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Nano- and Micro-electromechanical Systems builds the theoretical foundation for understanding, modeling, controlling, simulating, designing, and deploying nano- and microelectromechanical devices and offers cutting-edge information on the subject, which applies to many fields. The book provides the background students need to model, design, simulate, control, implement, and deploy NEMS and MEMS. Most importantly, it prepares them to continue research in this challenging field and contribute to its further advancement. This second edition now includes homework problems, examples, and a further reading section in every chapter as well as a separate solutions manual.
Builds the theoretical foundation for understanding, modelling, controlling, simulating, designing, and deploying nano- and microelectromechanical devices. Offers cutting-edge information on the subject, which applies to many fields. DLC: Microelectromechanical systems
الله يبارك فيك..محب رسول الله.
امطرتنا بهذه الكتب الرائعه.
عسا ربي يجعلها في ميزان حسناتك.
Bioelectronics: From Theory to Applications
Author: Eugenii Katz (Editor), Itamar Willner (Editor)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Publication Date: 2005-05-06
Number Of Pages: 492
Medicine, chemistry, physics and engineering stand poised to benefit within the next few years from the ingenuity of complex biological structures invented and perfected by nature over millions of years. The combination of biological elements -- be it whole cells, single molecules or anything in between -- with the field of inorganic electronics yields a fascinating spectrum of opportunities and potential applications. Neurons, DNA strands, antigens, antibodies or enzymes connected to conventional circuitry are capable of turning biological activity into defined electrical signals which can be interpreted and acted upon, opening up such applications as bio- and immunosensors, neuronal or DNA computing, bioassays, or biochemical batteries. Similarly, sophisticated human/machine interfaces and ecologically benign harvesting of energy are equally attractive paths awaiting exploration. This book provides both researchers and engineers as well as students of all the natural sciences a vivid insight into the world of bioelectronics and nature's own nanotechnological treasure chamber
Brain-Wave Machine (And God said, Let there be light...)
- Humans have been using light and sound to achieve altered states of consciousness for thousands of years. Primitive cultures used flickering fires and rythmic drumming to induce these altered states. Today, you can choose from a wide variety of electronic brain-wave machines which use light and/or sound to alter brain-wave activity. Brain-wave activity ranges from fully awake to deep dreamless sleep. This activity is categorized into five primary groups: Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma.
Delta0.1 - 3 Hzdeep sleep, lucid dreaming, increased immune functions, hypnosisTheta3 - 8 Hzdeep relaxation, meditation, increased memory, focus, creativity, lucid dreaming, hypnagogic stateAlpha8 - 12 Hzlight relaxation, "super learning", positive thinkingLow Beta12 - 15 Hzrelaxed focus, improved attentive abilitiesMidrange Beta15 - 18 Hzincrease mental ability, focus, alertness, IQHigh Betaabove 18 Hzfully awake, normal state of alertness, stress and anxietyGamma40 Hzassociated with information-rich task processing and high-level information processing
By using light and sound to induce these brain states we are able to gain greater control and efficiency of brain usage. Furthermore, improvements in relaxation, memory, creativity, stress management, sleep disorders, and even ESP(!) can be had by utilizing a brain-wave machine.
Commercial brain-wave machines cost hundreds of dollars, but you can build your own using only a few dollars worth of components. In this document I will walk you through hardware construction and software control of an easy to build brain-wave machine.
Disclaimer: I am not an electronics expert or a biofeedback specialist. If you fry your hardware (or your wetware) don't come whining (or drooling) to me. I assume no responsibility for what you do with this information.
Building the Hardware (Always yield to the hands-on imperative.)
- With simplicity being the goal, brain-wave goggles can be constructed from suitable eyewear, such as safety glasses, and an array of LED's (Light Emitting Diodes). I'm using the PC's parallel port to control the flashrate of the LED's. Audio stimulation can be provided by a stereo and headphones or the PC's soundcard.
I'm using 8 LED's, one per parallel port data out line. This provides an easy way to control each individual LED allowing for some variations in pattern and intensity. Each lense on the goggles will hold four LED's in a diamond pattern. The LED's are powered by the parallel port and controlled via software.
Basic electronics experience is recommended but not necessary to construct this brain-wave machine.
8 LED's (choose green, yellow, or red LED's)
DB25 pin male parallel port connector (or butcher a printer cable)
Goggles (safety glasses or similar eyewear)
Note: Radio Shack charges about $20 for 8 LED's. I got 20 LED's from a real electronics store for $3.
Hmmm, they look kind of silly. But that's not the point, we're here to explore the phenomenon of biofeedback, not for a fashion show.
- Drill four holes in each lense in a diamond pattern as shown in the diagram to the right. Make the holes just large enough for the LED's to fit through.
- Glue the LED's into the holes. Be sure there is room between the LED's and your face when you are wearing the goggles. Actually, the LED's fit tightly in 3/16" holes and I didn't need to use glue.
- Wire all of the LED's cathode leads together and connect (with a long wire) to a ground pin on the parallel port connector. Pins 18-25 are all ground so pick any one of those. Note: the flat side of the LED is the cathode lead.
- Connect the LED's anode leads to the parallel port connector. Follow the circuit diagram above which outlines which parallel port pin to connect each LED to. Use long wires, you are going to want to be lying down when you use the goggles. (If you are using a printer cable you can use a battery and a LED to figure out which pin each wire is attached to.)
- If your parallel port wires aren't already in a bundle tie them together with wire-ties so they don't get tangled. You will also want to provide strain-relief by attaching the wire bundle to the goggles so it doesn't get pulled off.
Browse the Brain-Wave Machine Image Gallery for pictures of readers goggles as well as modifications and variations.
Programming and Software (Code is the essence of everything.)
- Development of the control software is being carried out primarily in QBasic and C. I've provided a quick introduction to parallel port programming in BASIC so anyone can experiment with writing their own code. BASIC is also handy for quickly writing little routines to help test the hardware you're building. A few complete BASIC applications are provided to get you started and we've got some reader-submitted C code and a microcontroller implementation too. And finally, I've provided some links to software you can use to create your own brainwave audio sessions in order to greatly enhance your Brain-Wave Machine experience.
The PC parallel port has eight data lines out. These data lines can be turned on and off by sending a byte to the port where each bit in the byte represents the on or off state of one of the data lines out. In BASIC you do this with the OUT function. The OUT function accepts two parameters, port address and a byte in decimal format. The most common addresses for LPT ports in hex are 378h, 278h, and 3BCh. LPT1 is almost always 378h, or 888 in decimal. The address parameter can be in hex (i.e. OUT &H378, #) or decimal format (i.e. OUT 888, #). Now let's take a look at bit patterns...
Bit (or data line out):12345678Decimal value:1248163264128Example bit pattern:01010101
Look at the example bit pattern included in the table above. The byte 0101010101 will turn on all of the even numbered data lines. To convert this binary byte to a decimal value we just add up the "on" bits. (2 + 8 + 32 + 128 = 170) So the function call would be OUT 888, 170. So, OUT 888, 0 will turn off all eight data lines (0 = 00000000 in binary) and OUT 888, 255 will turn on all eight data lines (255 = 11111111 in binary). For example, the following code will flash all of the LED's fifty times with a short delay in between.
FOR i=1 to 50 OUT 888, 255 FOR x=1 to 500 NEXT x OUT 888,0 FOR x=1 to 500 NEXT xNEXT i
Obviously we need something better for timing than a FOR/NEXT loop. Unfortunately QBasic doesn't offer any timing functions with millisecond accuracy. Note: hz and cycles/second both refer to the flashrate of the LED's, so 15 hz = 15 flashes/second. I've written a small sample application which demonstrates one method of dealing with the timing issue in QBasic (using the SOUND function of all things). The program also has timed sessions, selectable frequencies, and three different flash patterns. Feel free to experiment with it.
Sample QBasic App: BWM.BAS.
Brainstar 1: Smoother interface and more features. Edit, save, and load patterns. QBasic source as well as a packaged run-time version are included. Contributed by Fractal (HardCore Software), May 6, 2000.
Brainstar 2: Now with audio support, graphical session editing, and more. Contributed by Fractal (HardCore Software), October 4, 2000.
Note 1: QBasic can be found on your Windows CD under OTHER/OLDMSDOS or search for olddos.exe on microsoft.com.
Note 2: These programs will not work under NT unless a driver such as Direct I/O is utilized.
C / C++
- piX brain-wave controller: Some C source contributed by piX, September 30, 1999.
- meskalin: Simple brainwave machine app for Linux and FreeBSD. By dodo, December 25, 2002.
- Atmel AVR Microcontroller implementation (AT90LS4433) of the brainwave machine written in AVR C and compiled with avr-gcc: [Schematic] and [Source Code] by slax0r, 2005.
- Brain Wave Machine v1.0 made with NI LabVIEW 6.1 software for Windows 95/98/NT/XP. By Tobio Tezuka, January, 2006.
- BrainWave Generator shareware for Windows.
- SBaGen - Binaural Beat Brain Wave Experimenter's Lab for Linux, Windows, DOS, and Mac OS X.
Using the Brain-wave Machine (This is your brain on Theta.)
- The key here is to experiment and do what works for you. Lying down in a quiet place where you won't be disturbed is recommended. Close your eyes and relax while the LED's are flashing. Sessions can be from 5-25 minutes or longer. Longer sessions seem to work better.
You can use the brain-wave goggles with or without audio. However, the effects of the brain-wave machine are more powerful when used in conjunction with suitable audio. Many brain-wave stimulation and subliminal CD's and cassettes can be purchased from new-age bookstores. I highly recommend the "Brainwave Suite" 4 disc box-set by Dr. Jeffrey Thompson. Doctor Thompson has also produced several other brainwave CD's.
Some Suggested Uses
Relaxationbetween 5hz and 10hz for different levels of relaxationMeditationbetween 4hz and 7hz, either cycle between a few, or stay at a particular frequency for different resultsInduce Sleepbetween 4hz and 6hz for starters, then go into frequencies below 3.5hz, settling on about 1.5hz to 2.5hz for sleepCreative Visualizationabout 6hz for a while, then up to 10hz works wellStress Reductionany use of frequencies below 11hz will reduce stressSelf Hypnosisabout 8hz to 10hz while playing any self-hypnosis tape, or guided meditationSuper Learningabout 7hz to 9hz while playing any learning tapes, like foreign language tapes, etc. to increase comprehensionSubliminal Programming5hz to 7hz while playing your favorite subliminal tapesImprove ESP / IntuitionTheta frequencies help in this area, 4hz to 7hzReaching Higher States of ConsciousnessTheta again, with daily half hour sessionsQuick Refresher on long dayslow Alpha 8hz to 10hz for 15 minutes works well
University of Pennsylvania
School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Department of Electrical Engineering
EE 206 MINI-PROJECT I
CARDIAC MONITOR VI
Please do not print on the lab printers.The photocopy of this document will be available by 2/29/00 in the RCA Lab.
SEAS Home Page > EE 206 > Mini Project 1
EE Undergraduate Lab > Software > LabVIEW > Cardiac Monitor
Design of ECG Monitor System using Labview
In Lab Assignment
Flow of Labview vi execution
Adding External Alarm to ECG Monitor
An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a graphic tracing of the electric current generated by the heart muscle during a heartbeat. It provides information on the condition and performance of the heart. Electrocardiograms are made by applying electrodes to various parts of the body to lead off the tiny heart current to the recording instrument. The four extremities and the chest wall have become standard sites for applying the electrodes. Standardizing electrocardiograms makes it possible to compare them as taken from person to person and from time to time from the same person. The normal electrocardiogram shows typical upward and downward deflections that reflect the alternate contraction of the atria (the two upper chambers) and of the ventricles (the two lower chambers) of the heart.
The first upward deflection (ref Figure 1 of ECG waveform), P, is due to atrial contraction and is known as the atrial complex. The other deflections, Q, R, S, and T, are all due to the action of the ventricles and are known as the ventricular complexes. Any deviation from the norm in a particular electrocardiogram is indicative of a possible heart disorder. Information that can be obtained from an electrocardiogram includes whether the heart is enlarged and where the enlargement occurs, whether the heart action is irregular and where the irregularity originates, whether a coronary vessel is occluded and where the occlusion is located, and whether a slow rate is physiological or caused by heart block. The presence of high blood pressure, thyroid disease, and certain types of malnutrition may also be revealed by an electrocardiogram.
During the late 1960s, computerized ECG's came into use in many of the larger hospitals. This VI involves array manipulation, analog processing, Boolean logic, and construction of a external drive circuit to provide visual alerts. This alert signal can also be used to drive audio signals.
A typical single cardiac waveform of a normal heartbeat as it appears on electro-cardiograph charts is shown in Figure 1. The voltages produced represent pressures exerted by the heart muscles in one pumping cycle. It is one of the life signs monitored in many medical and intensive care procedures. Instrumentation is provided to alert medical staff to any changes detected in the cardiac function.
Figure 1 - A Typical ECG Waveform
Design of a ECG Monitor System using Labview:
A demo version of this vi is available on the course server. From the Desktop choose Network neighborhood > MainPC > Courses > EE206 > Cardiac.vi. If asked for a password, keep it blank.
The VI to be implemented is designed to monitor the q-r-s envelope of a cardiac waveform and provide visual alerts-both externally on a LED and on the front panel for the following conditions:
Normal pulse amplitudes will vary among individuals. A front panel control is provided to preset an acceptable "safe" lower limit (Set Limit in the front panel) for the pulse amplitude at which an alert is activated. This limit should appear as a dashed line on the LabView display along with the waveform. A digital read-out of the maximum peak value designated "r" in Figure 1 is also displayed.
- 1. the pulse amplitude drops below a preset limit (controlled by "Set Limit " in the suggested front panel) or
2. the pulse rate falls below 90 pulses per minute or
3. the pulse rate exceeds 180 pulses per minute.
A second control is used to provide a threshold level (Threshold control in the front panel) to detect only the systolic peaks. A LabView sub-VI used to detect the pulses also records the sample numbers at which they occur. Knowing the sampling rate, the pulse rate can be determined from this measurement. This measured pulse rate is shown by a digital read-out (Beats/Min) on the front panel.
The ECG signal is generated from the HP 34401A waveform generator. Use following steps :
- -Press SHIFT Arb to display the list of the available Arbitrary waveforms on the display. Rotate the dial to obtain CARDIAC display.
-The frequency and the amplitude are controlled by FREQ and AMPL buttons.
-Confirm the display on the scope. Keep the freq settings of 2 Hz and 2 Vp-p.
Suggested front panel of the Cardiac Monitor
Fig 2. Suggested Front panel of the Cardiac Monitor VI
If you need to refresh the data acquisition methods, refer to the data acquisition vi that was done before 2 weeks. The data acquisition of the analog input is similar in this mini project, except that there is no need for the For/While loop.
-From the Help menu choose Show Help to display the help window as you move your mouse over different subvis in the diagram.
-In the first week, make an attempt to display the ECG signal on the waveform chart on the front panel before proceeding with the analysis and processing. Follow the flow chart on the following page for proceeding with your project.
-You are going to use "Threshold Peak Detect.vi" and "Array Max-Min" function to detect the heart rate and peaks respectively. The Threshold control on the front panel requires you to set a number above which the peaks will be counted. (since ECG contains smaller peaks which should be ignored for counting). Array Max-Min function calculates the maximum amplitude of the ECG, above the Set Limit number that is entered in the front panel.
-To show the Set Limit number graphically as a line, use Initialize array function . Use a numeric constant of around 500 as the input. This will generate 500 points at a specified value in form of a line.
-The alarm LEDs (these are Boolean indicators ) on the front panel should light up as the threshold and rate limits are exceeded. At the same time a LED connected to the daq board via an opamp should also light up to indicate the alarm.
To make alarms work externally, you have to use analog output of the board. Refer to the section at the end of this writeup to make appropriate change to your vi. Use the pin labeled DAC0 or DAC1 on the terminal board to connect the analog output to your circuit. A circuit using 741 op amp is shown and it is being used as a buffer.
Use the flow chart provided below.
In Lab Assignment
-Notebooks should be signed at the end of the experiment
-This is a 2 week exercise
-Divide the work among the group members
Report contents and the requirement for completion of this Mini Project
-Print the VI diagram/front panel. The background of the front panel, graphs MUST be white.
-Why is buffer necessary for interfacing to the PC ?
-Justify your choice of different sub-vis to perform the specified functions.
Various Subvis and functions that will be used in this design
Figure 3. Various subvis to be used in the design.
Try to design the VI in the following way. Remember, in Labview the execution of the vi is from left to right in the diagram. Most vis execute with input starting first. In this case, the data acquisition and array initializing will begin the execution sequence.
Figure 4. Flow Diagram
Adding analog output and alarms to the vi
Adding alarm to the VI
-When the values of Set Limit, <90/min or >180/min are exceeded, a visual alarm on the front panel should alert the user. This is achieved by Comparison subvis in LabVIEW. The output of such subvis is True or False and this should be used for the alarm indicators on the front panel. The same output should also be used to control a Case structure. The Case structure has two layers to it-True and False; and each layer will execute the contents contained within depending upon the input to the Case structure. Use the subvis shown in the Fig 5 within the Case structure to output the voltages. The following subvis will output a square wave when the alarm is triggered.
Fig 5. Square wave analog output
Refer to the schematic of the board and the patch panel on your PC. The analog output from the board will be used as a input for the circuit you will build on the protoboard. Using 741, construct a circuit on the protoboard as shown below. The analog outputs will be available at the DAC 0 or DAC 1 and the output will be connected to a op-amp circuit. When the alarm goes ON, the LED should blink at the rate programmed in the Square wave generator, in the subvi shown above.
Fig 6 Use of 741 as a buffer
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