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Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material

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    Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material

    Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material



    Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material from IIT Kharagpur, cover structural analysis, in seven modules / 40 lessons.
    IIT Kharagpur | English | 2008 | ISBN: N/A | 737 Pages | PDF | 13,6 Mb

    Description : Structural analysis and design is a very old art and is known to human beings since early civilizations. The Pyramids constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C. stands today as the testimony to the skills of master builders of that civilization. Many early civilizations produced great builders, skilled craftsmen who constructed magnificent buildings such as the Parthenon at Athens (2500 years old), the great Stupa at Sanchi (2000 years old), Taj Mahal (350 years old), Eiffel Tower (120 years old) and many more buildings around the world. These monuments tell us about the great feats accomplished by these craftsmen in analysis, design and construction of large structures. Today we see around us countless houses, bridges, fly-overs, high-rise buildings and spacious shopping malls. Planning, analysis and construction of these buildings is a science by itself. The main purpose of any structure is to support the loads coming on it by properly transferring them to the foundation. Even animals and trees could be treated as structures. Indeed biomechanics is a branch of mechanics, which concerns with the working of skeleton and muscular structures. In the early periods houses were constructed along the riverbanks using the locally available material. They were designed to withstand rain and moderate wind. Today structures are designed to withstand earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones and blast loadings. Aircraft structures are designed for more complex aerodynamic loadings. These have been made possible with the advances in structural engineering and a revolution in electronic computation in the past 50 years. The construction material industry has also undergone a revolution in the last four decades resulting in new materials having more strength and stiffness than the traditional construction material. In this book we are mainly concerned with the analysis of framed structures (beam, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame and grid), arches, cables and suspension bridges subjected to static loads only


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    Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material



    Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering Course Material from IIT Kharagpur, cover structural analysis, in seven modules / 40 lessons.
    IIT Kharagpur | English | 2008 | ISBN: N/A | 737 Pages | PDF | 13,6 Mb

    Description : Structural analysis and design is a very old art and is known to human beings since early civilizations. The Pyramids constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C. stands today as the testimony to the skills of master builders of that civilization. Many early civilizations produced great builders, skilled craftsmen who constructed magnificent buildings such as the Parthenon at Athens (2500 years old), the great Stupa at Sanchi (2000 years old), Taj Mahal (350 years old), Eiffel Tower (120 years old) and many more buildings around the world. These monuments tell us about the great feats accomplished by these craftsmen in analysis, design and construction of large structures. Today we see around us countless houses, bridges, fly-overs, high-rise buildings and spacious shopping malls. Planning, analysis and construction of these buildings is a science by itself. The main purpose of any structure is to support the loads coming on it by properly transferring them to the foundation. Even animals and trees could be treated as structures. Indeed biomechanics is a branch of mechanics, which concerns with the working of skeleton and muscular structures. In the early periods houses were constructed along the riverbanks using the locally available material. They were designed to withstand rain and moderate wind. Today structures are designed to withstand earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones and blast loadings. Aircraft structures are designed for more complex aerodynamic loadings. These have been made possible with the advances in structural engineering and a revolution in electronic computation in the past 50 years. The construction material industry has also undergone a revolution in the last four decades resulting in new materials having more strength and stiffness than the traditional construction material. In this book we are mainly concerned with the analysis of framed structures (beam, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame and grid), arches, cables and suspension bridges subjected to static loads only


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    Module 1 Energy Methods in Structural Analysis
    • Lesson 1 General Introduction, objectives: Differentiate between various structural forms such as beams, plane truss, space truss, plane frame, space frame, arches, cables, plates and shells ~ State and use conditions of static equilibrium ~ Calculate the degree of static and kinematic indeterminacy of a given structure such as beams, truss and frames ~ Differentiate between stable and unstable structure ~ Define flexibility and stiffness coefficients ~ Write force-displacement relations for simple structure –*******s– [ Classification of Structures ~ Equations of Static Equilibrium ~ Static Indeterminacy ~ Kinematic Indeterminacy ~ Kinematically Unstable Structure ~ Compatibility Equations ~ Force-Displacement Relationship ]
    • Lesson 2 Principle of Superposition, Strain Energy, objectives: State and use principle of superposition ~ Explain strain energy concept ~ Differentiate between elastic and inelastic strain energy and state units of strain energy ~ Derive an expression for strain energy stored in one-dimensional structure under axial load ~ Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in bending ~ Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a beam in shear ~ Derive an expression for elastic strain energy stored in a circular shaft under torsion –*******s– [ Principle of Superposition ~ Strain Energy ~ Strain energy due to torsion ]
    • Lesson 3 Castigliano’s Theorems, objectives: State and prove first theorem of Castigliano ~ Calculate deflections along the direction of applied load of a statically determinate structure at the point of application of load ~ Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure in any direction at a point where the load is not acting by fictious (imaginary) load method ~ State and prove Castigliano’s second theorem –*******s– [ Castigliano's First Theorem ~ Castigliano's Second Theorem ]
    • Lesson 4 Theorem of Least Work, objectives: State and prove theorem of Least Work ~ Analyse statically indeterminate structure ~ State and prove Maxwell-Betti’s Reciprocal theorem –*******s– [ Theorem of Least Work ~ Maxwell-Betti Reciprocal theorem ]
    • Lesson 5 Virtual Work, objectives: Define Virtual Work ~ Differentiate between external and internal virtual work ~ Sate principle of virtual displacement and principle of virtual forces ~ Drive an expression of calculating deflections of structure using unit load method ~ Calculate deflections of a statically determinate structure using unit load method ~ State unit displacement method ~ Calculate stiffness coefficients using unit-displacement method –*******s– [ Principle of Virtual Work ~ Principle of Virtual Displacement ~ Principle of Virtual Forces ~ Unit Load Method ~ Unit Displacement Method ]
    • Lesson 6 Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles, objectives: State and prove Crotti-Engesser theorem ~ Derive simple expressions for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to mechanical loading using unit-load method ~ Derive equations for calculating deflections in trusses subjected to temperature loads ~ Compute deflections in trusses using unit-load method due to fabrication errors –*******s– [ Crotti-Engesser Theorem ~ Unit Load Method as applied to Trusses ~ Fabrication Errors and Camber ~ Procedure for calculating truss deflection ]

    Module 2 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Matrix Force Method
    • Lesson 7 The Force Method of Analysis: An Introduction, objectives: Able to analyse statically indeterminate structure of degree one ~ Able to solve the problem by either treating reaction or moment as redundant ~ Able to draw shear force and bending moment diagram for statically indeterminate beams ~ Able to state advantages and limitations of force method of analysis –*******s– [ Simple Example ]
    • Lesson 8 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams, objectives: Solve statically indeterminate beams of degree more than one ~ To solve the problem in matrix notation ~ To compute reactions at all the supports ~ To compute internal resisting bending moment at any section of the continuous beam –*******s– [ Formalization of Procedure ]
    • Lesson 9 The Force Method of Analysis: Beams (Continued), objectives: Calculate additional stresses developed in statically indeterminate structures due to support settlements ~ Analyse continuous beams which are supported on yielding supports ~ Sketch the deflected shape of the member ~ Draw banding moment and shear force diagrams for indeterminate beams undergoing support settlements –*******s– [ Support Displacements ~ Temperature Stresses ]
    • Lesson 10 The Force Method of Analysis: Trusses, objectives: Calculate degree of statical indeterminacy of a planar truss ~ Analyse the indeterminate planar truss for external loads ~ Analyse the planar truss for temperature loads ~ Analyse the planar truss for camber and lack of fit of a member –*******s– [ Examples ]
    • Lesson 11 The Force Method of Analysis: Frames, objectives: Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frame by force method ~ Analyse the statically indeterminate plane frames undergoing support settlements ~ Calculate the static deflections of a primary structure (released frame) under external loads ~ Write compatibility equations of displacements for the plane deformations ~ Compute reaction components of the indeterminate frame ~ Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams for the frame ~ Draw qualitative elastic curve of the frame –*******s– [ Support settlements ]
    • Lesson 12 Three-Moment Equations-I, objectives: Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with unyielding supports ~ Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments ~ Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations ~ Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans using three-moment equations –*******s– [ Three-moment equation ~ Alternate derivation ]
    • Lesson 13 The Three-Moment Equations-Ii, objectives: Derive three-moment equations for a continuous beam with yielding supports ~ Write compatibility equations of a continuous beam in terms of three moments ~ Compute reactions in statically indeterminate beams using three-moment equations ~ Analyse continuous beams having different moments of inertia in different spans and undergoing support settlements using three-moment equations –*******s– [ Derivation of Three-Moment Equation ]

    Module 3 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Displacement Method
    • Lesson 14 The Slope-Deflection Method: An Introduction, objectives: Calculate kinematic degrees of freedom of continuous beam ~ Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with unyielding supports ~ Differentiate between force method and displacement method of analyses ~ State advantages of displacement method of analysis as compared to force method of analysis ~ Analyse continuous beam using slope-deflection method –*******s– [ Degrees of freedom ~ Slope-Deflection Equations ~ Application of Slope-Deflection Equations to Statically Indeterminate Beams. ]
    • Lesson 15 The Slope-Deflection Method: Beams (Continued), objectives: Derive slope-deflection equations for the case beam with yielding supports ~ Estimate the reactions induced in the beam due to support settlements ~ Analyse the beam undergoing support settlements and subjected to external loads ~ Write joint equilibrium equations in terms of moments ~ Relate moments to joint rotations and support settlements –*******s– [ Summary ]
    • Lesson 16 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames Without Sidesway, objectives: State whether plane frames are restrained against sidesway or not ~ Able to analyse plane frames restrained against sidesway by slope-deflection equations ~ Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams for the plane frame ~ Sketch the deflected shape of the plane frame –*******s– [ Introduction ]
    • Lesson 17 The Slope-Deflection Method: Frames with Sidesway, objectives: Derive slope-deflection equations for the frames undergoing sidesway ~ Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway ~ Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams ~ Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway –*******s– [ Introduction ]
    • Lesson 18 The Moment-Distribution Method: Introduction, objectives: Calculate stiffness factors and distribution factors for various members in a continuous beam ~ Define unbalanced moment at a rigid joint ~ Compute distribution moment and carry-over moment ~ Derive expressions for distribution moment, carry-over moments ~ Analyse continuous beam by the moment-distribution method –*******s– [ Basic Concepts ]
    • Lesson 19 The Moment-Distribution Method: Statically Indeterminate Beams With Support Settlements, objectives: Solve continuous beam with support settlements by the moment-distribution method ~ Compute reactions at the supports ~ Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams ~ Draw the deflected shape of the continuous beam –*******s– [ Summary ]
    • Lesson 20 Moment-Distribution Method: Frames without Sidesway, objectives: Solve plane frame restrained against sidesway by the moment-distribution method ~ Compute reactions at the supports ~ Draw bending moment and shear force diagrams ~ Draw the deflected shape of the plane frame –*******s– [ Summary ]
    • Lesson 21 The Moment-Distribution Method: Frames with Sidesway, objectives: Extend moment-distribution method for frames undergoing sidesway ~ Draw free-body diagrams of plane frame ~ Analyse plane frames undergoing sidesway by the moment-distribution method ~ Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams ~ Sketch deflected shape of the plane frame not restrained against sidesway –*******s– [ Procedure ]
    • Lesson 22 The Multistory Frames with Sidesway, objectives: Identify the number of independent rotational degrees of freedom of a rigid frame ~ Write appropriate number of equilibrium equations to solve rigid frame having more than one rotational degree of freedom ~ Draw free-body diagram of multistory frames ~ Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the slope-deflection method ~ Analyse multistory frames with sidesway by the moment-distribution method –*******s– [ Slope-deflection method ~ Moment-distribution method ]

    Module 4 Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
    • Lesson 23 The Direct Stiffness Method: An Introduction, objectives: Differentiate between the direct stiffness method and the displacement method ~ Formulate flexibility matrix of member ~ Define stiffness matrix ~ Construct stiffness matrix of a member ~ Analyse simple structures by the direct stiffness matrix –*******s– [ A simple example with one degree of freedom ~ Two degrees of freedom structure ]
    • Lesson 24 The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis, objectives: Derive member stiffness matrix of a truss member ~ Define local and global co-ordinate system ~ Transform displacements from local co-ordinate system to global co-ordinate system ~ Transform forces from local to global co-ordinate system ~ Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system ~ Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix ~ Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix –*******s– [ Local and Global Co-ordinate System ~ Member Stiffness Matrix ~ Transformation from Local to Global Co-ordinate System ~ Analysis of plane truss. ]
    • Lesson 25 The Direct Stiffness Method: Truss Analysis (Continued), objectives: Transform member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system ~ Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix ~ Analyse plane truss by the direct stiffness matrix ~ Analyse plane truss supported on inclined roller supports ~ ~ Summary ]
    • Lesson 26 The Direct Stiffness Method: Temperature Changes and Fabrication Errors in Truss Analysis, objectives: Compute stresses developed in the truss members due to temperature changes ~ Compute stresses developed in truss members due to fabrication members ~ Compute reactions in plane truss due to temperature changes and fabrication errors –*******s– [ Temperature Effects and Fabrication Errors ]
    • Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams, objectives: Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element ~ Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam ~ Write down global load vector for the beam problem ~ Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam –*******s– [ Beam Stiffness Matrix ~ Beam (global) Stiffness Matrix ~ Formation of load vector ~ Solution of equilibrium equations ]
    • Lesson 28 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued), objectives: Derive member stiffness matrix of a beam element ~ Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix for a beam ~ Write the global load-displacement relation for the beam ~ Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation of the beam ~ Analyse continuous beams by the direct stiffness method –*******s– [ Summary ]
    • Lesson 29 The Direct Stiffness Method: Beams (Continued), objectives: Compute moments developed in the continuous beam due to support settlements ~ Compute moments developed in statically indeterminate beams due to temperature changes ~ Analyse continuous beam subjected to temperature changes and support settlements –*******s– [ Support settlements ~ Effect of temperature change ]
    • Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method: Plane Frames, objectives: Derive plane frame member stiffness matrix in local co-ordinate system ~ Transform plane frame member stiffness matrix from local to global co-ordinate system ~ Assemble member stiffness matrices to obtain the global stiffness matrix of the plane frame ~ Write the global load-displacement relation for the plane frame ~ Impose boundary conditions on the load-displacement relation ~ Analyse plane frames by the direct stiffness matrix method –*******s– [ Member Stiffness Matrix ~ Transformation from local to global co-ordinate system ]

    Module 5 Cables and Arches
    • Lesson 31 Cables, objectives: Differentiate between rigid and deformable structures ~ Define funicular structure ~ State the type stress in a cable ~ Analyse cables subjected to uniformly distributed load ~ Analyse cables subjected to concentrated loads –*******s– [ Cable subjected to Concentrated Loads ~ Cable subjected to uniform load. ]
    • Lesson 32 Three-Hinged Arch, objectives: Define an arch ~ Identify three-hinged, two-hinged and hingeless arches ~ State advantages of arch construction ~ Analyse three-hinged arch ~ Evaluate horizontal thrust in three-hinged arch –*******s– [ Type of arches ~ Analysis of three-hinged arch ]
    • Lesson 33 Two-Hinged Arch, objectives: Compute horizontal reaction in two-hinged arch by the method of least work ~ Write strain energy stored in two-hinged arch during deformation ~ Analyse two-hinged arch for external loading ~ Compute reactions developed in two hinged arch due to temperature loading –*******s– [ Analysis of two-hinged arch ]
    • Lesson 34 Symmetrical Hingeless Arch, objectives: Analyse hingeless arch by the method of least work ~ Analyse the fixed-fixed arch by the elastic-centre method ~ Compute reactions and stresses in hingeless arch due to temperature change –*******s– [ Analysis of Symmetrical Hingeless Arch ~ Temperature stresses ~ Elastic centre method ]

    Module 6 Approximate Methods for Indeterminate Structural Analysis
    • Lesson 35 Indeterminate Trusses and Industrial Frames, objectives: Make suitable approximations so that an indeterminate structure is reduced to a determinate structure ~ Analyse indeterminate trusses by approximate methods ~ Analyse industrial frames and portals by approximate methods –*******s– [ Indeterminate Trusses: Parallel-chord trusses with two diagonals in each panel ~ Industrial frames and portals ]
    • Lesson 36 Building Frames, objectives: Analyse building frames by approximate methods for vertical loads ~ Analyse building frames by the cantilever method for horizontal loads ~ Analyse building frame by the portal method for horizontal loads –*******s– [ Analysis of Building Frames to Vertical Loads ~ Analysis of Building Frames to lateral (horizontal) Loads ]

    Module 7 Influence Lines
    • Lesson 37 Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members, objectives: Understand the moving load effect in simpler term ~ Study various definitions of influence line ~ Introduce to simple procedures for construction of influence lines –*******s– [ Definitions of influence line ~ Construction of Influence Lines ~ Numerical Examples ~ Influence line for beam having point load and uniformly distributed load acting at the same time ]
    • Lesson 38 Influence Lines for Beams, objectives: How to draw qualitative influence lines? ~ Understand the behaviour of the beam under rolling loads ~ Construction of influence line when the beam is loaded with uniformly distributed load having shorter or longer length than the span of the beam –*******s– [ Muller Breslau Principle for Qualitative Influence Lines ~ Maximum shear in beam supporting UDLs ~ Maximum bending moment at sections in beams supporting UDLs ~ Closing Remarks ]
    • Lesson 39 Influence Lines for Beams (Contd.), objectives: Construction of influence line for maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads ~ Construction of influence line for maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads ~ Construction of influence line for maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Construction of influence line for maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Construction of influence line for maximum moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Construction of influence line for absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Understanding about the envelopes of maximum influence line values –*******s– [ Maximum shear at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads ~ Maximum moment at sections in a beam supporting two concentrated loads ~ Maximum end shear in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Maximum shear at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Maximum Moment at a section in a beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Absolute maximum moment in s beam supporting a series of moving concentrated loads ~ Envelopes of maximum influence line values ]
    • Lesson 40 Influence Lines for Simple Trusses, objectives: Understand the bridge truss floor system and load transfer mechanism ~ Draw the influence line for the truss reactions ~ Draw the influence line for the truss member forces –*******s– [ Bridge Truss Floor System ~ Influence lines for truss support reaction ~ Influence lines for truss member forces

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