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معجم هندســة التعديـن

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    Illustrated Mining Terms

    A
    Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.[IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/ABUTMENT.jpg[/IMG]Acid deposition or acid rainRefers loosely to a mixture of wet and dry "deposition" (deposited material) from the atmosphere containing higher than "normal" amount of nitric and sulfuric acids. The precursors or chemical forerunners of acid rain formation result from both natural sources, such as volcanoes and decaying vegetation, and man-made sources, primarily emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides resulting from fossil fuel combustion.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/acid54.jpg[/IMG]
    Acid mine water - Mine water that contains free sulfuric acid, mainly due to the weathering of iron pyrites.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/85.jpg[/IMG]
    Active workings - Any place in a mine where miners are normally required to work or travel and which are ventilated and inspected regularly.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/driftSM.gif[/IMG]
    Adit - A nearly horizontal passage from the surface by which a mine is entered and dewatered. A blind horizontal opening into a mountain, with only one entrance.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/Adit.jpg[/IMG]
    Advance - Mining in the same direction, or order of sequence; first mining as distinguished from retreat. Aerial Survey - A survey made from a flying aircraft, such as photograohic, magnetometer, radioactivity, etc.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/asurvey.jpg[/IMG]
    Air Blast - The sudden failure of walls or pillars in a mine causing a rush of air throughout the mine. Air split - The division of a current of air into two or more parts. Airway - Any passage through which air is carried. Also known as an air course. Alteration - Any physical or chemical change in a rock or mineral susequent to its formation.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/alteration.jpg[/IMG]
    Alluvial - A sediment or gravel deposited by the action of a stream or river in a river bed, flood plain, lake, fan at the foot of mountain slopes, or in estuaries that may or may not contain diamonds or precious minerals or both;
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/alluvial.gif[/IMG]
    Amalgam - An alloy of mercury with another metal.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/amalgam.jpg[/IMG]
    Amalgamation - A process by which gold and silver are extracted from an ore by dissolving them in mercury. Amex - Consists of free-flowing, carefully blended, plant mix of ammonium nitrate prills and oil to which special ingredients have been added for reducing the generation of static electricity during pneumatic loading operations and preventing caking of the blasting agent when in storage.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/amex2.jpg[/IMG]
    Anemometer - Instrument for measuring air velocity.Anfo - Ammonium nitrate - fuel oil blasting agent.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/anfosl1.jpg[/IMG]
    Anodet Delay - A non-electric, millisecond delay unit which is initiated with B-line detonating fuse. Angle of dip - The angle at which strata or mineral deposits are inclined to the horizontal plane
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/mainpic2.jpg[/IMG]
    Angle of draw - In coal mine subsidence, this angle is assumed to bisect the angle between the vertical and the angle of repose of the material and is 20° for flat seams. For dipping seams, the angle of break increases, being 35.8° from the vertical for a 40° dip. The main break occurs over the seam at an angle from the vertical equal to half the dip. Angle of repose - The maximum angle from horizontal at which a given material will rest on a given surface without sliding or rolling.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/Trajectories_Flow2.jpg[/IMG]
    Anomaly - A term applied to a departure from the normal or field characteristic, commonly used in geophysical prospecting.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/anomaly.jpg[/IMG]
    Anticline - An upward fold or arch of rock strata.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/antsyn.gif[/IMG]
    Aquifer - A water-bearing bed of porous rock, often sandstone.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/aquifer.gif[/IMG]
    Arching - Fracture processes around a mine opening, leading to stabilization by an arching effect.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/archs.jpg[/IMG]
    Area (of an airway) - Average width multiplied by average height of airway, expressed in square feet. Assay laboratory - A laboratory in which the proportions of metal in ores or concentrates are determined using analytical techniques
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/assay.jpg[/IMG]
    Assessment work - The amount of work specified by law, which must be done each year to retain legal control of mining lands. Auger - A rotary drill that uses a screw device to penetrate, break, and then transport the drilled material (coal). Autoclave system: an oxidation treatment in which high temperatures and pressures are applied to convert refractory gold-bearing sulfide materials into amenable oxide ore.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/autoclave.jpg[/IMG]
    Autogenous grinding - The process of grinding in a rotating mill which uses a grinding medium of large ore pieces , instead of conventional steel balls or rods.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/autogrind.jpg[/IMG]
    Auxiliary operations - All activities supportive of but not contributing directly to mining. Auxiliary ventilation - Portion of main ventilating current directed to face of dead end entry by means of an auxiliary fan and tubing. Azimuth - A surveying term that references the angle measured clockwise from any meridian (the established line of reference). The bearing is used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20A_files/azimuth.jpg[/IMG]
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    معجم هندسة التعدين(b)

    IllustratedMining Terms

    B


    Back- The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/LAK00616.jpg[/IMG]

    Backfill – Mine waste or rock used to support the roof after ore removal
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/backfill.gif[/IMG]


    Bacterial leaching / bio-oxidation - The use of bacteria to oxidise sulphide minerals.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/33925bio2.jpg[/IMG]

    Ball mill: a steel cylinder loaded with steel balls into which crushed ore is fed. The ball mill is rotated, causing the balls to cascade and grind the ore.[IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/P0001504.jpg[/IMG]Banjo - Miner's term for a shovel. Barren - Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable. Barricading - Enclosing part of a mine to prevent inflow of noxious gasses from a mine fire or an explosion. Also used in cut & fill stopes to hold back the wet sandfill until it dries.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/barc2.gif[/IMG]

    Barrier - Something that bars or keeps out. Barrier pillars are solid blocks of coal left between two mines or sections of a mine to prevent accidents due to inrushes of water, gas, or from explosions or a mine fire.


    Base Metal - A metal inferior in value to gold and silver, generally applied to the commercial metals such as copper, lead, etc.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/ptapes.jpg[/IMG]


    Basic Rock - An igneous rock, relatively low in silica and composed mostly of dark-colured minerals. Beam - A bar or straight girder used to support a span of roof between two support props or walls.

    Beam building - The creation of a strong, inflexible beam by bolting or otherwise fastening together several weaker layers. In coal mining this is the intended basis for roof bolting. Similiar to cribbing.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/img10.jpg[/IMG]


    BearingA surveying term used to designate direction. The bearing of a line is the acute horizontal angle between the meridian and the line. The meridian is an established line of reference. Azimuths are angles measured clockwise from any meridian.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/Bearing-4.jpg[/IMG]


    Bearing plate - A plate used to distribute a given load. In roof bolting, the plate used between the bolt head and the roof.

    Bed - A stratum of coal or other sedimentary deposit.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/gale_m0301521xsec_i1.jpg[/IMG]


    Bedrock - any solid rock underlying gravels or other detrital materialBelt conveyor - A looped belt on which coal or other materials can be carried and which is generally constructed of flame-resistant material or of reinforced rubber or rubber-like substance.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/Incline_Belt_Conveyor.jpg[/IMG]


    Bench - One of to or more divisions of a coal seam separated by slate or formed by the process of cutting the coal. In open pits, benches are different mining levels formed as the rock is mined in horizontal slices.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/benching.jpg[/IMG]


    Beneficiation - The treatment of mined material, making it more concentrated or richer. Uses the process of crushing, grinding, and often froth-flotation to remove waste rock from ore. The metal ******* is increased as the waste is removed.

    Berm - A pile or mound of material capable of restraining a vehicle.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/berm.gif[/IMG]


    Binder - A streak of impurity in a coal seam. Bit - The hardened and strengthened device at the end of a drill rod that transmits the energy of breakage to the rock. The size of the bit determines the size of the hole. A bit may be either detachable from or integral with its supporting drill rod.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/Drill_Bit_small.jpg[/IMG]


    Bituminous coalA middle rank coal (between subbituminous and anthracite) formed by additional pressure and heat on lignite. Usually has a high Btu value and may be referred to as "soft coal."
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/bituminous_coal.jpg[/IMG]


    Blasting agent - Any material consisting of a mixture of a fuel and an oxidizer
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/explosives.jpg[/IMG]


    Blasting cap - A detonator containing a charge of detonating compound, which is ignited by electric current or the spark of a fuse. Used for detonating explosives.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/p_ehsae.jpg[/IMG]


    Blasting circuit - Electric circuits used to fire electric detonators or to ignite an igniter cord by means of an electric starter.

    Bleeder or bleeder entries - Special air courses developed and maintained as part of the mine ventilation system and designed to continuously move air-methane mixtures emitted by the gob or at the active face away from the active workings and into mine-return air courses. Alt: Exhaust ventilation lateral. B-Line - A detonating cord with a high explosive core used in secondary blasting operations.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/charging.jpg[/IMG]


    Block Caving - A cheap method of mining in which large blocks or ore are undercut, the ore breaks and caves under its own weight.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/blockc.gif[/IMG]


    Bolt torque - The turning force in foot-pounds applied to a roof bolt to achieve an installed tension.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/p_awogs.jpg[/IMG]


    Borehole - Any deep or long drill-hole, usually associated with a diamond drill.

    Bootleg - The bottom or side or a drillhole left unbroken by a blast. Bottom - Floor or underlying surface of an underground excavation.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/inmine3.jpg[/IMG]


    Boss - Any member of the managerial ranks who is directly in charge of miners (e.g., "shift-boss," "face-boss," "fire-boss," etc.). Boxhole - A short raise or opening driven above a drift for the purpose of drawing ore from a stope, or to permit access.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/chute2.jpg[/IMG]


    Box-type magazine - A small, portable magazine used to store limited quantities of explosives or detonators for short periods of time at locations in the mine which are convenient to the blasting sites at which they will be used.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/exp2.jpg[/IMG]


    Breakthrough - A passage for ventilation that is cut through the pillars between rooms. Breast - A working face, usually restricted to a stope.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/cutf2.gif[/IMG]


    Bridge carrier - A rubber-tire-mounted mobile conveyor, about 10 meters long, used as an intermediate unit to create a system of articulated conveyors between a mining machine and a room or entry conveyor. Bridge conveyor - A short conveyor hung from the boom of mining or lading machine or haulage system with the other end attached to a receiving bin that dollies along a frame supported by the room or entry conveyor, tailpiece. Thus, as the machine boom moves, the bridge conveyor keeps it in constant connection with the tailpiece.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/mining1.jpg[/IMG]


    Brow - A low place in the roof of a mine, giving insufficient headroom. Brushing - Digging up the bottom or taking down the top to give more headroom in roadways. Brunton - A small pocket compass with sights and a reflector attached, used in mapping.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/mainpic2.jpg[/IMG]


    Btu British thermal unit. A measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Bulk sample - A large sample, selected in such a manner as to be representative of the material being sampled. Bullion - Metal in bars, ingots or other uncoined form.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/bullion.jpg[/IMG]


    Bump (or burst) - A violent dislocation of the mine workings which is attributed to severe stresses in the rock surrounding the workings.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/Subway_Cave_in_winter.jpg[/IMG]


    Burn Cut - Cut holes are drilled straight into the surface parallel to each other with one or more holes left unloaded for the other holes to break into.
    [IMG]file:///F:/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20B_files/drillp12.jpg[/IMG]

    By-product: a secondary metal or mineral product recovered in the milling process.


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  3. #3

  4. #4
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    معجم هندسة التعدين(c)

    Illustrated Mining Terms

    C

    Cage - In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an elevator car, that is used for hoisting personnel and materials.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/cagesm.gif[/IMG]


    Calorific value - The quantity of heat that can be liberated from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU's. Canopy - A protective covering of a cab on a mining machine.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/canopy.a.jpg[/IMG]


    Cap - A miner's safety helmet. Also, a highly sensitive, encapsulated explosive that is used to detonate larger but less sensitive explosives.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/but4.gif[/IMG]


    Car - A railway wagon, especially any of the wagons adapted to carrying coal, ore, and waste underground.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/orecarsm.gif[/IMG]


    Car-dump - The mechanism for unloading a loaded car.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/orepassm.gif[/IMG]


    Carbide bit - More correctly, cemented tungsten carbide. A cutting or drilling bit for rock or coal, made by fusing an insert of molded tungsten carbide to the cutting edge of a steel bit shank.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/02021321.jpg[/IMG]


    Carbon-in-leach: a recovery process in which a slurry of gold ore, carbon granules and cyanide are mixed together. The cyanide dissolves the gold ******* and the gold is adsorbed on the carbon. The carbon is subsequently separated from the slurry for further gold removal.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/ergo.jpg[/IMG]


    Carbon-in-pulp: similar to carbon-in-leach process, but initially the slurry is subjected to cyanide leaching in separate tanks followed by carbon-in-pulp. Carbon-in-pulp is a sequential process whereas carbon-in-leach is a simultaneous process.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/Au_carbon_in_pulp.jpg[/IMG]


    Cast - A directed throw; in strip-mining, the overburden is cast from the coal to the previously mined area.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/Alluv_diamond_mine.jpg[/IMG]


    Cave-in - the partial or complete collapse of a mine working. Caving System - stoping systems designed to take advantage of the natural tendency of some ores to cave. Certified - Describes a person who has passed an examination to do a required job. Chain conveyor - A conveyor on which the material is moved along solid pans (troughs) by the action of scraper crossbars attached to powered chains.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/1999-06527_1_large_img.jpg[/IMG]


    Chain pillar - The pillar of coal left to protect the gangway or entry and the parallel airways. Change house - A special building constructed at a mine where the miners changes to his working clothes. Chock - Large hydraulic jacks used to support roof in longwall and shortwall mining systems.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/longw2.jpg[/IMG]


    Chute - An inclined opening, usually constructed of timber and equipped with a gate, through which ore is drawn from a stope into mine cars.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/orechute2.jpg[/IMG]


    Claim - A portion of mining land, usually 40 acres in size.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/staking.gif[/IMG]


    Coal - A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without decomposition and very insoluble
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/coal.jpg[/IMG]


    Coal Gasification – The conversion of coal into a gaseous fuel.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/fluidbed.jpg[/IMG]


    Coal washing – The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities. Pyritic sulfur, or sulfur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/wash.h1.jpg[/IMG]


    Coke – A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air.[IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/coke_production_02_s.gif[/IMG]Collar - The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth or top of a shaft. The beginning point of a shaft or drill hole at the surface.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/LAK01139.jpg[/IMG]


    Colliery - British name for coal mine.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/colliery.jpg[/IMG]


    Column flotation – A precombustion coal cleaning technology in which coal particles attach to air bubbles rising in a vertical column. The coal is then removed at the top of the column.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/smcell.jpg[/IMG]


    Comminution - The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock

    Competent rock - Rock which, because of its physical and geological characteristics, is capable of sustaining openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining (stalls, light props, and roof bolts are not considered structural support). Concentrate: a powdery product containing the valuable ore mineral from which most of the waste material has been eliminated.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/Bauxite.jpg[/IMG]


    Concentrator - A particular type of milling plant that produces a concentrate of the valuable minerals or metals.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/concentrator.jpg[/IMG]


    Contact - The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet. Applies to sedimentary rocks, as the contact between a limestone and a sandstone, for example, and to metamorphic rocks; and it is especially applicable between igneous intrusions and their walls.
    [IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/arch_contact.jpg[/IMG]


    Continuous miner - A machine that constantly extracts coal while it loads it. This is to be distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit which must stop the extraction process in order for loading to commence
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    Contour - An imaginary line that connects all points on a surface having the same elevation.
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    Conventional miningThe first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the insertion of explosives in a coal seam, the blasting of the seam, and the removal of the coal onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine. Conveyor - An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a continuous fashion. This is accomplished with an endless (that is, looped) procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc.
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    Convertor - A furnace that is used to reduce metal from a matte.
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    Core sampleA cylinder sample generally 1-5" in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and ore.
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    Counterweight - A dead or non-working weight attached to one end of a machine to balance the load carried on the opposite end.
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    Country rock - A term used to describe the general mass of rock adjacent to an orebody. Cover - The overburden of any deposit.
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    Creep - The forcing of pillars into soft bottom by the weight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a very slow movement of slopes downhill.

    Crib - A roof support of prop timbers or ties, laid in alternate cross-layers, log-cabin style. It may or may not be filled with debris. Also may be called a chock or cog.
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    Cribbing - The construction of cribs or timbers laid at right angles to each other, sometimes filled with earth, as a roof support or as a support for machinery.
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    Crossbar - The horizontal member of a roof timber set supported by props located either on roadways or at the face. Crosscut - A passageway driven between the entry and its parallel air course or air courses for ventilation purposes. Also, a tunnel driven from one seam to another through or across the intervening measures; sometimes called "crosscut tunnel", or "breakthrough". In vein mining, an entry perpendicular to the vein.


    Cross entry - An entry running at an angle with the main entry.
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    Crusher - A machine for crushing rock or other materials. Among the various types of crushers are the ball mill, gyratory crusher, Handsel mill, hammer mill, jaw crusher, rod mill, rolls, stamp mill, and tube mill.


    Cut-and-fill: a method of underground mining in which ore is removed in slices or lifts, and then the excavation is filled with rock or other waste material (backfill) before the subsequent slice is mined.[IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20C_files/cutf1.gif[/IMG]Cut-off grade - lowest grade of ore in a deposit that will recover mining costs; the cut-off grade determines the workable tonnage of an ore Cutter; Cutting machine - A machine, usually used in coal, that will cut a 10- to 15-cm slot. The slot allows room for expansion of the broken coal. Also applies to the man who operates the machine and to workers engaged in the cutting of coal by prick or drill.
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    Cyanidation: a method of extracting gold or silver by dissolving it in a weak solution of sodium cyanide.
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    Cycle mining - A system of mining in more than one working place at a time, that is, a miner takes a lift from the face and moves to another face while permanent roof support is established in the previous working face.


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    معجم هندسة التعدين(d)

    IllustratedMining Terms

    D
    Decline - an inclined shaft mined downwards (as opposed to an incline)
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    Deformation - change of the shape of a body by the action of a force or stressDemonstrated reserves – A collective term for the sum of coal in both measured and indicated resources and reserves. Density - the mass of a substance expressed in units of weight per unit volume Deposit - Mineral deposit or ore deposit is used to designate a natural occurrence of a useful mineral, or an ore, in sufficient extent and degree of concentration to invite exploitation.
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    Depth - The word alone generally denotes vertical depth below the surface. In the case of incline shafts and boreholes it may mean the distance reached from the beginning of the shaft or hole, the borehole depth, or the inclined depth.
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    Detectors - Specialized chemical or electronic instruments used to detect mine gases.
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    Detonator - A device containing a small detonating charge that is used for detonating an explosive, including, but not limited to, blasting caps, exploders, electric detonators, and delay electric blasting caps.
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    Development mining - Work undertaken to open up ore reserves as distinguished from the work of actual ore extraction. Diamond drill - A rotary drill in which the cutting is done by abrasion rather than percussion.
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    Diffusion - Blending of a gas and air, resulting in a homogeneous mixture. Blending of two or more gases.
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    Diffuser fan - A fan mounted on a continuous miner to assist and direct air delivery from the machine to the face. Dilute - To lower the concentration of a mixture; in this case the concentration of any hazardous gas in mine air by addition of fresh intake air.
    Dilution - The contamination of ore with barren wall rock in stopping. Dip - The inclination of a geologic structure (bed, vein, fault, etc.) from the horizontal; dip is always measured downwards at right angles to the strike.
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    Dragline – A large excavation machine used in surface mining to remove overburden (layers of rock and soil) covering a coal seam. The dragline casts a wire rope-hung bucket a considerable distance, collects the dug material by pulling the bucket toward itself on the ground with a second wire rope (or chain), elevates the bucket, and dumps the material on a spoil bank, in a hopper, or on a pile.
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    Drainage - The process of removing surplus ground or surface water either by artificial means or by gravity flow.[IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20D_files/sump.jpg[/IMG]Drift - A horizontal passage underground. A drift follows the vein, as distinguished from a crosscut that intersects it, or a level or gallery, which may do either.
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    Drift mine – An underground mine in which the entry or access is above water level and generally on the slope of a hill, driven horizontally into a orebody. Drill - A machine utilizing rotation, percussion (hammering), or a combination of both to make holes. If the hole is much over 0.4m in diameter, the machine is called a borer.
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    Drilling - The use of such a machine to create holes for exploration or for loading with explosives.
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    Driving - the process of advancing a mine working, especially a drift or raise. Dummy - A bag filled with sand, clay, etc., used for stemming a charged hole. Dump - To unload; specifically, a load of coal or waste; the mechanism for unloading, e.g. a car dump (sometimes called tipple); or, the pile created by such unloading, e.g. a waste dump (also called heap, pile, tip, spoil pike, etc.).
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    User Info Menu

    معجم هندسة التعدين(e)

    IllustratedMining Terms

    E

    Electrical fuse - A metallic cup holding fulminate of mercury into which two wires are held by a plug. Electrical grounding - To connect with the ground to make the earth part of the circuit. Electrowinning: the recovery of metal by electrolysis. An electric current is passed through a solution containing dissolved metals, which causes the metals to be deposited on a cathode.
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    EM survey - A geophysical survey employing the use of electromagnetic radiations whose effects are measurable by a detecting device.[IMG]file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Administrator/Desktop/معجم%20هندسة%20التعدين/Mining%20Terms%20-%20E_files/em1.gif[/IMG]Entry - An underground horizontal or near-horizontal passage used for haulage, ventilation, or as a mainway; a coal heading; a working place where the coal is extracted from the seam in the initial mining; same as "gate" and "roadway," both British terms.
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    Evaluation - The work involved in gaining a knowledge of the size, shape, position and value of coal. Exploration - The search for mineral deposits and the work done to prove or establish the extent of a mineral deposit. Alt: Prospecting and subsequent evaluation.
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    Explosive - Any rapidly combustive or expanding substance. The energy released during this rapid combustion or expansion can be used to break rock.
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    Extraction - The process of mining and removal of waste or ore from a mine.



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  10. #10
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    معجم هندسة التعدين(f)

    Illustrated Mining Terms

    F
    Face – The exposed area of a ore body from which orel is being extracted.
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    Face conveyor - Any conveyor used parallel to a working face which delivers coal into another conveyor or into a car. Factor of safety - The ratio of the ultimate breaking strength of the material to the force exerted against it. If a rope will break under a load of 6000 lbs., and it is carrying a load of 2000 lbs., its factor of safety is 6000 divided by 2000 which equals 3. Fall - A mass of roof rock or coal which has fallen in any part of a mine.
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    Fan, auxiliary - A small, portable fan used to supplement the ventilation of an individual working place.
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    Fan, booster - A large fan installed in the main air current, and thus in tandem with the main fan. Fan signal - Automation device designed to give alarm if the main fan slows down or stops. Fault - A slip-surface between two portions of the earth's surface that have moved relative to each other. A fault is a failure surface and is evidence of severe earth stresses.
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    Fault zone - A fault, instead of being a single clean fracture, may be a zone hundreds or thousands of feet wide. The fault zone consists of numerous interlacing small faults or a confused zone of gouge, breccia, or mylonite.
    Feeder - A machine that feeds coal onto a conveyor belt evenly. Fence - a bulkhead or dam constructed in a stope to contain tailings. Fill - Any material that is put back in place of the extracted ore to provide ground support.
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    Firing - the detonation of a charge of dynamite or other explosive.Fissure - An extensive crack, break, or fracture in the rocks
    Flat-lying - Said of deposits and coal seams with a dip up to 5 degrees.
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    Float - the loose and scattered pieces of ore which have broken from an outcrop.Float dust - Fine coal-dust particles carried in suspension by air currents and eventually deposited in return entries. Dust consisting of particles of coal that can pass through a No. 200 sieve. Flotation - A milling process by which some mineral particles are induced to become attached to bubbles and float, and others to sink. Floor - That part of any underground working upon which a person walks or upon which haulage equipment travels; simply the bottom or underlying surface of an underground excavation. Flue Gas Desulfurization – Any of several forms of chemical/physical processes that remove sulfur compounds formed during coal combustion. The devices, commonly called "scrubbers," combine the sulfur in gaseous emissions with another chemical medium to form inert "sludge" which must then be removed for disposal.
    Fluidized Bed Combustion – A process with a high degree of ability to remove sulfur from coal during combustion. Crushed coal and limestone are suspended in the bottom of a boiler by an upward stream of hot air. The coal is burned in this bubbling, liquid-like (or "fluidized") mixture. Rather than released as emissions, sulfur from combustion gases combines with the limestone to form a solid compound recovered with the ash.
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    Fluvial -deposit in, or pertaining to, rivers; Fly ash – The finely divided particles of ash suspended in gases resulting from the combustion of fuel. Electrostatic precipitators are used to remove fly ash from the gases prior to the release from a power plant's smokestack. Formation – Any assemblage of rocks which have some character in common, whether of origin, age, or composition. Often, the word is loosely used to indicate anything that has been formed or brought into its present shape.Fossil fuel – Any naturally occurring fuel of an organic nature, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas.Footwall - The wall or rock on the underside of a vein or ore structure. Fracture - A general term to include any kind of discontinuity in a body of rock if produced by mechanical failure, whether by shear stress or tensile stress. Fractures include faults, shears, joints, and planes of fracture cleavage.
    Friable - Easy to break, or crumbling naturally. Descriptive of certain rocks and minerals.
    Fuse - A cord-like substance used in the ignition of explosives. Black powder is entrained in the cord and, when lit, burns along the cord at a set rate. A fuse can be safely used to ignite a cap, which is the primer for an explosive.
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