تاريخ التسجيل: Jan 2010 المشاركات: 2 Thumbs Up
تكنولوجيا النانو NanoTechnology
“TODAY’S SCINCE FICTION IS OFTEN TOMORROW’S SCINCE FACT”
Abstract: Imagine that, there is a space shuttle inside your body, or a robot walking around inside your arteries, or perhaps a group of ships sailing in your blood. All this was unacceptable imaginative in the past, but now in the era of nanotechnology has become accepted and proved in a scientific manner. So, what is nanotechnology? What is the role of this science in introducing the science fiction to become science fact? Introduction Scholars are unanimously agreed, that the most important features of the enormous development in the twentieth century are the invention of the electronic silicon chips, which has evolved to become microchips. Thus, led to the technological revolution of communications, computing, medicine and other scientific fields.In the fifties, there were only Monochromes and very small number of computers, and there were no digital hours, mobile phones or the Internet. All this inventions came as a result of microchips development. Due to that fact, the increasing of demand for lower price makes it easy to use into the electronics manufacturing that surrounding us today. (Taniguchi, 1974)
The Scale of Nanotechnology - from The Richard E. Smalley Institute
Nanotechnology The Nanotechnology is the fifth generation that emerged in the world of electronics. It was preceded by the first generation that first used the e-lamp (Lamp), including the television, and the second generation, which use a transistor, then the third generation of electronics that use integrated circuit (IC), it is a very small piece Reduced the size of several organs, but raised the efficiency and its functionality. The fourth-generation is using the Microprocessor, the latest revolution in the field of electronics production of PCs (Personal Computer) and computerized silicon chips that have brought progress in many areas of science and industry. Nanotechnology is a new approach that relevant to mastering and understanding the attributes of the materials at the nano-scale (1 nanometer being 1 billionth (10-9) of a meter) at another view it means 1/80,000 of the diameter of a human hair. At this level, a material shows different and often striking attributes and disappear the borders between scientific and technological fields. (Schulenburg, 2004) The Nano is one billionth of a meter as mentioned before. Thomas Kenny from Stanford University describes the size of nano by many examples, such as being the same width as DNA, size of ten Hydrogen atoms, the rate of growth of a fingernail in one second. It should be noted that the width of a smaller Pentium processor is 100 nm (nm= nanometer).
In fact, the nano-medicine is employment of the nanotechnology in the prevent human from the diseases and it is treatment.
The laboratory uses registered in this area, it could refer to in the following points: 1. The diagnostic tests for diseases. 2. Chemotherapy. 3. The insulin pumps that has effective impact in the treatment of diabetes. 4. Aid tools in improving the hearing. 5. The transfer system and send medicine to the diseased tissue.
One of the problems encountered by researchers in this field, is to understand the impact of nanoparticles on living tissue in the body, and the amount of poisoning, which may be caused by the body.
Cancer and malignant tumors:
Cancer and malignant tumors are one of diseases that scientists could not find a cure so far. The ability of nanotechnology to diagnose tumors, by developing advanced pictures of tumors and cancer cells, and can say that it is an exceptional photo because the sizes of these images help doctors and researchers to obtain sufficient information about these tumors. Showed the results of the latest research, scientists have come to a new way refer to nanotechnology imaging of malignant tumors in the body and locating them accurately, to carry out the treatment directly by getting rid of a malignant tumor. (Berger, 2009)
Nanotechnology for the treatment of spinal cord injuries:
It is known that spinal cord injuries often lead to paralysis, because of the inability of nerve cells to grow again on the place of infection.
Northwestern University Scientists’ have succeeded to develop a new technique to overcome spinal cord injury using Nano-gel, which inhibits the growth of wound tissue injury location, and helps the growth of nerve cells in the spinal cord. The gel used by inject liquid spinal cord, the n it is formed like scaffold (scaffold) in supporting of new neurons as they grow up and down infiltrated the site of injury. Scientists have carried out tests on mice, the tests showed improvement in the ability of mice to use it is edges and walking after treatment by six weeks. 2. Military: The developed countries Reached to manufacture a spy planes the size of the palm by nanotechnology, for example, even the smallest insect the size of 200 microns and this is the appropriate size of weapons capable of tracking people who are not protected and inject poison in their bodies. This poison doses of 100 nanograms, or 1 / 100 of the volume of the arm. Some ideas used nanotechnology in the military development: · Create an electronic alternative to the vital part of the human brain known as (the hippocampus), as a result of this modification, the brain memory load will extended hundreds of times what is available naturally, store complex instructions, and increase the ability to achieve communication and interaction between the human brain to another. · Develop devices formed like bees capable to detect the explosives. · The United States doing an intensive researches to produce clothes for soldiers, where these clothes when the soldier wounded, appoint the injured site and the extent of seriousness, automatically, send a message to the center with the necessary information, such as: the pulse of the soldier, body temperature, measuring the pressure, giving the medication in body of the soldier, as well as shed pressure on the wound to stop bleeding, also if the heart stop, it is start massage the region of the heart to re-pulse. In addition, these clothes will be a strong shield against the bullets.
3. Space: The weight of rocket fuel needed to lift a payload into Earth orbit or beyond restricts the space flight process since the emergence of space-age half a century ago. Now, the good news is, there are researches in two revolutionary techniques employing nanotechnology in overcoming this obstacle, although their practical application will be only in the distant future.
At first glance, a "space elevator" or a device can actually lift a payload to a distance of 35 thousand kilometers in space or over a long cable extending from Earth to satellite orbits geographically fixed, seems it is from the world of the imagination, and it is belong to the "scientific novels" fantasy more than the real science. The technical hurdles in creating such a space elevator would be great, at least the need to manufacture extremely durable cable in great length and strength.
It may involve nanotechnology the key to turning this concept into reality. Researchers are currently studying the possibility of using carbon nanotubes, which it is structures it is diameter not more than a few nanometers and the length of a few thousand nanometers to build this cable. Because the carbon atoms that make up the nanotube, is exerting strong pressure on each other, as a result this nanotube will be stronger than steel a hundred times. There remain, of course, engineering difficulties and scientific challenges to produce such cable from the nanotubes, but the progress continues!!! . (DiPasquale, 2008)
4. Energy The integration of several factors, such as the pressure of the continued growth of world population, the economic growth which depends on the traditional fossil fuels, the concerning over global warming and the rapid increasing in the oil price, to carry out make the development of alternative energy sources is gaining importance day by day. The current Nanotechnology researches in U.S. provide interested results that may begin revolution in extracting the energy from clean, renewable sources, particularly solar energy.
For example, the scientists at Harvard University, success in developing a solar cells from "nanowires" with a diameter of 300 nanometers only. As stated in the magazine "MIT Technology Review", such a solar cell has a nucleus of crystalline silicon and several concentric layers of silicon with different electronic properties, and leads each layer the same function performed by the semiconductor layers in conventional solar cells when absorbing light and capturing electrons to generate electricity. While it may be use these microscopic solar cells at the beginning to provide the other nano-devices by power, it may become possible to link them together in large numbers after replacing the solar panels which it is used today. However, the obstacles that stand in the way of commercializing this technology remain. Researchers will need to develop ways to produce these wires nanotechnology solar larger quantities than is the case today, and improve the current level of efficiency (less than one- fifth that of production of conventional solar panels) at converting sunlight into electricity.(DiPasquale, 2008) Our future through the Nanotechnology The rapid development of nanotechnology reflects the huge expenditure on this area in an exponential curve. Each year, the developed countries like Germany, England, Japan and USA spends billions of dollars to develop the nano applications. In 2001, USA assigned more than 497 million USD to develop the nanotechnology and it is applications. In addition, the leaders of computer companies such as IBM, HP and 3M assign pert of their profits for the nanotechnology development. The race of developed countries in the development of nanotechnology programs, these countries will determine the order of these countries for many decades, thus decide its future, industrial, economic and political. As a result, this will change the pattern of social life of the world in many ways. In view of the technology benefits to humanity and the whole world, but it is double-edged sword if it is used in the area of weapons and mass destruction, will be the beginning of the end of science and the world.
The Industries that use the current classical methods and techniques, will be eliminated by industrial which used Nanotechnology, it will be the best ones, cheaper, consume less energy and materials, and cleaner because it does not pollute the environment, stronger and more powerful by a hundred times.