8. W. EDWARD DEMING'S 14 POINTS
· These set the tone for the modern concern with quality [ get source]
1. Innovate and allocate resources to fulfill the long-term needs of the company and customer rather than short-term profitability.
2. Discard the old philosophy of accepting nonconforming products and services.
3. Eliminate dependance on mass inspection for quality control; instead, depend on process control, through statistical techniques.
4. Reduce the number of multiple source suppliers. Price has no meaning without an integral consideration for quality. Encourage suppliers to use statistical process control.
5. Use statistical techniques to identify the two sources of waste -- system (85%) and local faults (15%); strive to constantly reduce this waste.
6. Institute more through, better job related training.
7. Provide supervision with knowledge of statistical methods; encourage use of these methods to identify which nonconformities should be investigated for solution.
8. Reduce fear throughout the organization by encouraging open, two-way, non-punitive communication. The economic loss resulting from fear to ask questions or reporting trouble is appalling.
9. Help reduce waste by encouraging design, research, and sales people to learn more about the problems of production.
10. Eliminate the use of goals and slogans to encourage productivity, unless training and management support is also provided.
11. Closely examine the impact of work standards. Do they consider quality or help anyone do a better job? They often act as an impediment to productivity improvement.
12. Institute rudimentary statistical training on a broad scale.
13. Institute a vigorous program for retraining people in new skills, to keep up with changes in materials, methods, product designs and machinery.
14. Create a structure in top management that will push every day for continuous quality improvement.
7. TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL
· Developed by Dr. A.V. Feigenbaum in the 1950's at G.E.
· Includes all level of management.
· quality should be first and foremost in everybodies minds
· In the production cycle the quality control activities are defined as,
1. New design
- selling quality products
- engineering quality products
- planning quality processes
2. Incoming material control
- buying quality material
- receiving and inspecting quality material
3. Product Control,
- Manufacturing quality parts and products
- inspecting and testing quality products
- shipping quality products
- installing and servicing quality products
· Basic requirements for implementation,
1. Management must re-emphasize the quality responsibilities, and accountabilities of each employee, regardless of position
2. Create a Quality Department that will be responsible for the maintenance of quality.
. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
· A quality philosophy that reaches all levels of an organization.
· There is no well defined standard.
· One tool to help assessment of problems is the list of questions below, [Nordeen, 1993]
1. Why does the product have poor quality and/or why does the service of the product have poor quality?
2. Why was the product not correct and/or why was the service of the product not correct?
3. Why was the total process for developing and producing the product and its relatedd systems not capable, and why did the people not have the required knowledge and skills?
4. Why is the importance of the organizational processes, knowledge, and skills not recognized in the business plan and management of the organization?
5. Why does senior leadership not understand?