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Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products

Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products By Rey G. Montemayor Publisher: ASTM International Number Of Pages: 162 Publication

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    هانى شرف الدين غير متواجد حالياً

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    تاريخ التسجيل: Nov 2005
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    Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products

    Distillation and Vapor Pressure Measurement in Petroleum Products



    By Rey G. Montemayor

    Publisher: ASTM International
    Number Of Pages: 162
    Publication Date: 2008-03
    ISBN-10 / ASIN: 0803162278
    ISBN-13 / EAN: 9780803162273

    Preface
    ASTM International has been developing standards that is widely used world-wide since 1898. The technical
    ******* and quality of these standards are excellent, and these are largely due to the thousands of technical
    experts who volunteer and devote considerable amount of their time and effort in the standards development
    activities.
    In ASTM Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, one of the largest ASTM committees, a
    tremendous amount of activity is spent in developing new test methods, and revising existing test methods to
    meet ever increasing demands for high quality standards in the industry. ASTM D02 is blessed with a considerable
    number of technical experts who, in one way or another, have contributed tremendously to standards
    development related to petroleum products and lubricants. This manual is the result of the selfless effort, time,
    dedication, and considerable expertise of some of these experts.

    *******s
    Preface... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
    Acknowledgment... . . . . . . vi
    Chapter 1: Introduction and a Brief Historical Background, R. G. Montemayor. . . 1
    Coverage Of The Manual.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    Distillation Measurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
    Vapor Pressure Measurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    Simulated Distillation Measurement.. . . . . . . . . . . 2
    A Bit Of History... . . . 2
    Distillation Measurement at Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
    Distillation Measurement at Reduced Pressure.. 3
    Simulated Distillation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
    Vapor Pressure Measurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
    Chapter 2: Distillation Measurement at Atmospheric Pressure, R. G. Montemayor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    ASTM D86،ھDistillation At Atmospheric Pressure.. 6
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 6
    Terminology... . . . . 6
    Summary of the Method.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
    Significance and Use.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    Sampling... . . . . . . . 7
    Group Characteristic.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
    Sample Storage and Conditioning.. . . . . . . . . . . . 8
    Wet Samples... . . . 8
    Manual and Automated D86 Apparatus.. . . . . . . 8
    Distillation Flask.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    Flask Support Hole Dimension.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    Condenser and Cooling Systems.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
    Heat Source and Heat Control.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
    Temperature Measurement Device.. . . . . . . . . . . 13
    Calibration... . . . . . 13
    Temperature Measurement Device.. . . . . . . . . . . 13
    Receiving Cylinder and Level Follower.. . . . . . . 14
    Barometer or Pressure Measuring Device.. . . . . 14
    Calculations... . . . . 15
    Correcting Temperature Readings to 101.3 kPa 760 mm Hg Pressure Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    Sample Calculation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
    Percent Total Recovery and Percent Loss.. . . . . 16
    Corrected Percent Loss and Corrected Percent Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Percent Evaporated and Percent Recovered.. . . 16
    Temperature Readings at Prescribed Percent Evaporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
    Percent Evaporated or Percent Recovered at a Prescribed Temperature Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
    Slope or Rate of Change of Temperature.. . . . . 18
    Calculation of Precision.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
    Report... . . . . . . . . . 19
    Precision... . . . . . . . 19
    Bias... . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
    ASTM D850 And D1078: Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure For Aromatic Materials
    And Volatile Organic Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
    ASTM D850... . . . . 20
    ASTM D1078... . . . 20
    Comparison Of ASTM D86, D850, And D1078.. . . . 22
    Potential Troubleshooting Guide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
    Safety... . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
    Statistical Quality Control.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
    Cross-Reference Of Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure Test Methods. . . . . . . . . 24
    New Test Methods For Distillation At Atmospheric Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    Micro Method... . . 25
    Mini Method... . . . 25
    ASTM D402 Distillation Of Cut-Back Asphaltic Product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
    Chapter 3: Distillation Measurement at Reduced Pressure, R. M. Daane. . . . . . . . . 27
    Distillation Of Crude Petroleum By ASTM D2892.. 27
    Introduction... . . . . 27
    Field Of Application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
    Important Parameters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
    Temperature... . . 27
    Distillation Pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
    Separation Sharpness Efficiency.. . . . . . . . . . . . 29
    Other Factors Affecting Results.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
    Precision... . . . . . . . 31
    Summary... . . . . . . . 31
    Vacuum Distillation... 31
    ASTM D5236... . . . . . . 31
    Introduction... . . . . 31
    Field of Application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
    Important Parameters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
    Temperature... . . 32
    Distillation Pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
    Separation Sharpness.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
    Other Factors... . 34
    Boiling Point, TBP, and AET.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
    Comparison of ASTM D5236 and D2892.. . . . . . . 34
    Precision... . . . . . . . 35
    ASTM D1160... . . . . . . 35
    Introduction... . . . . 35
    Field of Application.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
    Important Parameters.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
    Temperature... . . 36
    Distillation Pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
    Volume Measurement.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
    Precision... . . . . . . . 36
    Accuracy... . . . . . . . 37
    Closing Remarks... . . 37
    Chapter 4: Simulated Distillation Measurement, D. S. Workman. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    Introduction... . . . . . . 38
    Gas Chromatography and Simulated Distillation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
    ASTM Simulated Distillation Methods.. . . . . . . . . . . 38
    Important Considerations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
    Instrument Requirements.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
    Column Selection.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
    Carrier Gas Flow Control.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    Data Collection... . 42
    Analysis Software.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    Data Interpretation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
    Comparison To Physical Distillation TBP.. . . . . . . . . . 43
    Correlations Using Simulated Distillation Data.. . . 44
    D86 Correlated Data from D2887 Data.. . . . . . . . 44
    Correlation of Flash Point and D2887.. . . . . . . . . 44
    Future Work In The Area Of Simulated Distillation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
    Accelerated Simulated Distillation.. . . . . . . . . . . . 46
    Chapter 5: Vapor Pressure Measurement, R. G. Montemayor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
    ASTM D323،ھVapor Pressure Measurement By The Reid Method ?2?. . . . . . . . . . . 48
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 48
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 48
    Apparatus... . . . . . . 49
    Sampling... . . . . . . . 50
    Calibration... . . . . . 51
    Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    ASTM D4953،ھVapor Pressure By The Dry Reid Method ?5?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 51
    Summary of the Test Method, Significance and Use, and Apparatus. . . . . . . . . 52
    Precision and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
    ASTM D5191،ھVapor Pressure of Petroleum Products ?Mini Method،* ?5?. . . . . . . 52
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 52
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 53
    Apparatus... . . . . . . 53
    Sampling and Sample Handling.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
    Calibration... . . . . . 54
    Calculation... . . . . . 55
    Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
    ASTM D5190،ھVapor Pressure Of Petroleum Products ?Automatic Method،* ?5?. 56
    Summary of the Test Method.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
    Apparatus... . . . . . . 56
    Calibration... . . . . . 57
    Calculation... . . . . . 57
    Precision and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
    ASTM D5482،ھVapor Pressure Of Petroleum Products ?Mini Method-Atmospheric،* ?5? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
    Summary of the Test Method.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
    Apparatus... . . . . . . 57
    Calculation... . . . . . 57
    Precision and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
    ASTM D6377،ھVapor Pressure Of Crude Oil: VPCRX ?Expansion Method،* ?9?. . . . 58
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 58
    Terminology... . . . . 58
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 58
    Apparatus and Calibration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
    Sampling... . . . . . . . 58
    Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    ASTM D6378،ھVapor Pressure ?VPX،* Of Petroleum Products, Hydrocarbons, And Hydrocarbon-Oxygenate
    Mixtures ?Triple Expansion Method،* ?9?.. . . . . . . . . . 59
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 59
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 59
    Apparatus and Calibration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
    Sampling and Sample Handling.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    Calculation... . . . . . 60
    Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
    Proposed Revision to D6378 Being Considered.. 60
    ASTM D1267،ھVapor Pressure Of Liquefied Petroleum ?LP،* Gases ?LP-Gas Method،* ?2? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 61
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 61
    Apparatus... . . . . . . 61
    Sampling and Calculation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
    Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
    ASTM D6897،ھVapor Pressure Of Liquefied Petroleum Gases ?LPG،* ?Expansion Method،* ?9? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . . 62
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method.. 62
    Apparatus and Calibration.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
    Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . . 63
    Vapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature Measurements.. . 63
    ASTM D2533،ھVapor-Liquid Ratio of Spark-Ignition Fuels 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . 63
    Summary and Significance of the Test Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
    Critical Apparatus, Calibration, Sampling, and Sample Handling. . . . . . . . . . . 64
    Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . 64
    ASTM D5188،ھVapor-Liquid Ratio Temperature of Fuels Evacuated Chamber Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    Scope... . . . . . . . . . 65
    Summary and Significance of the Test.. . . . . . . . 65
    Apparatus, Calibration, Sampling, and Sample Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    Calculation, Report, Precision, and Bias.. . . . . . . 65
    Other Vapor Pressure Measurements.. . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    ASTM D2878،ھEstimating Apparent Vapor Pressures and Molecular Weights of Lubricating Oils 4 . . . . . . . 65
    ASTM D2879،ھVapor Pressure-Temperature Relationship and Initial Decomposition Temperature
    of Liquids by Isoteniscope 4.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
    ASTM E1194،ھVapor Pressure 12.. . . . . . . . . . . . 66
    ASTM E1719،ھVapor Pressure of Liquids by Ebulliometry 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
    Comparison Of Vapor Pressure And Vapor/Liquid Ratio Test Methods. . . . . . . . . . 66
    Cross-Reference Of ASTM Vapor Pressure Methods With Other International Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
    Chapter 6: An Overview of On-Line Measurement for Distillation and Vapor Pressure, A. T. C. Lau
    and M. A. Collier... . . . . . . 68
    Sample Transport Module.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    Sample Conditioning Module.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    Analysis and Report Module.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    Sample Disposal Module.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
    Performance Validation of On-Line Analytical Instrumentation Systems. . . . . . . . 69
    Atmospheric Distillation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
    Vacuum Distilation... 70
    Simulated Distillation.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
    Reid Vapor Pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
    Absolute Vapor Pressure.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
    Chapter 7: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Crude Oil, R. G. Montemayor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    Introduction ?1¨C3?... . 73
    Distillation Data of Crude Oil.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
    Vapor Pressure Data of Crude Oils ?9,10?.. . . . . . . . . 74
    API Nomographs and True Vapor Pressure TVP 15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
    Chapter 8: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data in Spark-Ignition Fuels, B. R. Bonazza and L. M. Gibbs . . . . . 77
    Introduction... . . . . . . 77
    Vapor Pressure... . . . . 77
    Distillation... . . . . . . . . 79
    Driveability Index... . 80
    Vapor-Liquid Ratio... 81
    Vapor-Lock Index ?VLI،*.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    Volatility and Performance.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
    Chapter 9: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Diesel Fuels, R. G. Montemayor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Introduction and History ?1,2?.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Diesel Engine Applications.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
    Grades and Specification of Diesel Fuel.. . . . . . . . . . 86
    Distillation Data of Diesel Fuels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
    Vapor Pressure Data of Diesel Fuels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
    Chapter 10: Distillation and Vapor Pressure in Aviation Fuels, K. H. Strauss. . . . . 89
    Aviation Gasoline... . 89
    Distillation... . . . . . 89
    Vapor Pressure... . 89
    Aviation Gasoline Versus Motor Gasoline.. . . . . . 90
    Quality Protection of Aviation Gasoline Volatility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Non-Petroleum Fuels for Reciprocating Aircraft Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Aviation Turbine Fuels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Volatility of Military Fuels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Volatility of Civil Fuels.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    Vapor Pressure... . 93
    Quality Protection of Aviation Turbine Fuel Volatility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
    Chapter 11: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data of Solvents, R. G. Montemayor and J. W. Young . . . . . . . . . . 95
    Solvents... . . . . . . . . . . 95
    Characterization of Solvent Volatility.. . . . . . . . . 95
    Solvent Types... . . . . . 95
    Hydrocarbon Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
    Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents.. 95
    Hydrocarbon Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
    Naphtha... . . . . . . . 96
    Mineral Spirits... . . 96
    Low Boiling Aliphatic Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    Naphthenic/Cycloparaffinic Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . 96
    Isoparaffinic Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    Aromatic Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents.. . . 96
    Oxygenated Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    Chlorinated and Other Heteroatom-Containing Hydrocarbon Solvents. . . . . . . 96
    Distillation Specifications in Solvents.. . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    Significance of Distillation Data for Solvents.. . . . . 97
    Significance of Vapor Pressure Date of Solvents.. . 98
    Chapter 12: Distillation and Vapor Pressure Data in Liquefied Petroleum Gas ?LPG،*, R. J. Falkiner
    and R. G. Montemayor... 100
    Introduction... . . . . . . 100
    History،ھLPG Properties and Thermodynamics.. 100
    Distillation and Composition of LPG by Low Temperature Fractional Distillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
    Composition by GC.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
    Vapor Pressure... . . . . 102
    History... . . . . . . . . . 102
    Testing... . . . . . . . . . 103
    Quality Protection of LPG Volatility.. . . . . . . . . . . 103
    Appendix, R. G. Montemayor.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

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    الله يعطيك ويزيدك من مناهل غلمه التى لاتنتهى وجعل لك على كل حرف حسنه ورحم اما انجبتك وابا رباك والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

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    s'il vous plais mes amis j'ai des demandes
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