دورات إحترافية في الميكاترونيكس بعد العيد في أكاديمية أونلاين للتدريب



دورات إحترافية متنوعة من أكاديمية أونلاين


حمل كتاب التركيبات الكهربائية المتقدمة الطبعة5Advanced Electrical Installation Work 5

2009-03-29, 05:28 PM #12
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تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2008
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محتويات الكناب
v
*******s

Preface
vii

Acknowledgements


ix

UNIT 1 – Application of health and safety and electrical principles


1

Chapter 1 Statutory regulations and safe working procedures 3
Chapter 2 Safe working practices and emergency procedures 51
Chapter 3 Effective working practices 77
Chapter 4 Electrical systems and components 95
Chapter 5 Electricity supply systems, protection and earthing 181
Chapter 6 Electrical machines and motors 227
UNIT 2 – Installation (buildings and structures): inspection, testing and commissioning


251

Chapter 7 Safe, effective and effi cient working practices 253
Chapter 8 Inspection, testing and commissioning 311
UNIT 3 – Installation (buildings and structures): fault diagnosis and rectifi cation


347

Chapter 9 Fault diagnosis and repair 349
Chapter 10 Restoring systems to working order 373
Answers to Check your understanding


381

Appendix A: Obtaining information and electronic components


383

Appendix B: Abbreviations, symbols and codes


385

Glossary of terms


387

Index


397

Preface


vii


The 5th Edition of
Advanced Electrical Installation Work has been completely
rewritten in 10 Chapters to closely match the 10 Outcomes of the
City and Guilds qualifi cation. The technical ******* has been revised and
updated to the requirements of the new 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations
BS 7671: 2008. Improved page design with new illustrations gives greater
clarity to each topic.
This book of electrical installation theory and practice will be of value to
the electrical trainee working towards:


The City and Guilds 2330 Level 3 Certifi cate in Electrotechnical
Technology, Installation Route.


The City and Guilds 2356 Level 2 NVQ in Installing Electrotechnical
Systems.


The SCOTVEC and BTEC Electrical Utilisation Units at Levels II and
III.


Those taking Engineering NVQ and modern Apprenticeship
Courses.


Advanced Electrical Installation Work
provides a sound basic knowledge of
electrical practice which other trades in the construction industry will fi nd
of value, particularly those involved in multi-skilling activities.
The book incorporates the requirements of the latest Regulations,
particularly:


17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations.


British Standards BS 7671: 2008.


Part P of the Building Regulations, Electrical Safety in Dwellings:
2006.


Hazardous Waste Regulations: 2005.


Work at Height Regulations: 2005.


Trevor Linsley


2008


Acknowledgements


ix


I would like to acknowledge the assistance given by the following manufacturers

and professional organizations in the preparation of this book:


The Institution of Engineering and Technology for permission
to reproduce Regulations and Tables from the 17th Edition IEE
Regulations.


The British Standards Institution for permission to reproduce material
from BS 7671: 2008.


Crabtree Electrical Industries for technical information and data.


RS Components Limited for technical information and photographs.


Stocksigns Limited for technical information and photographs.


Wylex Electrical Components for technical information and
photographs.


Jason vann Smith MIET MiEEE MBCS MACM for the photographs
used in the page design.
I would like to thank the many College Lecturers who responded to the
questionnaire from Elsevier the publishers, regarding the proposed new
edition of this book. Their recommendations have been taken into account
in producing this improved 5th Edition.
I would also like to thank the editorial and production staff at Elsevier the
publishers for their enthusiasm and support. They were able to publish
this 5th Edition within the very short timescale created by the publication
of the 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations.
Finally I would like to thank Joyce, Samantha and Victoria for their support
and encouragement.


Safe working practices and emergency procedures
57
the local isolator switch before work commences. To deter anyone from reconnecting
the supply while work is being carried out on equipment, a sign
‘ Danger – Electrician at Work ’ should be displayed on the isolator and the
isolation ‘ secured ’ with a small padlock or the fuses removed so that no one
can reconnect whilst work is being carried out on that piece of equipment.
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 are very specifi c at Regulation 12(1)
that we must ensure the disconnection and separation of electrical equipment
from every source of supply and that this disconnection and separation
is secure . Where a test instrument or voltage indicator is used to prove
the supply dead, Regulation 4(3) of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
recommends that the following procedure is adopted.
Definition
Electrical isolation
: We must ensure the
disconnection and separation of electrical
equipment from every source
of supply and that this disconnection
and separation is secure.

FIGURE 2.3
Typical voltage indicator.
1 . First connect the test device such as that shown in Fig. 2.3 to the supply
which is to be isolated. The test device should indicate mains voltage.
2. Next, isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads
zero volts.
3. Then connect the same test device to a known live supply or proving
unit such as that shown in Fig. 2.4 to ‘ prove ’ that the tester is still
working correctly.
4. Finally secure the isolation and place warning signs; only then
should work commence.
The test device being used by the electrician must incorporate safe test
leads which comply with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance
Note 38 on electrical test equipment. These leads should incorporate barriers
to prevent the user touching live terminals when testing and incorporating
a protective fuse and be well insulated and robust, such as those
shown in Fig. 2.5 .

68
Advanced Electrical Installation Work
There now follows a description of some fi rst aid procedures which
should be practised under expert guidance before they are required in an
emergency.
Bleed
ing

If the wound is dirty, rinse it under clean running water. Clean the skin
around the wound and apply a plaster, pulling the skin together.
If the bleeding is severe apply direct pressure to reduce the bleeding and
raise the limb if possible. Apply a sterile dressing or pad and bandage
fi rmly before obtaining professional advice.
To avoid possible contact with hepatitis or the AIDS virus, when dealing
with open wounds, fi rst aiders should avoid contact with fresh blood by
wearing plastic or rubber protective gloves, or by allowing the casualty to
apply pressure to the bleeding wound.
Burns
Remove heat from the burn to relieve the pain by placing the injured part
under clean cold water. Do not remove burnt clothing sticking to the skin.
Do not apply lotions or ointments. Do not break blisters or attempt to
remove loose skin. Cover the injured area with a clean dry dressing.
Broken bones
Make the casualty as comfortable as possible by supporting the broken
limb either by hand or with padding. Do not move the casualty unless by
Table 2.1
Suggested Numbers of First Aid Personnel

Category of risk Numbers employed
at any location
Suggested number of fi rst aid
personnel
Lower risk
For example, shops
and offi ces, libraries
Fewer than 50
50–100
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider
More than 100 One additional fi rst aider for
every 100 employed
Medium risk
For example, light
engineering and
assembly work,
food processing,
warehousing
Fewer than 20
20–100
More than 100
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider for
every 50 employed (or part
thereof)
One additional fi rst aider for
every 100 employed
Higher risk
For example, most
construction,
slaughterhouses,
chemical
manufacture,
extensive work with
dangerous machinery
or sharp instruments
Fewer than fi ve
5–50
More than 50
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider
One additional fi rst aider for
every 50 employed
t 0010

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2009-03-29, 05:34 PM #13
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عضو متميز

تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2008
المشاركات: 1,034
Thumbs Up
Received: 34
Given: 18
محتويات الكناب
v
*******s

Preface
vii

Acknowledgements

الفصل 1 القواعد القانونية وإجراءات عمل آمنة 3

الفصل 2 ممارسات العمل الآمنة وإجراءات الطوارئ 51
الفصل 3 ممارسات العمل الفعال 77
الفصل 4 والمكونات الكهربائية ونظم 95
الفصل 5 إمدادات الكهرباء ونظم الحماية والأرضي 181
الفصل 6 الآلات الكهربائية والمحركات 227
الوحدة 2 -- تركيب (المباني والمنشآت) : التفتيش والاختبار و



251

الفصل 7 آمن وفعال وeffi cient ممارسات العمل 253

الفصل 8 التفتيش والاختبار و311
الوحدة 3 -- تركيب (المباني والمنشآت) : خطأ التشخيص وrectifi الكاتيون



347

الفصل 9 تشخيص وإصلاح الخطأ 349

الفصل 10 لاستعادة نظم العمل من أجل 373

ix

UNIT 1 – Application of health and safety and electrical principles


1

Chapter 1 Statutory regulations and safe working procedures 3

Chapter 2 Safe working practices and emergency procedures 51
Chapter 3 Effective working practices 77
Chapter 4 Electrical systems and components 95
Chapter 5 Electricity supply systems, protection and earthing 181
Chapter 6 Electrical machines and motors 227
UNIT 2 – Installation (buildings and structures): inspection, testing and commissioning




251

Chapter 7 Safe, effective and effi cient working practices 253

Chapter 8 Inspection, testing and commissioning 311
UNIT 3 – Installation (buildings and structures): fault diagnosis and rectifi cation




347

Chapter 9 Fault diagnosis and repair 349

Chapter 10 Restoring systems to working order 373
Answers to Check your understanding




381

Appendix A: Obtaining information and electronic components


383

Appendix B: Abbreviations, symbols and codes


385

Glossary of terms


387

Index


397

Preface


vii


The 5th Edition of
Advanced Electrical Installation Work has been completely

rewritten in 10 Chapters to closely match the 10 Outcomes of the
City and Guilds qualifi cation. The technical ******* has been revised and
updated to the requirements of the new 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations
BS 7671: 2008. Improved page design with new illustrations gives greater
clarity to each topic.
This book of electrical installation theory and practice will be of value to
the electrical trainee working towards:





The City and Guilds 2330 Level 3 Certifi cate in Electrotechnical

Technology, Installation Route.





The City and Guilds 2356 Level 2 NVQ in Installing Electrotechnical

Systems.





The SCOTVEC and BTEC Electrical Utilisation Units at Levels II and

III.





Those taking Engineering NVQ and modern Apprenticeship

Courses.




Advanced Electrical Installation Work
provides a sound basic knowledge of

electrical practice which other trades in the construction industry will fi nd
of value, particularly those involved in multi-skilling activities.
The book incorporates the requirements of the latest Regulations,
particularly:





17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations.



British Standards BS 7671: 2008.



Part P of the Building Regulations, Electrical Safety in Dwellings:

2006.





Hazardous Waste Regulations: 2005.



Work at Height Regulations: 2005.


Trevor Linsley


2008


Acknowledgements


ix


I would like to acknowledge the assistance given by the following manufacturers

and professional organizations in the preparation of this book:





The Institution of Engineering and Technology for permission

to reproduce Regulations and Tables from the 17th Edition IEE
Regulations.





The British Standards Institution for permission to reproduce material

from BS 7671: 2008.





Crabtree Electrical Industries for technical information and data.



RS Components Limited for technical information and photographs.



Stocksigns Limited for technical information and photographs.



Wylex Electrical Components for technical information and

photographs.





Jason vann Smith MIET MiEEE MBCS MACM for the photographs

used in the page design.
I would like to thank the many College Lecturers who responded to the
questionnaire from Elsevier the publishers, regarding the proposed new
edition of this book. Their recommendations have been taken into account
in producing this improved 5th Edition.
I would also like to thank the editorial and production staff at Elsevier the
publishers for their enthusiasm and support. They were able to publish
this 5th Edition within the very short timescale created by the publication
of the 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations.
Finally I would like to thank Joyce, Samantha and Victoria for their support
and encouragement.




Safe working practices and emergency procedures
57
the local isolator switch before work commences. To deter anyone from reconnecting
the supply while work is being carried out on equipment, a sign
‘ Danger – Electrician at Work ’ should be displayed on the isolator and the
isolation ‘ secured ’ with a small padlock or the fuses removed so that no one
can reconnect whilst work is being carried out on that piece of equipment.
The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 are very specifi c at Regulation 12(1)
that we must ensure the disconnection and separation of electrical equipment
from every source of supply and that this disconnection and separation
is secure . Where a test instrument or voltage indicator is used to prove
the supply dead, Regulation 4(3) of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
recommends that the following procedure is adopted.
Definition

Electrical isolation
: We must ensure the
disconnection and separation of electrical
equipment from every source
of supply and that this disconnection
and separation is secure.
FIGURE 2.3
Typical voltage indicator.
1 . First connect the test device such as that shown in Fig. 2.3 to the supply
which is to be isolated. The test device should indicate mains voltage.
2. Next, isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads
zero volts.
3. Then connect the same test device to a known live supply or proving
unit such as that shown in Fig. 2.4 to ‘ prove ’ that the tester is still
working correctly.
4. Finally secure the isolation and place warning signs; only then
should work commence.
The test device being used by the electrician must incorporate safe test
leads which comply with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance
Note 38 on electrical test equipment. These leads should incorporate barriers
to prevent the user touching live terminals when testing and incorporating
a protective fuse and be well insulated and robust, such as those
shown in Fig. 2.5 .

68
Advanced Electrical Installation Work
There now follows a description of some fi rst aid procedures which
should be practised under expert guidance before they are required in an
emergency.
Bleed


ing
If the wound is dirty, rinse it under clean running water. Clean the skin
around the wound and apply a plaster, pulling the skin together.
If the bleeding is severe apply direct pressure to reduce the bleeding and
raise the limb if possible. Apply a sterile dressing or pad and bandage
fi rmly before obtaining professional advice.
To avoid possible contact with hepatitis or the AIDS virus, when dealing
with open wounds, fi rst aiders should avoid contact with fresh blood by
wearing plastic or rubber protective gloves, or by allowing the casualty to
apply pressure to the bleeding wound.
Burns
Remove heat from the burn to relieve the pain by placing the injured part
under clean cold water. Do not remove burnt clothing sticking to the skin.
Do not apply lotions or ointments. Do not break blisters or attempt to
remove loose skin. Cover the injured area with a clean dry dressing.
Broken bones
Make the casualty as comfortable as possible by supporting the broken
limb either by hand or with padding. Do not move the casualty unless by
Table 2.1


Suggested Numbers of First Aid Personnel
Category of risk Numbers employed
at any location
Suggested number of fi rst aid
personnel
Lower risk
For example, shops
and offi ces, libraries
Fewer than 50
50–100
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider
More than 100 One additional fi rst aider for
every 100 employed
Medium risk
For example, light
engineering and
assembly work,
food processing,
warehousing
Fewer than 20
20–100
More than 100
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider for
every 50 employed (or part
thereof)
One additional fi rst aider for
every 100 employed
Higher risk
For example, most
construction,
slaughterhouses,
chemical
manufacture,
extensive work with
dangerous machinery
or sharp instruments
Fewer than fi ve
5–50
More than 50
At least one appointed person
At least one fi rst aider
One additional fi rst aider for
every 50 employed
t 0010
Advanced Electrical Installation Work
198
out of the cable, and this is supported by the copper-woven fabric tape.
The cable is protected by steel wire armouring, which has bitumen or PVC
serving over it to protect the armour sheath from corrosion. The termination
and installation of these cables is a very specialized job, undertaken by
the supply authorities only.
Installing cables
The fi nal choice of a wiring system must rest with those designing the
installation and those ordering the work, but whatever system is employed,
good workmanship by competent persons and the use of proper materials
is essential for compliance with the IEE Regulation 134.1.1. The necessary
skills can be acquired by an electrical trainee who has the correct attitude
and dedication to his craft.
PVC insulated and sheathed wiring systems are used extensively for lighting
and socket installations in domestic dwellings. Mechanical damage to
the cable caused by impact, abrasion, penetration, compression or tension
must be minimized during installation (Regulation 522.6.1). The cables
are generally fi xed using plastic clips incorporating a masonry nail, which
means the cables can be fi xed to wood, plaster or brick with almost equal
ease. Cables should be run horizontally or vertically, not diagonally, down a
wall. All kinks should be removed so that the cable is run straight and neatly
between clips fi xed at equal distances providing adequate support for the
cable so that it does not become damaged by its own weight (Regulation
Stranded copper
conductor
Screen
Impregnated paper
filler
Lead sheath
Cotton tape
Galvanized single
wire armour
Rubber bitumen
sandwich serving
Oil-impregnated
paper dielectric
Oil duct
CWF tape
Hessian tape
Hessian tape
Copper-woven
fabric tape
(CWF tape)
FIGURE 5.16
132 kV underground cable construction.

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2009-04-01, 09:29 PM #17
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