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حمل كتاب التركيبات الكهربائية المتقدمة الطبعة5Advanced Electrical Installation Work 5

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    v
    *******s

    Preface
    vii

    Acknowledgements


    ix

    UNIT 1 – Application of health and safety and electrical principles


    1

    Chapter 1 Statutory regulations and safe working procedures 3
    Chapter 2 Safe working practices and emergency procedures 51
    Chapter 3 Effective working practices 77
    Chapter 4 Electrical systems and components 95
    Chapter 5 Electricity supply systems, protection and earthing 181
    Chapter 6 Electrical machines and motors 227
    UNIT 2 – Installation (buildings and structures): inspection, testing and commissioning


    251

    Chapter 7 Safe, effective and effi cient working practices 253
    Chapter 8 Inspection, testing and commissioning 311
    UNIT 3 – Installation (buildings and structures): fault diagnosis and rectifi cation


    347

    Chapter 9 Fault diagnosis and repair 349
    Chapter 10 Restoring systems to working order 373
    Answers to Check your understanding


    381

    Appendix A: Obtaining information and electronic components


    383

    Appendix B: Abbreviations, symbols and codes


    385

    Glossary of terms


    387

    Index


    397

    Preface


    vii


    The 5th Edition of
    Advanced Electrical Installation Work has been completely
    rewritten in 10 Chapters to closely match the 10 Outcomes of the
    City and Guilds qualifi cation. The technical ******* has been revised and
    updated to the requirements of the new 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations
    BS 7671: 2008. Improved page design with new illustrations gives greater
    clarity to each topic.
    This book of electrical installation theory and practice will be of value to
    the electrical trainee working towards:


    The City and Guilds 2330 Level 3 Certifi cate in Electrotechnical
    Technology, Installation Route.


    The City and Guilds 2356 Level 2 NVQ in Installing Electrotechnical
    Systems.


    The SCOTVEC and BTEC Electrical Utilisation Units at Levels II and
    III.


    Those taking Engineering NVQ and modern Apprenticeship
    Courses.


    Advanced Electrical Installation Work
    provides a sound basic knowledge of
    electrical practice which other trades in the construction industry will fi nd
    of value, particularly those involved in multi-skilling activities.
    The book incorporates the requirements of the latest Regulations,
    particularly:


    17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations.


    British Standards BS 7671: 2008.


    Part P of the Building Regulations, Electrical Safety in Dwellings:
    2006.


    Hazardous Waste Regulations: 2005.


    Work at Height Regulations: 2005.


    Trevor Linsley


    2008


    Acknowledgements


    ix


    I would like to acknowledge the assistance given by the following manufacturers

    and professional organizations in the preparation of this book:


    The Institution of Engineering and Technology for permission
    to reproduce Regulations and Tables from the 17th Edition IEE
    Regulations.


    The British Standards Institution for permission to reproduce material
    from BS 7671: 2008.


    Crabtree Electrical Industries for technical information and data.


    RS Components Limited for technical information and photographs.


    Stocksigns Limited for technical information and photographs.


    Wylex Electrical Components for technical information and
    photographs.


    Jason vann Smith MIET MiEEE MBCS MACM for the photographs
    used in the page design.
    I would like to thank the many College Lecturers who responded to the
    questionnaire from Elsevier the publishers, regarding the proposed new
    edition of this book. Their recommendations have been taken into account
    in producing this improved 5th Edition.
    I would also like to thank the editorial and production staff at Elsevier the
    publishers for their enthusiasm and support. They were able to publish
    this 5th Edition within the very short timescale created by the publication
    of the 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations.
    Finally I would like to thank Joyce, Samantha and Victoria for their support
    and encouragement.


    Safe working practices and emergency procedures
    57
    the local isolator switch before work commences. To deter anyone from reconnecting
    the supply while work is being carried out on equipment, a sign
    ‘ Danger – Electrician at Work ’ should be displayed on the isolator and the
    isolation ‘ secured ’ with a small padlock or the fuses removed so that no one
    can reconnect whilst work is being carried out on that piece of equipment.
    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 are very specifi c at Regulation 12(1)
    that we must ensure the disconnection and separation of electrical equipment
    from every source of supply and that this disconnection and separation
    is secure . Where a test instrument or voltage indicator is used to prove
    the supply dead, Regulation 4(3) of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
    recommends that the following procedure is adopted.
    Definition
    Electrical isolation
    : We must ensure the
    disconnection and separation of electrical
    equipment from every source
    of supply and that this disconnection
    and separation is secure.

    FIGURE 2.3
    Typical voltage indicator.
    1 . First connect the test device such as that shown in Fig. 2.3 to the supply
    which is to be isolated. The test device should indicate mains voltage.
    2. Next, isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads
    zero volts.
    3. Then connect the same test device to a known live supply or proving
    unit such as that shown in Fig. 2.4 to ‘ prove ’ that the tester is still
    working correctly.
    4. Finally secure the isolation and place warning signs; only then
    should work commence.
    The test device being used by the electrician must incorporate safe test
    leads which comply with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance
    Note 38 on electrical test equipment. These leads should incorporate barriers
    to prevent the user touching live terminals when testing and incorporating
    a protective fuse and be well insulated and robust, such as those
    shown in Fig. 2.5 .

    68
    Advanced Electrical Installation Work
    There now follows a description of some fi rst aid procedures which
    should be practised under expert guidance before they are required in an
    emergency.
    Bleed
    ing

    If the wound is dirty, rinse it under clean running water. Clean the skin
    around the wound and apply a plaster, pulling the skin together.
    If the bleeding is severe apply direct pressure to reduce the bleeding and
    raise the limb if possible. Apply a sterile dressing or pad and bandage
    fi rmly before obtaining professional advice.
    To avoid possible contact with hepatitis or the AIDS virus, when dealing
    with open wounds, fi rst aiders should avoid contact with fresh blood by
    wearing plastic or rubber protective gloves, or by allowing the casualty to
    apply pressure to the bleeding wound.
    Burns
    Remove heat from the burn to relieve the pain by placing the injured part
    under clean cold water. Do not remove burnt clothing sticking to the skin.
    Do not apply lotions or ointments. Do not break blisters or attempt to
    remove loose skin. Cover the injured area with a clean dry dressing.
    Broken bones
    Make the casualty as comfortable as possible by supporting the broken
    limb either by hand or with padding. Do not move the casualty unless by
    Table 2.1
    Suggested Numbers of First Aid Personnel

    Category of risk Numbers employed
    at any location
    Suggested number of fi rst aid
    personnel
    Lower risk
    For example, shops
    and offi ces, libraries
    Fewer than 50
    50–100
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider
    More than 100 One additional fi rst aider for
    every 100 employed
    Medium risk
    For example, light
    engineering and
    assembly work,
    food processing,
    warehousing
    Fewer than 20
    20–100
    More than 100
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider for
    every 50 employed (or part
    thereof)
    One additional fi rst aider for
    every 100 employed
    Higher risk
    For example, most
    construction,
    slaughterhouses,
    chemical
    manufacture,
    extensive work with
    dangerous machinery
    or sharp instruments
    Fewer than fi ve
    5–50
    More than 50
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider
    One additional fi rst aider for
    every 50 employed
    t 0010

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  3. [13]
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    الصورة الرمزية القبطان علي


    تاريخ التسجيل: Oct 2008
    المشاركات: 1,034
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    Given: 18
    محتويات الكناب
    v
    *******s

    Preface
    vii

    Acknowledgements

    الفصل 1 القواعد القانونية وإجراءات عمل آمنة 3

    الفصل 2 ممارسات العمل الآمنة وإجراءات الطوارئ 51
    الفصل 3 ممارسات العمل الفعال 77
    الفصل 4 والمكونات الكهربائية ونظم 95
    الفصل 5 إمدادات الكهرباء ونظم الحماية والأرضي 181
    الفصل 6 الآلات الكهربائية والمحركات 227
    الوحدة 2 -- تركيب (المباني والمنشآت) : التفتيش والاختبار و



    251

    الفصل 7 آمن وفعال وeffi cient ممارسات العمل 253

    الفصل 8 التفتيش والاختبار و311
    الوحدة 3 -- تركيب (المباني والمنشآت) : خطأ التشخيص وrectifi الكاتيون



    347

    الفصل 9 تشخيص وإصلاح الخطأ 349

    الفصل 10 لاستعادة نظم العمل من أجل 373

    ix

    UNIT 1 – Application of health and safety and electrical principles


    1

    Chapter 1 Statutory regulations and safe working procedures 3

    Chapter 2 Safe working practices and emergency procedures 51
    Chapter 3 Effective working practices 77
    Chapter 4 Electrical systems and components 95
    Chapter 5 Electricity supply systems, protection and earthing 181
    Chapter 6 Electrical machines and motors 227
    UNIT 2 – Installation (buildings and structures): inspection, testing and commissioning




    251

    Chapter 7 Safe, effective and effi cient working practices 253

    Chapter 8 Inspection, testing and commissioning 311
    UNIT 3 – Installation (buildings and structures): fault diagnosis and rectifi cation




    347

    Chapter 9 Fault diagnosis and repair 349

    Chapter 10 Restoring systems to working order 373
    Answers to Check your understanding




    381

    Appendix A: Obtaining information and electronic components


    383

    Appendix B: Abbreviations, symbols and codes


    385

    Glossary of terms


    387

    Index


    397

    Preface


    vii


    The 5th Edition of
    Advanced Electrical Installation Work has been completely

    rewritten in 10 Chapters to closely match the 10 Outcomes of the
    City and Guilds qualifi cation. The technical ******* has been revised and
    updated to the requirements of the new 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations
    BS 7671: 2008. Improved page design with new illustrations gives greater
    clarity to each topic.
    This book of electrical installation theory and practice will be of value to
    the electrical trainee working towards:





    The City and Guilds 2330 Level 3 Certifi cate in Electrotechnical

    Technology, Installation Route.





    The City and Guilds 2356 Level 2 NVQ in Installing Electrotechnical

    Systems.





    The SCOTVEC and BTEC Electrical Utilisation Units at Levels II and

    III.





    Those taking Engineering NVQ and modern Apprenticeship

    Courses.




    Advanced Electrical Installation Work
    provides a sound basic knowledge of

    electrical practice which other trades in the construction industry will fi nd
    of value, particularly those involved in multi-skilling activities.
    The book incorporates the requirements of the latest Regulations,
    particularly:





    17th Edition IEE Wiring Regulations.



    British Standards BS 7671: 2008.



    Part P of the Building Regulations, Electrical Safety in Dwellings:

    2006.





    Hazardous Waste Regulations: 2005.



    Work at Height Regulations: 2005.


    Trevor Linsley


    2008


    Acknowledgements


    ix


    I would like to acknowledge the assistance given by the following manufacturers

    and professional organizations in the preparation of this book:





    The Institution of Engineering and Technology for permission

    to reproduce Regulations and Tables from the 17th Edition IEE
    Regulations.





    The British Standards Institution for permission to reproduce material

    from BS 7671: 2008.





    Crabtree Electrical Industries for technical information and data.



    RS Components Limited for technical information and photographs.



    Stocksigns Limited for technical information and photographs.



    Wylex Electrical Components for technical information and

    photographs.





    Jason vann Smith MIET MiEEE MBCS MACM for the photographs

    used in the page design.
    I would like to thank the many College Lecturers who responded to the
    questionnaire from Elsevier the publishers, regarding the proposed new
    edition of this book. Their recommendations have been taken into account
    in producing this improved 5th Edition.
    I would also like to thank the editorial and production staff at Elsevier the
    publishers for their enthusiasm and support. They were able to publish
    this 5th Edition within the very short timescale created by the publication
    of the 17th Edition of the IEE Regulations.
    Finally I would like to thank Joyce, Samantha and Victoria for their support
    and encouragement.




    Safe working practices and emergency procedures
    57
    the local isolator switch before work commences. To deter anyone from reconnecting
    the supply while work is being carried out on equipment, a sign
    ‘ Danger – Electrician at Work ’ should be displayed on the isolator and the
    isolation ‘ secured ’ with a small padlock or the fuses removed so that no one
    can reconnect whilst work is being carried out on that piece of equipment.
    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 are very specifi c at Regulation 12(1)
    that we must ensure the disconnection and separation of electrical equipment
    from every source of supply and that this disconnection and separation
    is secure . Where a test instrument or voltage indicator is used to prove
    the supply dead, Regulation 4(3) of the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989
    recommends that the following procedure is adopted.
    Definition

    Electrical isolation
    : We must ensure the
    disconnection and separation of electrical
    equipment from every source
    of supply and that this disconnection
    and separation is secure.
    FIGURE 2.3
    Typical voltage indicator.
    1 . First connect the test device such as that shown in Fig. 2.3 to the supply
    which is to be isolated. The test device should indicate mains voltage.
    2. Next, isolate the supply and observe that the test device now reads
    zero volts.
    3. Then connect the same test device to a known live supply or proving
    unit such as that shown in Fig. 2.4 to ‘ prove ’ that the tester is still
    working correctly.
    4. Finally secure the isolation and place warning signs; only then
    should work commence.
    The test device being used by the electrician must incorporate safe test
    leads which comply with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) Guidance
    Note 38 on electrical test equipment. These leads should incorporate barriers
    to prevent the user touching live terminals when testing and incorporating
    a protective fuse and be well insulated and robust, such as those
    shown in Fig. 2.5 .

    68
    Advanced Electrical Installation Work
    There now follows a description of some fi rst aid procedures which
    should be practised under expert guidance before they are required in an
    emergency.
    Bleed


    ing
    If the wound is dirty, rinse it under clean running water. Clean the skin
    around the wound and apply a plaster, pulling the skin together.
    If the bleeding is severe apply direct pressure to reduce the bleeding and
    raise the limb if possible. Apply a sterile dressing or pad and bandage
    fi rmly before obtaining professional advice.
    To avoid possible contact with hepatitis or the AIDS virus, when dealing
    with open wounds, fi rst aiders should avoid contact with fresh blood by
    wearing plastic or rubber protective gloves, or by allowing the casualty to
    apply pressure to the bleeding wound.
    Burns
    Remove heat from the burn to relieve the pain by placing the injured part
    under clean cold water. Do not remove burnt clothing sticking to the skin.
    Do not apply lotions or ointments. Do not break blisters or attempt to
    remove loose skin. Cover the injured area with a clean dry dressing.
    Broken bones
    Make the casualty as comfortable as possible by supporting the broken
    limb either by hand or with padding. Do not move the casualty unless by
    Table 2.1


    Suggested Numbers of First Aid Personnel
    Category of risk Numbers employed
    at any location
    Suggested number of fi rst aid
    personnel
    Lower risk
    For example, shops
    and offi ces, libraries
    Fewer than 50
    50–100
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider
    More than 100 One additional fi rst aider for
    every 100 employed
    Medium risk
    For example, light
    engineering and
    assembly work,
    food processing,
    warehousing
    Fewer than 20
    20–100
    More than 100
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider for
    every 50 employed (or part
    thereof)
    One additional fi rst aider for
    every 100 employed
    Higher risk
    For example, most
    construction,
    slaughterhouses,
    chemical
    manufacture,
    extensive work with
    dangerous machinery
    or sharp instruments
    Fewer than fi ve
    5–50
    More than 50
    At least one appointed person
    At least one fi rst aider
    One additional fi rst aider for
    every 50 employed
    t 0010
    Advanced Electrical Installation Work
    198
    out of the cable, and this is supported by the copper-woven fabric tape.
    The cable is protected by steel wire armouring, which has bitumen or PVC
    serving over it to protect the armour sheath from corrosion. The termination
    and installation of these cables is a very specialized job, undertaken by
    the supply authorities only.
    Installing cables
    The fi nal choice of a wiring system must rest with those designing the
    installation and those ordering the work, but whatever system is employed,
    good workmanship by competent persons and the use of proper materials
    is essential for compliance with the IEE Regulation 134.1.1. The necessary
    skills can be acquired by an electrical trainee who has the correct attitude
    and dedication to his craft.
    PVC insulated and sheathed wiring systems are used extensively for lighting
    and socket installations in domestic dwellings. Mechanical damage to
    the cable caused by impact, abrasion, penetration, compression or tension
    must be minimized during installation (Regulation 522.6.1). The cables
    are generally fi xed using plastic clips incorporating a masonry nail, which
    means the cables can be fi xed to wood, plaster or brick with almost equal
    ease. Cables should be run horizontally or vertically, not diagonally, down a
    wall. All kinks should be removed so that the cable is run straight and neatly
    between clips fi xed at equal distances providing adequate support for the
    cable so that it does not become damaged by its own weight (Regulation
    Stranded copper
    conductor
    Screen
    Impregnated paper
    filler
    Lead sheath
    Cotton tape
    Galvanized single
    wire armour
    Rubber bitumen
    sandwich serving
    Oil-impregnated
    paper dielectric
    Oil duct
    CWF tape
    Hessian tape
    Hessian tape
    Copper-woven
    fabric tape
    (CWF tape)
    FIGURE 5.16
    132 kV underground cable construction.


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