HUNTING AND GATHERING
-12,000 years ago, hunters and gatherers adapted to conditions as they find them, using what is already there.
-They hunt game animals.
-They use plant and animal resources for food, fiber, medicine and soap.
-Women usually do most of the gathering, while the men specialize in hunting.
-The group consists of not more than 250 people.
-Ten to twelve thousand years ago agriculture emerged out of hunting and gathering.
-A parallel specialization appeared: pastoralism, the herding of domesticated or partially domesticated animals.
-A good trade started between farmers who had grain, metal and hand made objects to exchange, and pastoral nomads, who had hides, wool, meat and milk products.
-Agriculture is not just a way of growing food; it means living and working on the same spot.
-The opportunity to accumulate new techniques and tools and knowledge.
-First crops were of cereal grains, wheat and barley.
DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
-Animals protein from meat or milk products is one way to create a sustaining diet based on cereals.
-Animals were also domesticated to share some of the burden of working in the fields, for pulling carts and for riding.