 2D-FT NMRI and Spectroscopy articles. The basic mathematics of the 2D-Fourier transform in CT reconstruction is very similar to the 2D-FT NMRI, but the computer data processing in CT does differ in detail, as for example in the case of the volume rendering or the artifacts elimination algorithms that are specific to CT.
CT scan illustration
X-ray slice data is generated using an X-ray source that rotates around the object; X-ray sensors are positioned on the opposite side of the circle from the X-ray source. The earliest sensors were scintillation detectors, with photomultiplier tubes excited by (typically) cesium iodide crystals. Cesium iodide was replaced during the eighties by ion chambers containing high pressure Xenon gas. These systems were in turn replaced by scintillation systems based on photo diodes instead of photomultipliers and modern scintillation materials with more desirable characteristics. Many data scans are progressively taken as the object is gradually passed through the gantry. They are combined together by the mathematical procedures known as tomographic reconstruction. The data are arranged in a matrix in memory, and each data point is convolved with its neighbours according with a seed algorithm using Fast Fourier Transform techniques. This dramatically increases the resolution of each Voxel (volume element). Then a process known as Back Projection essentially reverses the acquisition geometry and stores the result in another memory array. This data can then be displayed, photographed, or used as input for further processing, such as multi-planar reconstruction.
Newer machines with faster computer systems and newer software strategies can process not only individual cross sections but continuously changing cross sections as the gantry, with the object to be imaged, is slowly and smoothly slid through the X-ray circle. These are called helical or spiral CT machines. Their computer systems integrate the data of the moving individual slices to generate three dimensional volumetric information (3D-CT scan), in turn viewable from multiple different perspectives on attached CT workstation monitors. This type of data acquisition requires enormous processing power, as the data are arriving in a continuous stream and must be processed in real-time.
In conventional CT machines, an X-ray tube and detector are physically rotated behind a circular shroud (see the image above right); in the electron beam tomography (EBT) the tube is far larger and higher power to support the high temporal resolution. The electron beam is deflected in a hollow funnel shaped vacuum chamber. X-rays are generated when the beam hits the stationary target. The detector is also stationary. This arrangement can result in very fast scans, but is extremely expensive.
The data stream representing the varying radiographic intensity sensed at the detectors on the opposite side of the circle during each sweep is then computer processed to calculate cross-sectional estimations of the radiographic density, expressed in Hounsfield units. Sweeps cover 360 or just over 180 degrees in conventional machines, 220 degrees in EBT.
CT scanner with cover removed to show the principle of operation
CT is used in medicine as a diagnostic tool and as a guide for interventional procedures. Sometimes contrast materials such as intravenous iodinated contrast are used. This is useful to highlight structures such as blood vessels that otherwise would be difficult to delineate from their surroundings. Using contrast material can also help to obtain functional information about tissues.
Pixels in an image obtained by CT scanning are displayed in terms of relative radiodensity. The pixel itself is displayed according to the mean attenuation of the tissue(s) that it corresponds to on a scale from +3071 (most attenuating) to -1024 (least attenuating) on the Hounsfield scale. Pixel is a two dimensional unit based on the matrix size and the field of view. When the CT slice thickness is also factored in, the unit is known as a Voxel, which is a three dimensional unit. The phenomenon that one part of the detector cannot differ between different tissues is called the "Partial Volume Effect". That means that a big amount of cartilage and a thin layer of compact bone can cause the same attenuation in a voxel as hyperdense cartilage alone. Water has an attenuation of 0 Hounsfield units (HU) while air is -1000 HU, cancellous bone is typically +400 HU, cranial bone can reach 2000 HU or more (os temporale) and can cause artifacts. The attenuation of metallic implants depends on atomic number of the element used: Titanium usually has an amount of +1000 HU, iron steel can completely extinguish the X-ray and is therefore responsible for well-known line-artifacts in computed tomograms. Artifacts are caused by abrupt transitions between low- and high-density materials, which results in data values that exceed the dynamic range of the processing electronics.
Windowing is the process of using the calculated Hounsfield units to make an image. A typical display device can only resolve 256 shades of gray, some specialty medical displays can resolve up to 1024 shades of gray. These shades of gray can be distributed over a wide range of HU values to get an overview of structures that attenuate the beam to widely varying degrees. Alternatively, these shades of gray can be distributed over a narrow range of HU values (called a "narrow window") centered over the average HU value of a particular structure to be evaluated. In this way, subtle variations in the internal makeup of the structure can be discerned. This is a commonly used image processing technique known as contrast compression. For example, to evaluate the abdomen in order to find subtle masses in the liver, one might use liver windows. Choosing 70 HU as an average HU value for liver, the shades of gray can be distributed over a narrow window or range. One could use 170 HU as the narrow window, with 85 HU above the 70 HU average value; 85 HU below it. Therefore the liver window would extend from -15 HU to +155 HU. All the shades of gray for the image would be distributed in this range of Hounsfield values. Any HU value below -15 would be pure black, and any HU value above 155 HU would be pure white in this example. Using this same logic, bone windows would use a "wide window" (to evaluate everything from fat-containing medullary bone that contains the marrow, to the dense cortical bone), and the center or level would be a value in the hundreds of Hounsfield units. To an untrained person, these window controls would correspond to the more familiar "Brightness" (Window Level) and "Contrast" (Window Width).
Although CT is a relatively accurate test, it is liable to produce artifacts, such as the following.
Example of Beam Hardening
• Aliasing Artifact or Streaks
These appear as dark lines which radiate away from sharp corners. It occurs because it is impossible for the scanner to 'sample' or take enough projections of the object, which is usually metallic. It can also occur when an insufficient X-ray tube current is selected, and insufficient penetration of the x-ray occurs. These artifacts are also closely tied to motion during a scan. This type of artifact commonly occurs in head images around the pituitary fossa area.
• Partial Volume Effect
This appears as 'blurring' over sharp edges. It is due to the scanner being unable to differentiate between a small amount of high-density material (e.g. bone) and a larger amount of lower density (e.g. cartilage). The processor tries to average out the two densities or structures, and information is lost. This can be partially overcome by scanning using thinner slices.
• Ring Artifact
Probably the most common mechanical artifact, the image of one or many 'rings' appears within an image. This is usually due to a detector fault.
• Noise Artifact
This appears as graining on the image and is caused by a low signal to noise ratio. This occurs more commonly when a thin slice thickness is used. It can also occur when the power supplied to the X-ray tube is insufficient to penetrate the anatomy.
• Motion Artifact
This is seen as blurring and/or streaking which is caused by movement of the object being imaged.
Streaking appearances can occur when the detectors intersect the reconstruction plane. This can be reduced with filters or a reduction in pitch.
• Beam Hardening
This can give a 'cupped appearance'. It occurs when there is more attenuation in the center of the object than around the edge. This is easily corrected by filtration and software.
Three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction
Some parts of this article may be misleading.
Please help clarify this article. Suggestions may be on the talk page.
Because contemporary CT scanners offer isotropic, or near isotropic, resolution, display of images does not need to be restricted to the conventional axial images. Instead, it is possible for a software program to build a volume by 'stacking' the individual slices one on top of the other. The program may then display the volume in an alternative manner.
Typical screen layout for diagnostic software, showing one 3D and three MPR views
Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) is the simplest method of reconstruction. A volume is built by stacking the axial slices. The software then cuts slices through the volume in a different plane (usually orthogonal). Optionally, a special projection method, such as maximum-intensity projection (MIP) or minimum-intensity projection (mIP), can be used to build the reconstructed slices.
MPR is frequently used for examining the spine. Axial images through the spine will only show one vertebral body at a time and cannot reliably show the intervertebral discs. By reformatting the volume, it becomes much easier to visualise the position of one vertebral body in relation to the others.
Modern software allows reconstruction in non-orthogonal (oblique) planes so that the optimal plane can be chosen to display an anatomical structure. This may be particularly useful for visualising the structure of the bronchi as these do not lie orthogonal to the direction of the scan.
For vascular imaging, curved-plane reconstruction can be performed. This allows bends in a vessel to be 'straightened' so that the entire length can be visualised on one image, or a short series of images. Once a vessel has been 'straightened' in this way, quantitative measurements of length and cross sectional area can be made, so that surgery or interventional treatment can be planned.
MIP reconstructions enhance areas of high radiodensity, and so are useful for angiographic studies. mIP reconstructions tend to enhance air spaces so are useful for assessing lung structure.
3D rendering techniques
A threshold value of radiodensity is chosen by the operator (e.g. a level that corresponds to bone). A threshold level is set, using edge detection image processing algorithms. From this, a 3-dimensional model can be constructed and displayed on screen. Multiple models can be constructed from various different thresholds, allowing different colors to represent each anatomical component such as bone, muscle, and cartilage. However, the interior structure of each element is not visible in this mode of operation.
Surface rendering is limited in that it will only display surfaces which meet a threshold density, and will only display the surface that is closest to the imaginary viewer. In volume rendering, transparency and colors are used to allow a better representation of the volume to be shown in a single image - e.g. the bones of the pelvis could be displayed as semi-transparent, so that even at an oblique angle, one part of the image does not conceal another.
Where different structures have similar radiodensity, it can become impossible to separate them simply by adjusting volume rendering parameters. The solution is called segmentation, a manual or automatic procedure that can remove the unwanted structures from the image.
Products and Applications
CT - Computed Tomography System Block Diagram
Computed tomography (CT) produces 3D images of internal human body parts from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. When compared with a traditional X-ray radiography, a CT image exhibits significantly improved contrast.
Semiconductors play a very important role by delivering the intense image processing that CT requires, enabling systems with increased density, flexibility and high performance. TI delivers a range of solutions for CT systems, for channel card front end and control card subsystems.
من مواضيع جوهرة المحيط :
التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة جوهرة المحيط ; 2009-07-04 الساعة 01:16 PM