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سؤال عن boilers

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  1. [1]
    ابو الباسل الألمعي
    ابو الباسل الألمعي غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو فعال

    تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2006
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    سؤال عن boilers

    السادة المهندسين

    لدي استفسار عن ال steam boiler
    لدينا في الشركة steam boiler ونحتاج انها تعمل 10 ساعات يوميا

    هل نستطيع ايقاف البويلر عن العمل بعد 10 ساعات تماما
    واعادة تشغيلها مجددا في اليوم التالي
    وهل لهذه الطريقة اضرار على البويلر؟

    لأنه المهندس اللي ركبها يقول لازم تشتغل 24 ساعة

    ارجو الافادة

  2. [2]
    مهندس أيمن حسن
    مهندس أيمن حسن غير متواجد حالياً
    مشرف متميز
    الصورة الرمزية مهندس أيمن حسن


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2008
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    بصراحة انا لسة طالب بس هجيب اجابة و اتمنى تكون سليمة

    المفروض انها لو مصممة انها تعمل بأستمرار (24 ساعة) فمن الخطأ جداااا ايقافها

    لان الايقاف سيسبب ما يسمى بالfatigue او بالكلل و هذا سيسبب تدمير هيكل البويلر بمرور الوقت

    و الايقاف عموما يجب ان يتم بخطوات معينة بمعنى انك لو هتوقف البويلر مينفعش تقفلها على طول لازم تقلل الحمل من عليها تدريجيا حتى تصل للايقاف

    اتمنى اكون افدتك
    و ان شاء الله باقى المهندسين يفيدوك اكتر منى

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  3. [3]
    خطاب داوود
    خطاب داوود غير متواجد حالياً
    جديد


    تاريخ التسجيل: Mar 2009
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    يجب تجنب وقف البويلر لان عند اعادة تشغيله يستلزم طاقة كبيرة للوصول الى مرحلة بدع الانتاج فتكون هذه العملية خسارة في الوقت والطاقة وقد يسبب الى حصول ظاهرة الكلال مما يؤدي الى تلف البويلر

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  4. [4]
    م0 عادل هاشم
    م0 عادل هاشم غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jul 2006
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    هناك موضوع فى الغلايات البخارية يسمى الغلايات البخارية من الألف إلى الياء
    هو بالفعل غير مذكور فيه هذا الموضوع ولكنه مهم جدا وستستفيد منه بإذن الله
    ويمكنك أن تسأل المهندس عبد الناصر عجوة صاحب الموضوع وهو سيجيبك إن شاء الله

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  5. [5]
    مصطفى الوكيل
    مصطفى الوكيل غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية مصطفى الوكيل


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
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    Lightbulb مشكلة البويلر

    أخى العزيز

    يجب أن تحدد لنا الآتي :-

    أولا ماهى نوع البويلر water tube ولا fire tube

    ثانيا حجم الغلاية أى إنتاجيتها أو السعة

    هل هى hot water boiler - steam boiler - super heated steam boiler


    ونحن إن شاء الله نجيبك وعموما إليك هذه المعلومات الدسمة نوعا ما عن الغلايات أو boiler

    وأتمنى أن تجد فيها ماتريد

    وأتمنى لك التوفيق ،





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    مهندس إستشارى / مصطفى الوكيل
    M.E.P. Manager - ITCC Project, Riyadh
    Zuhair Fayez
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  6. [6]
    م.عبدالناصرعجوة
    م.عبدالناصرعجوة غير متواجد حالياً
    مشرف واستشارى غلايات
    الصورة الرمزية م.عبدالناصرعجوة


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jan 2009
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    اقتباس المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة م0 عادل هاشم مشاهدة المشاركة
    هناك موضوع فى الغلايات البخارية يسمى الغلايات البخارية من الألف إلى الياء
    هو بالفعل غير مذكور فيه هذا الموضوع ولكنه مهم جدا وستستفيد منه بإذن الله
    ويمكنك أن تسأل المهندس عبد الناصر عجوة صاحب الموضوع وهو سيجيبك إن شاء الله
    مشكور جدا اخى الفاضل عادل على هذه الثقة واسال الله ان اكون عند حسن الظن
    اما من جهة السؤال فانى مع المهندس مصطفى الوكيل بان تتوافر البيانات اولا ثم يتم الاجابة بعد ذلك الا انه لم ياتينا بالمعلومة الدسمة فنحن فى انتظارها
    اما من جهة تشغيل الغلاية 24 ساعة من اجل توفير الطاقة فى حين المطلوب 10 ساعات فهذا كلام فيه نظر مع احترامى لأساتذتى اصحاب هذا الراى
    وسااجل الاجابة لحين توافر البيانات
    ولكم جميعا تحياتى
    http://www.arab-eng.org/vb/showthread.php?t=117151

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    الغلايات البخارية
    عن أبي ذر الغفاري رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : "اتق الله حيثما كنت. وأتبع السيئة الحسنة تمحها، وخالق الناس بخلق حسن" رواه الإمام أحمد والترمذي.

  7. [7]
    مصطفى الوكيل
    مصطفى الوكيل غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية مصطفى الوكيل


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
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    boilers

    part 1
    Six criteria should be considered when selecting a boiler to meet the
    application needs, The criteria are

     Codes and standards requirements

     Steam or hot water

     Boiler load

     Number of boilers

     Performance considerations

     Special considerations



     Codes and Standards


     There are a number of codes and standards, laws, and regulations covering boilers and related equipment that should be considered when designing a system. Regulatory requirements are dictated by a variety of sources and are all focused primarily on safety. For more information on how the various rules affect boiler selection and operation, you may want to contact your local Cleaver-Brooks authorized representative. Here are some key rules to consider:

     The boiler industry is tightly regulated by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the ASME Codes, which governs boiler design, inspection, and quality assurance. The boiler's pressure vessel must have an ASME stamp. (Deaerators, economizers, and other pressure vessels must also be ASME stamped).

     The insurance company insuring the facility or boiler may dictate additional requirements. Boiler manufacturers provide special boiler trim according to the requirements of the major insurance companies. Special boiler trim items usually pertain to added safety controls. Some industries, such as food processing, brewing, or pharmaceuticals, may also have additional regulations that have an impact on the boiler and the boiler room.A UL, ULC, cUL, CSA or CGA listing, or Canadian Registration Number (CRN) may be required. State, local, or provincial authorities may require data on the boiler controls or basic design criteria.

     Most areas have established a maximum temperature at which water can be discharged to the sewer. In this case, a blowdown separator aftercooler is required.

     Most state, local or provincial authorities require a permit to install and/or operate a boiler. Additional restrictions may apply in non-attainment areas where air quality does not meet the national ambient air quality standards and emission regulations are more stringent.

     For all new boilers with inputs over 10 MMBtu/hr, U.S. Federal emission standards apply, including permitting and reporting procedures. Limits on fuel sulfur ******* are frequently set at 0.5% maximum.

     A full-time boiler operator may be required. Operator requirement depends on the boiler's size, pressure, heating surface or volume of water. Boilers can be selected which minimize the requirements, either by falling under the requirements and being exempt or with special equipment that gives the operator more freedom in the facility.

     Most states or provinces require an annual boiler inspection. There may be other requirements on piping as well.

     Steam or Hot Water

     Now that you have a general overview of the types of boilers and code and standards requirements, it's time to look at the facility's application in order to see how the boiler will be used. Keep in mind, the primary purpose of the boiler is to supply energy to the facility's operations - for heat, manufacturing process, laundry, kitchen, etc. The nature of the facility's operation will dictate whether a steam or hot water boiler should be used. Hot water is commonly used in heating applications with the boiler supplying water to the system at 180 °F to 220 °F. The operating pressure for hot water heating systems usually is 30 psig to 125 psig. Under these conditions, there is a wide range of hot water boiler products available. If system requirements are for hot water of more than 240 °F, a high temperature water boiler should be considered.

     Steam boilers are designed for low pressure or high pressure applications. Low pressure boilers are limited to 15 psig design, and are typically used for heating applications. High pressure boilers are typically used for process loads and can have an operating pressure of 75 to 700 psig. Most steam boiler systems require saturated steam.

     Steam and hot water boilers are defined according to design pressure and operating pressure. Design pressure is the maximum pressure used in the design of the boiler
    for the purpose of calculating the minimum permissible thickness or physical characteristics of the pressure vessel parts of the boiler. Typically, the safety valves are set at or below design pressure. Operating pressure is the pressure of the boiler at which it normally operates. The operating pressure usually is maintained at a suitable level below the setting of the pressure relieving valve(s) to prevent their frequent opening during normal operation.

     Some steam applications may require superheated steam. It should be noted that superheated steam has a high enthalpy, so there is more energy per pound of steam and higher (drier) steam quality. One example of an application where superheated steam may be required is with a steam turbine. The turbine's blades require very dry steam because the moisture can destroy the blades. When very high pressure or superheated steam is required, an industrial watertube boiler should be selected.

     System Load

     In addition to the system load considerations provided in this section, many excellent reference manuals are available to help further define specific load details and characteristics. For more information, refer to the ABMA Firetube Engineering Guide, the ASHRAE Handbook, or contact your local Cleaver-Brooks authorized representative.

     System load is measured in either Btus or pounds of steam (at a specific pressure and temperature). When discussing the system load, we will include references to both steam and hot water. However, not all situations or criteria apply to both. It would be nearly impossible to size and select a boiler(s) without knowing the system load requirements. Knowing the system load provides the following information:

     The boiler(s) capacity, taken from the maximum system load requirement.

     The boiler(s) turndown, taken from the minimum system load requirement.

     Conditions for maximum efficiency, taken from the average system load requirement.

     Determining the total system load requires an understanding of the type(s) of load in the system. There are three types of loads: heating, process, and combination.

     Heating Load

     A heating load is typically low pressure steam or hot water, and is relatively simple to define because there is not a great deal of instantaneous changes to the load. And, once a heating load is computed, the number can easily be transferred into the equipment size requirements. A heating load is used to maintain building heat. Cooling loads, using steam to run an absorption chiller, also are included when computing a heating load. Characteristics of a heating load include large seasonal variations but small instantaneous demand changes. The boiler should be sized for the worst possible weather conditions, which means that true capacity is rarely reached.

     Process Load

    A process load is usually a high pressure steam load. A process load pertains to manufacturing operations, where heat from steam or hot water is used in the process. A process load is further defined as either continuous or batch. In a continuous load, the demand is fairly constant -
    such as in a heating load. The batch load is characterized by short-term demands. The batch load is a key issue when selecting equipment, because a batch-type process load can have a very large instantaneous demand that can be several times larger than the rating of the boiler. For example, based on its size, a heating coil can consume a large amount of steam simply to fill and pressurize the coil. When designing a boiler room for a process load with instantaneous demand, a more careful boiler selection process should take place.

     Combination Load

    Many facilities have a mixture of loads - different types of process loads and combination of heating and process loads. The information just given on heating and process loads should be taken into consideration when dealing with a combination load.

     Defining Load Variations

    Loads vary and a power plant must be capable of handling the minimum
    load, the maximum load, and any load variations. Boiler selection is often dictated by the variation in load demand, rather than by the total quantity of steam or hot water required. There are three basic types of load variations: seasonal, daily, and instantaneous.

     Seasonal Variations. For a heating system, seasonal variations can mean no demand in the summer, light demand in the fall and spring, and heavy demand in the winter. Manufacturing operations often have seasonal variations, because the demand for production may vary. When selecting boiler equipment, the minimum and maximum load for each season should be determined.

     Daily Variation. Daily variation can occur due to variations in the work hours, or the heat required at various times of the day or weekend. Minimum and maximum seasonal variations mentioned earlier may already reflect these changes if they occur daily. If not, the minimum and maximum daily loads should be included.

     The seasonal and daily variations define the size of the load that the boiler(s) must handle. Seasonal and daily variations also help define the number of boilers and turndown requirements.

     Instantaneous Demand. Instantaneous demand is a sudden peak load change that is usually of short duration. These types of loads are sometimes hidden. Many machines or processes are rated in pounds of steam per hour or Btu/hr as running loads, under balanced operating conditions, and there is no recognition given to "cold startup," "peak" or "pickup loads." The instantaneous load demand is important to consider when selecting a boiler to ensure that these load variations are taken into account. If the instantaneous demand is not included in the system load calculations, the boiler(s) may be undersized.

     System Load Summary

    The load demand matrix shown in Table I1-3 can be used as a work
    sheet in determining the minimum, maximum, and average system loads.

     Load Tracking

    Load tracking is the ability of a boiler to respond to changes in steam or hot water demand. Most often associated with process loads, load tracking focuses on the boiler's ability to supply a constant volume of steam at the required pressure.

     The ability of the boiler to track a variable load depends on the boiler type, burner turndown capability, feedwater valve control, and combustion control design. If the analysis of the load shows highly variable load conditions, a more complex control package may be necessary. This type of control is achieved with sophisticated boiler management systems. For more information on these types of systems contact your local Cleaver-Brooks authorized representative.

     If the application has instantaneous load demands, whereby a large volume of steam is required for a short period of time, a boiler with a large energy storage reserve, such as a firetube, should be considered. If the application dictates large variances in load demand, where the load swings frequently for long periods of time, the best choice is probably a watertube type boiler, because it contains less water and can respond to the variances more rapidly.

     In all cases, operation of the burner should be taken into account in selecting a boiler(s) to meet system demand. The burner will require proper operating controls that can accurately sense the varying demands and be capable of the turndown requirements. The boiler feedwater valve and control design are also critical if load swings are expected.

     Number of Boilers

     Back-UpBoilers

    when selecting the boiler(s), consideration should be given to backup equipment to accommodate future expansion, emergency repairs, and maintenance. There are a number of considerations for a backup boiler.

     Type of Load

     Heating systems and non-critical loads that do not result in a sudden loss
    of production generally have little or no backup. While this is not recommended, it is still common practice. These types of applications rely on the ability to make repairs quickly to reduce downtime. The risk involved in having no backup is a total loss of heat when the boiler is not in service.

     When process or heating loads use multiple boilers during peak times, and one boiler during most other times, the availability of an additional boiler to provide full backup during maximum demand should be considered.

     In applications with critical steam or hot water requirements, laws or codes may dictate a backup. Even if laws or codes do not dictate a backup, there are many cases where the operation cannot tolerate downtime. For example, a hotel uses hot water 24 hours a day, seven
    days a week. During periods of maintenance or in an emergency, a backup boiler is required.


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    مهندس إستشارى / مصطفى الوكيل
    M.E.P. Manager - ITCC Project, Riyadh
    Zuhair Fayez
    ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

  8. [8]
    مصطفى الوكيل
    مصطفى الوكيل غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية مصطفى الوكيل


    تاريخ التسجيل: Apr 2007
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    Part 2
     Downtime

    Another way to determine whether a backup boiler is a wise decision is to compute the cost of downtime to the owner or the user, as shown in the following three examples:

     A chemical company manufactures dry cell battery compound in a batch process. The process temperature must be maintained within 2 degrees. The boiler shuts down on a flame failure. They have 20 minutes to recover steam or the batch is scrap. The value of the product is $250,000.

     A Midwestern insurance company building has comfort heat supplied by one boiler. There are over 2000 workers in the building. The boiler shuts down due to a failed gas valve. Outside, it's 11 °F. Inside, the temperature continues to drop and, at 1:30 in the afternoon, all 2,000
    workers are sent home.

     A meat processing company makes its entire packaged ham line in a Southern plant. It operates 24 hours a day, every day. A single boiler provides heat for curing, sterilizing, and cleaning. The boiler goes down due to a lack of feedwater. Each hour of steam loss results in four hours of lost production.

     Boiler Turndown

    Boiler turndown is the ratio between full boiler output and the boiler output when operating at low fire. Typical boiler turndown is 4:1. For example, a 400 horsepower boiler, with a 4:1 turndown burner, will modulate down to 100 horsepower before cycling off. The same boiler
    with a 10:1 turndown burner will modulate down to 40 horsepower.

     The ability of the burner to turn down reduces frequent on and off cycling. Fully modulating burners are typically designed to operate down to 25% of rated capacity. At a load that is 20% of the rated capacity, the boiler will turn off and cycle frequently.

     A boiler operating at low load conditions can cycle as frequently as 12 times per hour, or 288 times per day. With each cycle, pre- and postpurge air flow removes heat from the boiler and sends it out the stack. The energy loss can be eliminated by keeping the boiler on at low firing rates. Every time the boiler cycles off, it must go through a specific start-up sequence for safety assurance. It requires about one to two minutes to place the boiler back on line. And, if there's a sudden load demand, the start-up sequence cannot be accelerated. Keeping the boiler on line assures the quickest response to load changes. Frequent cycling also accelerates wear of boiler components. Maintenance increases and, more importantly, the chance of component failure increases.

     As discussed earlier, boiler(s) capacity requirement determined by many different types of load variations in the system. Boiler over-sizing occurs when future expansion and safety factors are added to assure that the boiler is large enough for the application. If the boiler is oversized, the ability of the boiler to handle minimum loads without cycling is reduced. Therefore, capacity and turndown should be considered together for proper boiler selection to meet overall system load requirements.

     Performance Considerations

     Three important considerations pertain to fuels, emissions, and efficiency. All three have important impact on boiler performance, and can affect long-term boiler operating costs.

     Fuels Remember, from an operating perspective, fuel costs typically account for approximately 10% of a facility's total operating budget. Therefore, fuel is an important consideration. Normally, the fuels of choice are natural gas, propane, or light oil. Increasingly stringent emission standards have greatly reduced the use of heavy oil and solid fuels such as coal and wood. Of the fossil fuels, natural gas burns cleanest and leaves fewer residues; therefore less maintenance is required.

     It can be advantageous to supply a boiler with a combination burner that can burn two fuels independently - for example, oil or natural gas. A combination burner allows the customer to take advantage of "peak time" rates, which substantially reduces the costs of a therm of gas when operating "off peak" by merely switching to the back up fuel. Dual fuel capability also is beneficial if the primary fuel supply must be shut down for safety or maintenance reasons.

     Some waste streams can be used as fuel in the boiler. In addition to reducing fuel costs, firing an alternate fuel in a boiler can greatly reduce disposal costs. Waste streams are typically used in combination with standard fuels to ensure safe operation and to provide additional
    operating flexibility.

     Emissions

     Emission standards for boilers have become very stringent in many areas, because of the new clean air regulations. The ability of the boiler to meet emission regulations depends on the type of boiler and burner options.

     Efficiency

     Efficiency is used in the measure of economic performance of any piece of equipment. In the boiler industry, there are four common definitions of efficiency, but only one true measurement. Following are the definitions and how to measure efficiency. Combustion Efficiency Combustion efficiency is the effectiveness of the burner only and relates
    to its ability to completely burn the fuel. The boiler has little bearing on combustion efficiency. A well- designed burner will operate with as little as 15 to 20% excess air, while converting all combustibles in the fuel to thermal energy.

     Thermal Efficiency

    Thermal efficiency is the effectiveness of the heat transfer in a boiler. It does not take into account boiler radiation and convection losses - for example, from the boiler shell, water column piping, etc.

     Boiler Efficiency

    The term "boiler efficiency" is often substituted for combustion or thermal efficiency. True boiler efficiency is the measure of fuel-to-steam efficiency.

     Fuel-to-Steam Efficiency

    Cleaver-Brooks guaranteed boiler efficiencies are fuel-to- steam efficiencies.

     Fuel-to-steam efficiency is the correct definition to use when determining boiler efficiency. Fuel-to-steam efficiency is calculated using either of two methods, as prescribed by the ASME Power Test Code, PTC 4.1. The first method is input-output, which is the ratio of
    Btu output divided by Btu input x 100.

     The second method is heat balance which considers stack temperature and losses, excess air levels, and radiation and convection losses. Therefore, the heat balance calculation for fuel-to-steam efficiency is 100 minus the total percent stack loss and minus the percent radiation and convection losses.

     Stack Temperature and Losses

    Stack temperature is the temperature of the combustion gases (dry and water vapor) leaving the boiler. A well-designed boiler removes as much heat as possible from the combustion gases. Thus, lower stack temperature represents more effective heat transfer and lower heat loss up the stack. The stack temperature reflects the energy that did not transfer from the fuel to steam or hot water. Stack temperature is a visible indicator of boiler efficiency. Any time efficiency is guaranteed, predicted stack temperatures should be verified.

     Stack loss is a measure of the amount of heat carried away by dry flue gases (unused heat) and the moisture loss (product of combustion), based on the fuel analysis of the specific fuel being used, moisture in the combustion air, etc.

     Excess Air

    Excess air provides safe operation above stoichiometric conditions. A burner is typically set up with 15 to 20% excess air. Higher excess air levels result in fuel being used to heat the air instead of transferring it to usable energy, increasing stack losses.

     Radiation and Convection Losses

    Radiation and convection losses will vary with boiler type, size, and operating pressure. The losses are typically considered constant in Btu/hr, but become a larger percentage loss as the firing rate decreases. Boiler design factors that also impact efficiencies of the boiler are heating surface, flue gas passes, and design of the boiler and burner package.


     Heating Surface

    Heating surface is one criterion used when comparing boilers. Boilers with higher heating surface per boiler horsepower tend to be more efficient and operate with less thermal stress. Many packaged boilers are offered with five square feet of heating surface per boiler horsepower as an optimum design for peak efficiency.

     Flue Gas Passes

    The number of passes that the flue gas travels before exiting the boiler is also a good criterion when comparing boilers. As the flue gas travels through the boiler it cools and, therefore, changes volume. Multiple pass boilers increase efficiency because the passes are designed to maximize flue gas velocities as the flue gas cools.

     Integral Boiler/Burner Package

    Ultimately, the performance of the boiler is based on the ability of the burner, the boiler, and the controls to work together. When specifying performance, efficiency, emissions, turndown, capacity, and excess air all must be evaluated together. The efficiency of the boiler is based, in part, on the burner being capable of operating at optimum excess air levels. Burners not properly designed will produce CO or soot at these excess air levels, foul the boiler, and substantially reduce efficiency. In addition to the boiler and burner, the controls included on the boiler (flame safeguard, oxygen trim, etc.) can enhance efficiency and reduce
    overall operating costs for the customer. A true packaged boiler design includes the burner, boiler, and controls as a single, engineered unit.

     Special Considerations

     Replacement Boilers, If the boiler is to be placed in an existing facility, there are a number of considerations:

     Floor space required.

     Total space requirements.

     Access space for maintenance.

     Size and characteristics of the boiler to be replaced, including location of existing piping, the boiler stack and utilities.

     Boiler weight limitations.

     With little or no access to the boiler room, the cast iron boiler and some bent-tube type boilers can be carried into the boiler room in sections or pieces and easily assembled, with no welding required.

     Electric boilers should also be considered, especially since they do not require a stack.

     Vertical firetube boilers have a small floor space requirement

    والله أعلم ،



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    مهندس إستشارى / مصطفى الوكيل
    M.E.P. Manager - ITCC Project, Riyadh
    Zuhair Fayez
    ــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــ

  9. [9]
    م.عبدالناصرعجوة
    م.عبدالناصرعجوة غير متواجد حالياً
    مشرف واستشارى غلايات
    الصورة الرمزية م.عبدالناصرعجوة


    تاريخ التسجيل: Jan 2009
    المشاركات: 2,262

    وسام مشرف متميز

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    شكرا جزيلا ايها الاستشارى الفاضل مهندس مصطفى الوكيل ووصلت المعلومات الدسمة وارجو ان تكون هذه المعلومات بها توضيح باللغة العربية لأن كثير من المهتمين بالغلايات من غير المهندسين منهم فنيين وحرفين ونريد ان نفيد الجميع لأن كثير من الناس طلبوا منى ذلك فكانت مشاركاتى على نفس الخط لك تحياتى واسف على الاطالة

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    الغلايات البخارية
    عن أبي ذر الغفاري رضي الله عنه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : "اتق الله حيثما كنت. وأتبع السيئة الحسنة تمحها، وخالق الناس بخلق حسن" رواه الإمام أحمد والترمذي.

  10. [10]
    ابو الباسل الألمعي
    ابو الباسل الألمعي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال


    تاريخ التسجيل: Sep 2006
    المشاركات: 142
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    أشكر كل من شارك وعلق على معلوماتكم القيمة وسرعة استجابتكم

    معلومات عن البويلر
    steam boiler
    working pressure max: 10 bar
    actually we are working on 2.5 bar
    steam production max: 3000 kg/h
    fire tube

    في انتظار معلوماتكم ايها الاساتذة الافاضل

    دمتم بخير

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