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كلماتحتاجه عن ال absorption chiller

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    نور محمد علي
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    ahmadmechanical
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    م.حسين عجرش

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    قال الشافعي سألت وكيع عن سوء حفظي فقال لي......


    ان العلم نور.............ونور الله لايهدي لعاصي

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    ABC thermo dynamic for absorption chiller

    General Knowledge on Thermodynamics

    Basic Concepts:
    1. Air conditioning: the adjustment and control of the parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, cleanness, noise and airflow speed of a specific space to meet the requirements of people’s life and production. The requirement of air adjustment varies according to different space and usage.
    As to the comfortable air conditioner, BROAD’s understanding is the harmonization of air. “Harmony” is the culmination of Chinese culture, and the culmination of air conditioning is “six excellences”(the order is set according to importance). 1)temperature: regulate the indoor temp. against the natural temp. to meet the requirement of human body. 2)freshness: bring the outdoor fresh air into the room to provide enough oxygen.3)cleanness: eliminate the harmful materials and bacteria collected in the room.4)quietness: reduce the noise of the equipment to unperceivable.5) humidity: adjust the humidity to meet the requirement of people’s skin. 6)air flow speed: make people in the room can not detect the airflow. To achieve the above goals, we must realize “four excellences”: excellent design, excellent equipment, excellent installation and excellent maintenance.
    2. Cooling: means creating a cool environment whose temp. is lower than the ambient temp. in a specific space. For example, the indoor temperature (25℃) is lower than the outdoor temperature (38℃) and the refrigerator temp. (5℃) is lower than indoor temp. (25℃) etc.
    3. Pressure: In physics, the force vertically acting on the surface of the materials is called press; the press divided by the acreage is called pressure. Pressure is a physical parameter to measure the effect of the force on the surface of the material. The unit for pressure is abbreviated as Pa., 1Pa just indicates the force of 1Newton acting on the surface of 1 square meter. so we have the following equation: 1Pa = 1N/m2,1mmHg = 133Pa. In practice, people are used to taking pressure as press.
    4. Atmosphere pressure: the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the surface of the earth. The atmosphere pressure value varies with the altitude, seasons and climate. The air status parameter will change accordingly while the atmosphere pressure changes, so some errors will take place if ignoring the local atmosphere pressure while developing and operating the air conditioning system.
    5. Standard atmosphere pressure: the average air pressure on the sea level with latitude of 45 degree, and its value is 760mmHg.In most areas where the air conditioner is used, the atmosphere pressure is near to the standard one, so when analyzing air conditioning systems (including the main unit), we normally assume that the ambient pressure is equal to the standard atmosphere pressure.
    6.Gauge pressure: the pressure value of a hermetical vessel, measured by the pressure gauge, which equals the difference between the actual air pressure of the vessel and the local atmosphere pressure. When the air pressure inside is lower than the standard air pressure, the gauge indicates a negative value and we assert the vessel inside is on the negative pressure or vacuum status; on the other hand, when the inside pressure is higher than the atmosphere pressure, the gauge indicates a positive value and we assert that the vessel inside is on positive pressure status.
    7. Absolute pressure: the actual pressure in the vessel, which equals the gauge pressure plus the ambient atmosphere pressure.
    8. Vacuum: the status that absolute pressure inside the hermetical vessel is lower than the ambient air pressure.
    9. Vacuum degree: when the vessel is in vacuum status, the vacuum degree equals the ambient air pressure minus the inside absolute pressure of the vessel.
    10.Temperature: a physical parameter to indicate the hot and cool degree of objects. It is the consequence of the molecule movement and measured with thermometric scale. Centigrade scale is usually used. Temperature scale is defined as follows: under standard atmosphere pressure, the frozen temperature of the water is defined as 0℃ while the boiling temperature as 100℃.The temperature difference between the frozen point and the boiling point is divided by 100 and the result stands for 1℃.As we all know, the symbol for the centigrade scale is ℃。
    11.Relative humidity: equals the actual steam pressure in the air divided by the saturated steam pressure at the same temperature. It reflects the saturated degree of steam ******* in the air. The lower this value is, the less saturated and drier the air is, the more water it will absorb, and vice versa.
    12.Dualistic solution: the solution composed of two different materials between which no chemical reactions take place. The physical properties, such as pressure, temperature, concentration and density, are consistent everywhere in this evenly mixed solution, so it cannot be divided into the original components through simple mechanical methods such as deposition or centrifugation. For instance, the boiling point of the water is 100℃,whereas that of LiBr is 1265℃ under the standard air pressure, the difference is so big that there is almost no LiBr in the steam when the solution is boiling.
    13.Saturated solution: the solution which has the maximum solid solute dissolving in the solvent under certain temperature.
    14.Dissolution: the process that the solid solute dissolves in the solvent. When the solute is immersed in the solvent, the molecules on the surface of solute move continuously and are absorbed by the molecules of the solvent. The molecules of the solid solute break away from the surface and mix with the solvent to form solution.
    15.Crystallization: When the temperature goes down, the solute molecule will be separated from the solution and crystallize because the dissolvability decreases.
    16.Heating and cooling quantity: the transferring energy caused by the temperature difference of the two objects. The energy of the material with higher temperature transfering to the lower one is called heating quantity, otherwise it is called cooling quantity. The commonly used units for them are cal or kcal. According to the physical classification, there are 3 basic forms of heat transfer: conducting, convection and radiation.
    17.Conducting: The heat transferring between the two contacting objects, between which there is a temperature difference. Heat quantity transfers from one part of the object to the other part; there is no visible material movement during this process; moreover, the heat energy is transferred through the movement of the molecule. Heat conduct is the primary form of heat transferring and will not stop until the temperatures of the two objects balance.
    18.Convection: Heat transferring caused by the liquid flowing because of the temperature difference. Heat convection takes place in the liquid and the gas only and often at the same time; they are the two primary heat-transferring forms on the refrigeration and air conditioning engineering.
    19. Radiation: A phenomenon that the object gives out energy in the form of electromagnetic wave for its temperature. The higher the temperature of the object is, the stronger the radiation ability gets.
    20. Specific heat: The heat that an object of certain unit mass gives out or absorbs while the temperature rises or decreases by 1℃.the specific heat of the 25℃ water is 1kcal/kg.℃, while the LiBr solution with the concentration of 51% is 0.5kcal/kg.℃.Specific heat is an important parameter to calculate the sensible heat.
    21. Sensible heat: the heat the object gives out or absorbs when the object is heated or cooled without state change. The commonly used unit is cal or kcal.
    22. Potential heat: the heat the object gives out or absorbs while its state is changed and no temperature change takes place. For instance, evaporation and condensing in cooling operation are the process of absorbing and giving out potential heat.
    23. Evaporation: The process that the molecules of the liquid surface change into the steam. All the liquids evaporate at any temperature. The speed of this process depends on the external conditions such as temperature, air pressure etc, for example if the evaporation acreage is larger, the liquid surface temperature is higher, the air flow speed on the liquid surface is faster and the air pressure on the surface is lower, the evaporation speed is higher.
    24. Saturated steam pressure and saturated temperature: The gasification will take place in the liquid in the airtight vessel and the steam molecule will leave the liquid surface to the upper space of the vessel because of the gravity and pressure with the steam; on the other hand, the steam molecule in upper space will return to the liquid for their action against each other and collision against the wall. These two processes take place at the same time; the steam pressure is called as saturated pressure and the temperature as Saturated temperature when the two processes reach homeostasis.
    25. Gasification:The process that liquid is changed into gas, which includes evaporation and boiling.
    26. Gasification heat: The heat required to change liquid of certain unit mass into steam of the same temperature completely. Gasification heat for the water at 100℃ is 539kcal per/kg.
    27. Boiling: A kind of violent gasification which takes place on both the surface and inner of the liquid under a certain pressure when the liquid is heated to a certain temperature and the inner steam molecules have enough energy to rush out of the liquid surface.
    28. Boiling point: The boiling temperature for a certain liquid under certain pressure. The boiling point relates closely to the ambient air pressure, for instance, the boiling point of water under 1 standard atmosphere pressure is 100℃, while it is only 4℃ when the ambient pressure is 6mmHg.
    29. Condensation: The process that the steam changes into the liquid when it is compressed or cooled. The condensation is just a process of liquefaction. For example, the water steam will change into liquefied water when it is cooled.
    30. Condensation heat: The heat given out by the steam of certain unit mass when it changes into the liquid completely under a certain temperature. Experiment testifies that condensation heat is equal to the gasification heat under the same temperature, for example, the condensation heat with the water steam are equal to the gasification heat with the water as 539kcal under 100℃.
    31 .Heat value: The heat released by the fuel of certain unit mass or volume when it burns completely.
    32. High heat value: The burning heat of each composition in the fuel plus the potential heat of water steam at the exhaust port.
    33. Low heat value: High heat minus the potential heat of water steam at the exhaust port.
    34. C.O.P: The heating and cooling efficiency of the air conditioner, which equals the heating or cooling capacity of the machine divided by the input energy.
    35. Non-condensable gas: The gas that can neither be condensed nor absorbed by LiBr and the refrigerant water under the temperature and pressure inside the machine. The non-condensable gas inside the machine can affect the vacuum degree of the chiller and corrode the cooling capacity; furthermore, the life span of the machine will be shortened if there is oxygen in the machine.
    36. The First Law of Thermodynamics: Heat energy can be transformed into mechanical energy and vice versa, but the total amount of energy keeps unchanged during the conversion process. The First Law of Thermodynamics sets forth the quantity relationship among different energies during its transfer and conversion. From the energy “quantity” point of view, we can only tell whether or how much energy it is utilized.
    37. The Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat can be transferred from the object of high temperature to that of low but cannot be transferred from the objects of low temperature to that of high temperature spontaneously and automatically.
    The Second Law of Thermodynamics is essentially a theory of energy depreciation. It demonstrates the directions, conditions and bounds of energy transfer and conversion (quality rank). From the energy “quality” point of view, we should enhance the energy efficiency, prevent and reduce energy depreciation.

    Unit Conversion Table:
    1mmH2O=9.802Pa 1 mmHg=133.3 Pa
    1 kgf/cm2=0.098 MPa 1 bar=0.1 MPa
    1 psi=0.1 MPa 1 atm=101.325 kPa
    1 m3/h=4.4 GPM 1 kcal=4.187 kJ
    1 lb=0.454 kg 1 kal/h=1.163 W
    1 kWh=3.6×103 kJ 1 kJ/h=0.278 W
    (℉)=[(℃)×9/5]+32 (K)=(℃)+273.15

    The Pressure Unit Conversion Table:
    item (Pa) bar mbar kgf/m2
    mmH2O kgf/cm2
    at atm mmHg lbs/in2
    1 1 1×10-5 1×10-2 1.02×10-1 1.02×10-5 9.87×10-5 7.5×10-3 1.45×10-4
    2 1×105 1 1×103 1.02×104 1.02 9.87×10-1 7.5×102 14.5
    3 1×102 1×10-3 1 10.2 1.02×10-3 9.87×10-4 7.5×10-1 1.45×10-2
    4 9.81 9.81×10-5 9.81×10-2 1 1×10-4 9.68×10-5 7.356×10-2 1.42×10-5
    5 9.81×104 0.981 9.81×102 1×104 1 0.968 7.356×102 14.2
    6 1.01325×105 1.01325 1.01325×103 1.033×104 1.033 1 7.6×102 14.7
    7 1.33×102 1.33×10-3 1.33 13.6 1.36×10-3 1.316×10-3 1 1.93×10-2
    8 6.895×103 6.895×10-2 68.95 7.03×102 7.03×10-2 6.8×10-2 51.7 1
    Note: If the accuracy requirement permits, the following equations will be introduced to the technical calculation: 1kgf/cm2=0.981bar≈1bar≈105Pa=100kPa;1mmH2O=9.81Pa≈10Pa; 1mmHg≈133Pa=1.33mbar.

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    eng_roshdy24
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    صيانة الشيلرات Absorption خاص بصديق عزيز

    صيانة مبردات الامتصاص Absorption Chillers Maintenance
    Periodical Inspection List.
    - الصيانة اليومية. – Every Day.

    1- التأكد من درجات حرارة المبردات ( دخول و خروج ).1- Check for inlet & exit chilled water temp.
    2- التأكد من مستوى منسوب المحلول و المبرد.2- Check the solution and refrigerant levels.
    3- التأكد من مستوى منسوب زيت طلمبة التطهير.3- Check lubricating oil level of purge pump.
    4- التأكد من عدم وجود أي تسريب في خطوط الغاز.4- Check for gas smell near burner (gas leakage )
    5- التأكد من عدم وجود أي أصوات غريبة.5- Check for abnormal noise.
    6- تسجيل القراءات اليومية للمبردات.6- Record operation data in daily sheet.

    - الصيانة الأسبوعية. – Every week.

    1- أداء الصيانة اليومية. 1-Perform daily maintenance.
    2- المرور على المبرد و التأكد من 2- Walk around inspection
    - وجود أي تسريب.i- Check for leaks.
    - سماع أي أصوات غريبة.ii- Check for abnormal noise.
    - أداء جميع أجهزة القياس.iii- Check for measurements equipments.
    3- تحضير و تشغيل طلمبة التطهير من 10 إلى 15 دقيقة. 3- Perform purge operation for 10 to 15 min.
    4- عمل اختبار الفاكيوم ( متابعة عدد الفقاعات ) 4- Check vacuum ( perform 10 bubbles test )
    5- تسجيل القراءات اليومية للمبردات. 5- Record operation data in daily sheet.

    - الصيانة الشهرية. – Every month.

    1- أداء الصيانة الأسبوعية. 1- Perform weekly maintenance.
    2- صيانة طلمبة التطهير 2- Servicing purge pump.
    - التأكد من صلاحية الزيت.- Check lubricating oil.
    - تغيير الزيت كل شهرين.- Chang pump oil every 2 month.
    - التأكد من سعة طلمبة التطهير.- Check purge pump capacity.
    ( أقصى فاكيوم 2 مم زئبق مطلق )(Attained vacuum = max 2 mm hg abs )
    3- تحضير و تشغيل طلمبة التطهير من 10 إلى 15 دقيقة 3- Perform purge operation for 10 to 15 min.
    4- عمل اختبار الفاكيوم ( متابعة عدد الفقاعات ) 4- Check vacuum ( perform 10 bubbles test )
    5- فحص لوحات الكنترول و التأكد من 5- Check for control panel
    - وصلات الأسلاك.i- connection of wires.
    - نظافة اللوحة ( استخدام البلاور ) ii- Use dry pressurized air to dust out the panel.


    - الصيانة نصف السنوية. – Every six month.

    1- أداء الصيانة الشهرية. 1- Perform monthly maintenance.
    2- عمل فحص على محلول التبريد. 2- Inspection of refrigerant solution.
    - اخذ عينة من المحلول و عمل قياس للجاذبية النوعية.- Make sampling of refrigerant solution.
    ( ج.ن = 1.02 ).check its specific gravity (s.g = 1.02 max ) ,Moreover
    3- عمل فحص على جميع الطلمبات. 3- Inspection of pump operation.
    - معاينة وجود أي اهتزازات غير طبيعية.i- Inspect for any abnormal vibration.
    - التأكد من عدم وجود أي أصوات عالية.ii- Inspect for any abnormal sound (noise)
    - التأكد من عدم ارتفاع درجة الحرارة. iii- Inspect if the temperature is abnormally high.
    4- فحص طلمبات مياه المبرد. 4- Check chilled water pumps.
    5- فحص طلمبات مياه أبراج التبريد. 5- Check cooling water pumps.
    6- التأكد من مروحة الهواء الخاصة بالحارق. 6- Check burner forced air fan.
    7- التأكد من بطانة مواسير الغاز. 7- Check gas train.
    8- فحص النظام الكهربي. 8- Inspection of electrical system.
    - قياس العازل الخاص بمواتير الطلمبات.i- Measure the insulation of each.
    ( أعلى من 2 ميجا اوم ).pump motor ( above 2 M Ohm )
    - قياس العازل الخاص بدوائر الكنترول ii- measure the insulation of the
    و دوائر المواتير.control circuit and motor circuit.
    - فحص لوح التحكم.iii- Inspect control panel.
    * فحص و إعادة تربيط نهايات الكابلات.* inspect and retighten each terminal.
    * فحص مفاتيح التلامس للطلمبات.* inspect contactors of each pump.
    9- الفحص الوقائي لوحدات الكنترول. 9- Inspection of protective / control units.
    - التأكد من مفتاح فرق الضغوط الخاص بخط المياه الباردة.i- Chilled water flow rate diff .pressure switch (ch . w ).
    - التأكد من حساس الحرارة لدخول و خروج المياه الباردة.ii- Chilled water inlet & outlet temperature sensor.
    - التأكد من مفتاح ضغط الغاز.iii- Gas pressure switch ( pressure rise / drop ).
    - التأكد من مفتاح ضغط الغلاية.iv- High pressure generator pressure switch.
    - التأكد من حساس الضغط الخاص بالغلاية.v –High pressure generator pressure sensor.
    - التأكد من حساس الحرارة الخاص بالغلاية. vi- High pressure generator temperature sensor.
    - ضبط مفاتيح الحمل الزائد للمواتير.vii – Setting of each motor overload relay.
    - التأكد من ضبط مفتاح المستوى.ix – High pressure generator level switch.
    - التأكد من حساس حرارة العادم.x – Exhaust gas temp. sensor.
    - التأكد من مستوى سائل التبريد.xi – Refrigerant level switch.
    - التأكد من المحبس الخاص بمحلول الليثيوم بروميد.xii – Check of solution dump valve action.
    10- التأكد من كفاءة عمل وحدات الكنترول 10- Operation check of capacity controller.
    - التأكد من نظام اشتعال الحارق.i- Check burner ignition system.
    - التأكد من عمل محبس الكنترول الخاص بالمحلول.ii- Check solution control valve action
    ( عمل تجربة للمحبس بإعطائه إشارة ) ( To act correctly with applicable signal ).
    - فحص لوحة الاتوماتيك و البوردة الخاصة بها.iii- Micro-computer board and setting
    ( To act correctly with applicable signal ).
    - التأكد من محبس المستوى الخاص بالغلاية.iv- Check high pressure generator level control
    ( To act correctly with applicable signal )
    - التأكد من التشغيل الأتوماتيك.v- Check auto start / stop operation.
    - التأكد من محبس القفل الخاص بالوقود.vi- Check of gas shut-off valve action.



    - الصيانة السنوية. – Every one year.

    1- أداء الصيانة نصف السنوية. 1- Perform six month maintenance.
    2- المرور على المبرد و التأكد من 2- Tube cleaning of cooling water system
    - نظافة مواسير المبخر و المبرد. – Clean the absorber and condenser tubes with brush.
    3- قياس تركيز المحلول 3- Measurement of solution concentration
    - أخذ عينة من المحلول الضعيف و القوي- make sampling of weak solution and strong solution
    و عمل قياس نسبة التركيز بالنسبة إلى درجة الحرارة-Check the concentration valve with the specific gravity
    و عجلة الجاذبية ( المحلول الضعيف % - المحلول القوي % )and temperature ( weak solution % - strong solution% )
    4- الفحص الدقيق لطلمبة الفاكيوم. 4- Overhaul purge pump.
    5- عمل اختبار لمحبس الفاكيوم. 5- Overhaul purge solenoid valve.
    6- تسجيل القراءات اليومية للمبردات. 6- Check cooling tower. (Check leaks – fans – controls )
    7- فحص نظام حقن الوقود 7- Inspection and adjustment of fuel system.
    - التأكد من عدم وجود أي تسريب في خطوط الغاز.- Leak inspection of gas piping.
    - التأكد من عدم وجود أي تسريب في محبس الغاز- Seat leak inspection of gas shut-off valve.
    - التأكد من عدم وجود أي تسريب في محبس الغاز- Seat leak inspection of solenoid valve for ignition of burner.
    - نظافة الاليكترود الخاص بالاشتعال.- Gap adjustment / cleaning of electrodes for ignition of burner.
    * فحص جميع أجهزة الحماية الموضوعة على خط الوقود- Functional inspection of fuel protective devices.
    * فحص نظام التحكم الخاص بالوقود.- Inspection of fuel control mechanism operation.
    * ضبط و تعديل الحارق. – Adjustment of burner.

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    eng_roshdy24
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    انا عايز أي حد في صيانة الشيلرات apsorbtion ضروري
    أنا مهتم جدا بالموضوع وعندي معلومات وفيرة جدا

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  9. [19]
    دكتور صبرى سعيد
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    التبريد بالامتصاص

    اكرمك الله وبارك الله فيك
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    أهلا وسهلا بيك يا باشمهندس صبري..
    اسمي محمد رشدي وانا مهتم جدا بنوعية الشيلرات التي تعمل بالامتصاص (الليثيوم بروميد)..
    أنا نفسي أتخصص بالمجال أكتر وأكتر وعندي معلومات وفيرة كتييييييييير عنه ونفسي يكون هناك معلومات متبادلة من كل المهندسين عشان نقدر نتعامل مع أي منظومة هندسية بيسر وسهولة واللي أتمناه ان يكون هناك مهندس عربي واحد قادر على انشاء فكرة جديدة للتبريد زي الشيلرات ديه ومنكنش ناس بتحاول تلقي المعلومات وبس..أملي في الله كبير انه يكون من مصر
    وحبدأ انشاء الله معاكو في معرفة ايه هي الشلرات ديه وامتى تم اكتشافه بالظبط
    ملحوظة: كل المعلومات ديه مقتبسه من مهنسين أعزاء من مختلف المجالات ادوهلي لما كنت بدور عليها (جزاهم الله خيرا)

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