What is Avionics?
n Avionics is a combination of two words and meanings:
What contributed to the development of Avionics?
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/imran/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/IMG] The answer is: there were many events and inventions that contributed to the development of avionics
[IMG]file:///C:/Users/imran/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.png[/IMG] why Was Radio Important to Avionics?
n Many important pieces of avionics equipment rely on the transmission and reception of radio waves.
n Of course voice radio and transmissions.
n And many more
n Why Were Avionics Needed?
n Bad Weathern
Navigation Aids of the 1920’s
n Bonfires built by farmers paid to light the way.
n Possible Problems?
n Light beacon placed on peaks to keep pilots from crashing into them.
n “Blind Flight” Blind Flight is flying with only the use of instruments on the interior of the a/c, without any visual references from the outside.
3 Systems Associated w/ Blind Flight
Natural Horizonn Some form of navigation
Anything that will help a pilot find the airfield, when the airfield can’t be seen
Yeah We Can “Fly Blind”, but What Now?
n After Doolittle proved that “Blind Flight” was possible, where do we go, and how can we get there?
n Problem: in 1929 electronics were large and bulky, and they require subsystems that were also large and bulky
n More weight means larger engines, more fuel, and larger wing surface. All add more weight which compounds the original problem.
First Electronic Navigation Aids
n Non-directional Beacon (NDB)
n Problem: Had to fly a straight line to the beacon.
n Best used when relatively close to the airport.
n A-N Range
n Advantage: No special equipment needed just headphones and a radio.
n Best used for en-route navigation
Can We Put What We’ve Learned to Good Use?
n The late 1930’s
n Lack of control
n Air travel was painfully slow
n Need for versatility
n Radio Detection And RangingDeveloped just prior to WWII
n Provided visual representation of a/c.
n Secondary Radar known as Information Friend or Foe, or IFF.
n Provides ID of a/c
Civilian version: Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System or ATCRBS also displays altitude information
n Provides horizontal direction of the runway
n Glide Slope
n Provides vertical guidance to the runway
n These two systems make up the Instrument Landing System or ILS
n Long Range Navigation
n Used to find latitude and longitude of aircraft.
n Developed from the naval version Loran
n “Dead Reckoning”
n Determining where you are by knowing:
n 1. Where you’ve been
n 2. How fast you are traveling
n 3. What direction you are going
All you need is a good clock, a chart, and some simple math.
n Things you’ll find on an Aviation Chart:
n Lines of Longitude
n Lines of Latitude
n Navigation aids
n Geographic features
n Political boundaries
n Similar to a map, except features on an aviation chart are all things that invisible, where maps deal w/ visible features.
Heading & Course
n Heading: direction the nose of the plane is pointing.
n Course: the desired overland path
“Crab” Angle: the angle between your course and heading.
n NorthTrue North: the furthest most point (in a northerly direction) of the Earth’s axis.
n Magnetic North: wandering point on the Earth's surface at which the Earth's magnetic field points vertically downwards. www.wikipedia.com
Magnetic Variation: the angle between true north and magnetic north