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    الصورة الرمزية علاء بيومي
    علاء بيومي
    علاء بيومي غير متواجد حالياً

    عضو

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    المفاقيد في المحولات

    إعداد المهندس / علاء بيومي عبد العظيم
    زميل جمعية المهندسين الأمريكية
    عضو المنظمة العربية والإتحاد الأفروأسيوي
    عضو نادي الموارد البشرية العربي

    [TRANSFORMER LOSSES]

    Practical power transformers, although highly efficient, are not perfect devices. Small power transformers used in electrical equipment have an 80 to 90 percent efficiency range, while large, commercial power line transformers may have efficiencies exceeding 98 percent.
    The total power loss in a transformer is a combination of three types of losses. One loss is due to the dc resistance in the primary and secondary windings.
    This loss is called COPPER loss or I2R loss.
    The two other losses are due to EDDY CURRENTS and to HYSTERESIS in the core of the transformer. Copper loss, eddy-current loss, and Hysteresis loss result in undesirable conversion of electrical energy into heat energy.

    Copper Loss
    Whenever current flows in a conductor, power is dissipated in the resistance of the conductor in the form of heat. The amount of power dissipated by the conductor is directly proportional to the resistance of the wire, and to the square of the current through it. The greater the value of either resistance or current, the greater is the power dissipated. The primary and secondary windings of a transformer are usually made of low-resistance copper wire.
    The resistance of a given winding is a function of the diameter of the wire and its length. Copper loss can be minimized by using the proper diameter wire. Large diameter wire is required for high-current windings, whereas small diameter wire can be used for low-current windings.

    Eddy-Current Loss
    The core of a transformer is usually constructed of some type of ferromagnetic material because it is a good conductor of magnetic lines of flux.
    Whenever the primary of an iron-core transformer is energized by an alternating-current source, a fluctuating magnetic field is produced. This magnetic field cuts the conducting core material and induces a voltage into it. The induced voltage causes random currents to flow through the core which dissipates power in the form of heat. These undesirable currents are called
    EDDY CURRENTS.
    To minimize the loss resulting from eddy currents, transformer cores are LAMINATED. Since the thin, insulated laminations do not provide an easy path for current, eddy-current losses are greatly reduced.
    Hysteresis Loss
    When a magnetic field is passed through a core, the core material becomes magnetized. To become magnetized, the domains within the core must align themselves with the external field. If the direction of the field is reversed, the domains must turn so that their poles are aligned with the new direction of the external field.

    Power transformers normally operate from either 50 Hz, or 400 Hz alternating current. Each tiny domain must realign itself twice during each cycle, or a total of 100 times a second when 50 Hz alternating current is used. The energy used to turn each domain is dissipated as heat within the iron core. This loss, called HYSTERESIS LOSS, can be thought of as resulting from molecular friction. Hysteresis loss can be held to a small value by proper choice of core materials.

    TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY
    To compute the efficiency of a transformer, the input power to and the output power from the transformer must be known. The input power is equal to the product of the voltage applied to the primary and the current in the primary. The output power is equal to the product of the voltage across the secondary and the current in the secondary. The difference between the input power and the output power represents a power loss. You can calculate the percentage of efficiency of a transformer by using the standard efficiency formula shown below:



    Example. If the input power to a transformer is 650 watts and the output power is 610 watts, what is the efficiency?


    Hence, the efficiency is approximately 93.8 percent, with approximately 40 watts being wasted due to heat losses.

    TRANSFORMER RATINGS
    When a transformer is to be used in a circuit, more than just the turns ratio must be considered. The voltage, current, and power-handling capabilities of the primary and secondary windings must also be considered.
    The maximum voltage that can safely be applied to any winding is determined by the type and thickness of the insulation used. When a better (and thicker) insulation is used between the windings, a higher maximum voltage can be applied to the windings.
    The maximum current that can be carried by a transformer winding is determined by the diameter of the wire used for the winding. If current is excessive in a winding, a higher than ordinary amount of power will be dissipated by the winding in the form of heat. This heat may be sufficiently high to cause the insulation around the wire to break down. If this happens, the transformer may be permanently damaged.

    The power-handling capacity of a transformer is dependent upon its ability to dissipate heat. If the heat can safely be removed, the power-handling capacity of the transformer can be increased. This is sometimes accomplished by immersing the transformer in oil, or by the use of cooling fins. The power-handling capacity of a transformer is measured in either the volt-ampere unit or the watt unit.

    Two common power generator frequencies (50 hertz and 400 hertz) have been mentioned, but the effect of varying frequency has not been discussed.
    If the frequency applied to a transformer is increased, the inductive reactance of the windings is increased, causing a greater ac voltage drop across the windings and a lesser voltage drop across the load. However, an increase in the frequency applied to a transformer should not damage it. But, if the frequency applied to the transformer is decreased, the reactance of the windings is decreased and the current through the transformer winding is increased. If the decrease in frequency is enough, the resulting increase in current will damage the transformer. For this reason a transformer may be used at frequencies above its normal operating frequency, but not below that frequency.

    TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF TRANSFORMERS
    The transformer has many useful applications in an electrical circuit. A brief discussion of some of these applications will help you recognize the importance of the transformer in electricity and electronics.

    POWER TRANSFORMERS
    Power transformers are used to supply voltages to the various circuits in electrical equipment. These transformers have two or more windings wound on a laminated iron core. The number of windings and the turns per winding depend upon the voltages that the transformer is to supply. Their coefficient of coupling is 0.95 or more.
    You can usually distinguish between the high-voltage and low-voltage windings in a power transformer by measuring the resistance. The low-voltage winding usually carries the higher current and therefore has the larger diameter wire. This means that its resistance is less than the resistance of the high-voltage winding, which normally carries less current and therefore may be constructed of smaller diameter wire.

    So far you have learned about transformers that have but one secondary winding. The typical power transformer has several secondary windings, each providing a different voltage. The schematic symbol for a typical power-supply transformer is shown in figure 5-12. For any given voltage across the primary, the voltage across each of the secondary windings is determined by the number of turns in each secondary. A winding may be center-tapped like the secondary 350 volt winding shown in the figure. To center tap a winding means to connect a wire to the center of the coil, so that between this center tap and either terminal of the winding there appears one-half of the voltage developed across the entire winding. Most power transformers have colored leads so that it is easy to distinguish between the various windings to which they are connected. Carefully examine the figure which also illustrates the color code for a typical power transformer. Usually, red is used to indicate the high-voltage leads, but it is possible for a manufacturer to use some other colors.

    إعداد المهندس / علاء بيومي عبد العظيم
    زميل جمعية المهندسين الأمريكية
    عضو المنظمة العربية والإتحاد الأفروأسيوي
    عضو نادي الموارد البشرية العربي

  2. [2]
    شيخ المشايخ
    شيخ المشايخ غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو فعال جداً
    الصورة الرمزية شيخ المشايخ


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    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
    شكراً جزيلاً وجزاك الله ألف خير
    مـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــع تمنياتي لكم بالموفقية

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  3. [3]
    امير محمود
    امير محمود غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية امير محمود


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    تماااااااااااااااام وربنا يكرمك

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  4. [4]
    إبن جبير
    إبن جبير غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز جداً
    الصورة الرمزية إبن جبير


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    تسلم أخي الكريم ، مأمول منكم المزيد

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    ]كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَآئِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ وَإِنَّمَا تُوَفَّوْنَ أُجُورَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـٰمَةِ فَمَنْ زُحْزِحَ عَنِ النَّارِ وَأُدْخِلَ الْجَنَّةَ فَقَدْ فَازَ وَمَا الحْيۈةُ الْدُّنْيَا إِلاّ مَتٰـٰعُ الغُرُورِ[.(185)-آل عمران

  5. [5]
    علاء بيومي
    علاء بيومي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو
    الصورة الرمزية علاء بيومي


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    أشكركم كثيرا وبارك الله فيكم جميعا والله ربي وربكم دائما من وراء القصد

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  6. [6]
    بشير الهيتي
    بشير الهيتي غير متواجد حالياً
    عضو متميز
    الصورة الرمزية بشير الهيتي


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    شكرا معلومات قيمة

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