رسالة ماجستير بعنوان منظومة الطاقة الشمسية الحرارية المركزة

Farouq_it

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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم​



من جامعة ولاية فلوريدا _كلية الهندسة FAMU - FSU

نظام الطاقة الشمسية الحرارية المركزة
إعداد
جيم كريستوفر نيوتن

http://www.redrok.com/NewtonSolarSteamManuscript.pdf

****************



TABLE OF CONTENTS



List of Tables ................................................................................................ Page viii

List of Figures ................................................................................................ Page ix

Abstract ...................................................................................................... Page xiv

1. Background ................................................................................................ Page 1

1.1 Introduction........................................................................................... Page 1
1.2 Historical Perspective of Solar Thermal Power and Process Heat ....... Page 2
1.2.1 Known Parabolic Dish Systems.......................................... Page 3
1.3 Solar Thermal Conversion.................................................................... Page 5
1.4 Solar Geometry (Fundamentals of Solar Radiation)............................. Page 6
1.4.1 Sun-Earth Geometric Relationship..................................... Page 6
1.4.2 Angle of Declination........................................................... Page 7
1.4.3 Solar Time and Angles........................................................ Page 10
1.5 Solar Radiation ..................................................................................... Page 13
1.5.1 Extraterrestrial Solar Radiation .......................................... Page 13
1.5.2 Terrestrial Solar Radiation.................................................. Page 14
1.6 Radiative Properties.............................................................................. Page 17
1.7 Solar Collector/Concentrator ................................................................ Page 18
1.7.1 Acceptance Angle............................................................... Page 21
1.7.2 Thermodynamic Limits of Concentration........................... Page 22
1.8 The Receiver/Absorber......................................................................... Page 23
1.8.1 Cavity Receiver................................................................... Page 24
1.8.2 External Receiver................................................................ Page 25
1.9 Heat Storage.......................................................................................... Page 25
1.9.1 Sensible Heat Storage......................................................... Page 25
1.9.2 Latent Heat Storage ............................................................ Page 26
1.10 Rankine Cycle..................................................................................... Page 26
1.10.1 Working Fluid................................................................... Page 29
1.10.2 Deviation of Actual Cycle from Ideal............................... Page 29
1.11 Steam Turbine..................................................................................... Page 30
1.11.1 Impulse Turbine................................................................ Page 31
1.11.2 Reaction Turbine............................................................... Page 31
1.11.3 Turbine Efficiency............................................................ Page 32
1.12 Overview............................................................................................. Page 33

2. Experimental Apparatus and Procedures........................................................ Page 34

2.1 Introduction........................................................................................... Page 34
2.2 Solar Collector ...................................................................................... Page 34
2.3 The Receiver......................................................................................... Page 36
2.4 Steam Turbine....................................................................................... Page 39

v 2.5 Gear-Train............................................................................................. Page 41
2.6 Working Fluid of Solar Thermal System.............................................. Page 43
2.7 Feed-Water Pump ................................................................................. Page 44
2.8 Tracking ............................................................................................... Page 45
2.9 Data Acquisition................................................................................... Page 49
2.9.1 Instrumentation................................................................... Page 50
2.10 Power Supply...................................................................................... Page 50
2.11 Generator/Alternator........................................................................... Page 53

3. Analysis/Results and Discussion.................................................................... Page 55

3.1 Introduction........................................................................................... Page 55
3.2 Solar Calculations................................................................................. Page 55
3.3 Analysis of the Dish.............................................................................. Page 57
3.3.1 Efficiency of Collector........................................................ Page 61
3.4 Receiver ............................................................................................... Page 66
3.4.1 Boiler Efficiency................................................................. Page 76
3.5 Turbine Efficiency................................................................................ Page 77
3.6 Turbine/Gear-Train Analysis................................................................ Page 78
3.7 Analysis of the Rankine Cycle.............................................................. Page 79
3.8 Generator and Energy Conversion Efficiency...................................... Page 81

4. Conclusions …................................................................................................ Page 83

4.1 Introduction........................................................................................... Page 83
4.2 Solar Calculations................................................................................. Page 83
4.3 Trackers ............................................................................................... Page 83
4.4 Solar Concentrator ................................................................................ Page 84
4.5 Receiver/Boiler ..................................................................................... Page 84
4.6 Steam Turbine....................................................................................... Page 85
4.7 Generator .............................................................................................. Page 85
4.8 Cycle Conclusions ............................................................................... Page 85
4.9 Future Work ......................................................................................... Page 86


APPENDICES ................................................................................................ Page 88

A Rabl’s Theorem..................................................................................... Page 88
B Solar Angle and Insolation Calculations .............................................. Page 91
C Solar Calculations for October 12th ..................................................... Page 100
D Collector Efficiency for Varied Wind Speeds ...................................... Page 105
E Calculations for Collector Efficiency on Oct. 12th for Beam Insolation Page 111
F Collector Efficiency as Receiver Temperature Increases..................... Page 118
G Geometric Concentration Ration and Maximum Theoretical Temperature Page 121
H Geometric Concentration Ratio as Function of Receiver Temperature Page 125
I Receiver/Boiler Efficiency Calculations .............................................. Page 128
J Mass Flow Rate Calculations for Steam into Turbine.......................... Page 129
K Steam Turbine Efficiency Calculations ................................................ Page 131

v i L Rankine Cycle Calculations.................................................................. Page 134
M Drawings/Dimensions of T-500 Impulse Steam Turbine and Gear-Train Page 142
N Receiver Detailed Drawings and Images.............................................. Page 147
O Solar Charger Controller Electrical Diagram....................................... Page 157
P Windstream Power Low RPM Permanent Magnet DC Generator ....... Page 159


REFERENCES ................................................................................................ Page 161

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................................................. Page 164
 
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