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  1. #51
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The interfaces support either DCE or DTE terminations depending on the type of cable connected to the interface. The synchronous serial port adapter depicted in Figure 2.44 is available on the Cisco 7500, 7000 and 7200 series routers.
        1. Single Port Molex 200-pin receptacle The Molex 200-pin receptacle supports a wide variety of synchronous serial interfaces. Each Molex receptacle interface provides up to eight synchronous serial interfaces using a special cable designed for supporting the desired electrical interface specification. The Molex runs full-duplex mode supporting either 1.544 Mbps (T1) or 2.048 Mbps (E1) speeds for V.35 and X.21 interfaces. Support for EIA/TIA-232 interfaces allows up to eight ports operating full-duplex mode at 64 Kbps. Figure 2.45 illustrates the 200-pin Molex receptacle. These port adapters are available on the 7x00 family of routers.
        2. Synchronous Serial E1-G.703/G.704 The E1-G.703/G.704 serial interface is an International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication (ITU-T) standard for serial line speeds of 2.048 Mbps on E1 lease lines. The port adapter supports up to four synchronous serial interfaces framed and unframed service. The interfaces are ordered with eight unbalanced 75-ohm or balanced 120-ohm. Figure 2.46 diagrams the Synchronous Serial E1-G.703/G.704 port adapter.
        3. Token Ring The Token Ring port adapter provides up to four IEEE 802.5 token ring interfaces at either 4 or 16 Mbps. The port adapter is available on the 7x00 family of routers and comes in two models. A half-duplex and full-duplex model. The full-duplex model realizes an aggregate speed of 32 Mbps. Figure 2.47 illustrates the token ring port adapter.
        4. FDDI The FDDI port adapter comes in two flavors: half-duplex and full-duplex. Each of these flavors is available with two multimode or single-mode interfaces at a maximum bandwidth of 100 Mbps per port. Each port adapter supports the optical bypass switching capability. Figure 2.48 diagrams the single and multimode FDDI port adapters. The full-duplex option enables the FDDI port adapter to realize and aggregate speed of 200 Mbps per port. The FDDI port adapters are available for all the Cisco 7x00 family of routers.
        5. HSSI HSSI port adapters are configurable with either one or two HSSI interfaces. Each interface uses the EIA/TIA 612/613 high speed standard to provide T3 (45 Mbps), E3 (34 Mbps) and SONET STS-1 (51.82 Mbps) data rates. Figure 2.49 illustrates the HSSI port adapter which is available on all Cisco 7x00 routers.
        6. Compression Service Adapter
    Bandwidth for many installation is a valuable asset. Compressing data prior to transmission enables routers to transmit fore information than would be allowed without compression. The Compression Service adapters off-load compression and decompression functions from the host processor for inbound and outbound traffic over channelized E1/ISDN PRI, channelized T1/ISDN PRI, BRI ISDN and synchronous serial port adapters. Figure 2.50 diagrams the two models for the compression service adapters.
    The first model has 786 KB of memory enabling it to handle compression/decompression for up to 64 WAN links. The second model is configured with 3 MB of memory in support of 256 WAN links. Both models of the compression service adapter are available on the entire Cisco 7x00 family of routers.
      1. 4000 Series
    The Cisco 4x00 router platform is based on the use of network processor modules (NPM). Using the NPMs a 4x00 router can combine many different types of interface connections in support of various networking requirements. The 4x00 series router platform is available in three models. Each model looks identical as depicted in Figure 2.51, with different interface support and processing power. The models 4000-M, 4500-M and 4700-M can mix and match the NPMs using the three available slots. The low-end 4000-M model supports the following NPMs:
      • Ethernet
      • Token Ring
      • FDDI
      • Serial
      • ISDN BRI
      • Channelized E1/T1 ISDN PRI



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  2. #52
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The higher-end 4500-M and 4700-M routers support the following network interfaces in any combination using the three available slots:
      • Ethernet
      • Token Ring
      • FDDI
      • HSSI
      • High-density serial
      • ISDN BRI
      • Channelized E1/T1 ISDN PRI
      • ATM OC-3c
      • ATM DS-3
      • ATM E3
    The NPMs available for each router platform come in various port configurations. Though some have multiple ports the 4000 series platform supports full wire speed on each port. Each NPM has the following port configurations:
      • 1-, 2-, or 6-port Ethernet
      • 1-port Fast Ethernet
      • 1 or 2-port Token Ring
      • 1-port multimode FDDI (both single [SAS] and dual attachment station [DAS])
      • 1-port single-mode FDDI (DAS)
      • 2 or 4-port synchronous serial
      • 2-port high-speed serial and 16-port low-speed serial
      • 4 or 8-port ISDN BRI
      • 1-port channelized T1/ISDN PRI
      • 1-port channelized E1/ISDN PRI (balanced or unbalanced)
      • 4-port serial G.703 and G.704 (balanced or unbalanced)
      • 1-port HSSI
      • 1-port ATM (single-mode or multimode) OC-3c
      • 1-port ATM DS-3
      • 1-port ATM E3
    Due to the processing of the high-speed NPMs there is a maximum of two high-speed interface available on the Cisco 4500-M and Cisco 4700-M platforms. This means only two of the following NPMs may be installed and operable using the Fast Ethernet, FDDI, ATM-OC3 or DS-3 NPMs. The exception to this is that there can only be one ATM-OC3 NPM configured and operable on the 4500-M or 4700-M routers. Therefore combinations with the ATM-OC3 NPM are either one Fast Ethernet, one FDDI, one ATM-DS3 or E3, and one HSSI. The 4500 or 4700 routers can however be configured with two Fast Ethernet, two FDDI, two HSSI, or one Fast Ethernet and one FDDI, or one Fast Ethernet and one HSSI, or one FDDI and one HSSI. In these types of configuration the remaining slot may be used by the other NPMs as noted. For complete detail of NPM configurations and combinations see Appendix F.
        1. Usage The 4000 series routers were initially developed as access routers in the Cisco routing architecture. However, as depicted in Figure 2.52, the 4700-M router using the high-speed NPMs may perform the duties of a distribution router as well as an access router.
        2. Processors The processor vary on each platform. The 4000-M series uses a Motorola 40-MHz 68030 processor while the 4500-M and the 4700-M uses and IDT Orion RISC processor. The Cisco 4500-M router uses a 100 MHz IDT Orion RISC processor while the high end 4700-M platform uses a 133 MHz IDT Orion RISC processor.
        3. Memory
    Each 4000 series router comes standard with 128 KB of NVRAM which is used to store and recall the router configuration. Main memory on the router is used for executing the Cisco IOS and process routing tables. Shared memory is used to move packets between interfaces and flash memory is used to store router configurations and Cisco IOS code. Since the 4000 series is actually designed for the access layer of the Cisco routing architecture it comes with low base memory.
    The 4000-M platform comes with a base of 4 MB of Flash memory expandable to either 8 MB or 16 MB. Main memory on the 4000-M starts with 8 MB and may be expanded to 16 or 32 MB of memory. Shared memory on the 4000-M in earlier models were shipped with 1 MB of shared memory. The newer models are shipped with 4 MB of shared memory. If the 4000-M being used is an earlier model the shared memory must be upgraded to a minimum of 4 MB to support FDDI or have more the five physical or virtual interfaces defined. Shared memory is expandable to 16MB.
    The Flash memory support on the 4500-M platform is the same as that found on the 4000-M router. Main memory comes standard at 16 MB and with an upgrade to 32 MB of main memory. The 4500-M router comes standard with 4 MB of shared memory with the option to expand to 8 or 16 MB.


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  3. #53
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The 4700-M platform also comes standard with 4 MB of flash memory with upgrades to either 8 or 16 MB. Being the high end of the 4000 series platform the 4700-M comes standard with 16 MB of main memory with expansion to either 32 or 64MB of memory to handle large routing tables. Shared memory on the 4700-M is the same as that found on the 4500-M router.
      1. 3600 Series
    The 3600 series routers is one of the newer modular platforms form Cisco. This router comes in two models the 3640 and the 3620. The 3600 series provides for increased dial-up port density with newer WAN technologies like ATM. One special feature available on the 3600 series is the ability for the operator console and auxiliary console to connect to a local or remote PC at 115.2 Kbps and support for Xmodem or Ymodem protocol for loading the router IOS software directly through these ports versus having to have a network connection.
    The 3640 has more port capacity than the 3620 as shown in Figure 2.53. The 3640 is available with four network module slots while the 3620 has two network module slots available. The module slots are used to connect external media to the bus backplane of the router with network module interface cards that mix LAN and WAN media types along with asynchronous and synchronous serial connections and support for ISDN PRI and BRI interfaces.
    In support of ISDN PRI connectivity the 3640 installed with a mixed media module and three 2-port ISDN PRIN network module interface can connect up to 138 T1 or 180 (E1) B channels. This enables the 3640 as a cost effective solutions for corporate telecommuting. Using three 8-port ISDN BRI network interface modules the Cisco 3640 connects up to 48 B channels with local LAN and WAN routing capability.
    The port density on the network interface cards enables the 3640 to support up to 24 asynchronous or synchronous serial interfaces for multiple 56 Kbps connections. The 3600 series routers support the following network interfaces:
      • 1 and 4 port Ethernet network modules
      • 1 port Fast Ethernet network module
      • 1 port Ethernet and 1 port Token Ring network module
      • 4 and 8 port Asynchronous/Synchronous network module
      • 4 port serial network module
      • ISDN BRI (ST and U interfaces)
      • Channelized T1/ISDN PRI (with and without CSU)
      • Channelized E1/ISDN PRI (balanced and unbalanced)
    The 3600 series of Cisco routers require Cisco IOS software Release 11.1(7)AA and later or Release 11.2(5)P and later.
    The network modules are the cards that slide into the slots of the 3600 series routers as shown in Figure 2.54. The network modules themselves provide various interfaces for connecting external networks to the router bus backplane. Of these network modules one of the more versatile is the mixed-media network module.
    The mixed-media network module supports up to two fixed LAN interfaces and two user installable WAN interfaces. The LAN interfaces are a part of the network module itself and cannot be removed. The LAN interface support as illustrated in Figure 2.55 is one of the following:
      • 1 Ethernet port
      • 2 Ethernet ports
      • 1 Ethernet and 1 token ring port
    The Ethernet connections support both 10BaseT and AUI interfaces at 10 Mbps. The Token Ring port is either 4 or 16 Mbps using either STP or UTP wiring. The WAN expansion slots on the mixed-media network module supports the following WAN interface cards:
      • 1-port ISDN BRI WAN interface card
      • 1-port ISDN BRI with NT1 WAN interface card
      • 1-port serial WAN interface card
      • 1-port 4-wire 56 Kbps DSU/CSU WAN interface card
    Each of the WAN network interface cards are shown in Figure 2.56. The Cisco 1600 series routers also supports the Cisco 3600 ISDN BRI, ISDN with NT1 and serial interface cards. The 3600 series router requires Cisco IOS Release 11.2(4)XA, 11.2(5)P or later to properly operate the WAN interface cards ISDN BRI, ISDN with NT1, 1-port 4-wire 56 Kbps DSU/CSU interface cards.
    The network modules supporting channelized T1/E1 and ISDN PRI lines are available with a built-in CSU with one or two ports. Figure 2.57 illustrates the various channelized T1/ISDN-PRI and E1/ISDN-PRI network modules available for the 3600 series routers. Using a T1/ISDN-PRI CSU the network module connects directly to the providers network connection. Without the internal CSU the T1/ISDN PRI network module connects to an external CSU which then connects to the provides network connection. The T1 module channelizes the T1 up to 24 virtual channels per T1 port. The E1/ISDN PRI network module provides one or two E1 ports at 2.048 Mbps second in full duplex transmission. They are configured as either balanced or unbalanced and provide up to 30 virtual channels per E1 port. If the T1/E! modules are configured for using ISDN PRI they are not compatible with the 4 or 8-port ISDN BRI modules. However, when used as a "multiplexer" the ISDN BRI modules are compatible.


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  4. #54
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The ISDN BRI network modules have four different models. The use of 4 or 8 ISDN BRI ports along with S/T or on board NT1 service for each port define the four different model types as shown in Figure 2.58. The ISDN BRI network modules use local SRAM for buffer descriptor, input queues and configuration storage to increase performance. The performance of the ISND BRI 8-port model is 5,760 packet-per-second (pps) running full-duplex continuous data of 144 Kbps using 50-byte packets. The aggregate full duplex rate of the 8-port ISDN BTI network module is 2.3 Mbps. The ISDN BRI network modules include features to query the network module, SNMP traps for monitoring the network module, manageability with Ciscoworks or CiscoView and support for the ISDN MIB standard.
    For more traditional low-speed network connections the 4 and 8-port Asynchronous/Synchronous network modules are available. Figure 2.59 illustrates the two module formats. These network modules support 128 Kbps synchronous connections or 115.2 Kbps asynchronous connections per port. The ports use the DB-60 interface standard for connecting to the router.
    In support of Ethernet the 3600 series network modules are available with 1 and 4-port Ethernet connections. As shown in Figure 2.60, the 1-port Ethernet network module comes with one AUI DB-15 and one 10BaseT RJ-45 interface connections. Only one of these ports may be active at any time for this network module. The 4-port Ethernet adds to the 1-port Ethernet network module format three 10BaseT RJ-45 connections on the left side of the network module. The restriction of either the AUI or RJ-45 port be active on the right side of the 4-port Ethernet module still holds true. Cisco IOS Release level 11.2(4)XA and 11.2(5)P or later are required for operation.
    The advancement of Ethernet has dictated that the network modules keeping with the new Ethernet standards. Currently, the 3600 series routers support a 1-port Fast Ethernet network module using an RJ-45 connector or a 40-pin media-independent interface (MII).. Again, there is a restriction that only one of these interfaces may be active at any given time. The RJ-45 connects two pair Category 5 UTP wiring using the 100BaseTX standard. Using the MII an external transceiver is required to connect to a multimode optical fiber using 100BaseFX standard or it can use the 100BaseT4 standard over four-pair of Category3, 4 or 5 UTP or STP wiring. Figure 2.61 diagrams the 1-port Fast Ethernet network module for the 3600 series router which requires Cisco IOS Release 11.2(6)P or higher for operation.
    The Cisco 3640 supports a maximum of two 1-port Fast Ethernet network modules with no other network modules installed. If using the 1-port Fast Ethernet with a 4-port Ethernet network module the 3640 router may be configured for a maximum of 1 Fast Ethernet and two 4-port Ethernet network modules along with other network modules.
    Using the high-density DB-60 interface standard the 4-port serial network module can support various data rates. If only port 0 is use then the interface can realize a data rate of 8 Mbps. Using ports 0 and 2 the data rate is halved to 4 Mbps per port and using all four ports the data rate is halved again to maximum of 2 Mbps per port.
        1. Usage The 3600 series routers are designed for the access layer of the Cisco router architecture. As shown in Figure 2.62, the 3640 is ideal for use by ISPs to have many points-of-presence (POPs) or for telecommuting to a corporate environment. The 3620 provides for small office connectivity and local LAN and WAN connections using mixed media network modules.
        2. Processors and Memory
    The two models of the Cisco 3600 series use different processors. The Cisco 3640: uses the 100-MHz IDT R4700 RISC processor and the Cisco 3620 uses the 80-MHz IDT R4600 RISC processor. The 3600 series uses a single DRAM pool which is partitioned main and shared memory areas. This partitioning of DRAM makes memory calculation difficult when configuring the 3600 router platforms. Appendix F identifies some guidelines on how to configure the proper amount of DRAM for the 3600 routers. The 3600 series also uses flash memory. Both the DRAM and flash using the SIMM chips for memory allowing field upgrades and replacements. The standard flash memory is 4 MB. However, the flash memory can be upgraded to a maximum of 48 MB for both the 3620 and 3640 routers. Each routers comes with a base of 16 MB of DRAM which is expandable on the 3620 to 64 MB and on the 3640 to 128 MB. In addition to on board flash memory the 3600 series has PCMCIA two slots available in support of 4MB to 128 MB of flash using two 64 MB PCMCIA flash cards.
      1. 2600 Series
    The Cisco 2600 series router platform extends the modular format of the 3600 series into the smaller remote branch office. The modularity of the 2600 series enables these small offices to deploy voice/fax/video along with data in a single versatile network appliance. The Cisco 2600 shares many of the same network module interfaces with the 3600 and 1600 router platforms. The 2600 series supports one network module slot, two WAN Interface Card slots and a new interface slot dubbed Advanced Integration Module (AIM). Cisco maximizes uptime on the 2600series through the use of an external Redundant Power Supply (RPS) and Cisco IOS dial-on demand routing features for the restoration of both data an voice connections automatically should the primary link failure occur.
    The 2600 series comes in two flavors: a single Ethernet (2610) or a dual Ethernet interface (2611). The WAN interface card slots support:
      • Serial
      • ISDN BRI
      • Built in CSU/DSU functions
    The network modules add needed support for:
      • Multiservcie voice/data/fax integration
      • Deparmental dial concentraion
      • High-density serial concentration
    The AIM slot supports added features for optimization through hardware assisted data compression and encryption.
    An auxiliary port with the ability for use as a 115 Kbps Dial ON Demand Routing interface for WAN back-up connectivity is standard on both the 2610 and 2611 models. Figure 2.63 shows the rear panel of the 2600 models.
    The Cisco 2600 shares many of the data network modules with the 3600 series routers. These shared data network modules are:
    • 16-port high density async network module - NM-16A
    • 32-port high density async network module - NM-32A
    • 4-port low speed (128 Kbps max) async/sync serial network module1-NM-4A/S1
    • 8-port low speed (128 Kbps max) async/sync serial network module - NM-8A/S
    The following Voice/fax network modules and interface cards are shared with the 3600 series router:
    • One-slot Voice/Fax Network Module - NM-1V
    • Two-slot Voice/Fax Network Module - NM-2V
    • Two-port FXS Voice /Fax Interface Card - VIC-2FXS
    • Two-port FXO Voice /Fax Interface Card - VIC-2FXO
    • Two-port E/M Voice /Fax Interface Card - VIC-2E/M



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  5. #55
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The 2600 series also shares WAN Interface Cards (WICs) with the 1600 and 3600 series routers. These cards are the:
    • One-port serial WAN Interface Card - WIC-1T
    • One-port 4-wire 56 Kbps DSU/CSU - WIC-1DSU-56K4
    • One-port ISDN BRI - WIC-1B-S/T
    • One-port ISDN BRI with NT1 -WIC-1B-U
    WICs unique to the 2600 series support the following configuration:
    • 2-Port Serial WAN Interface Card for Cisco 26002 - WIC-2T2
    • 2-Port Async/Sync Serial WAN Interface Card for Cisco 26002 - WIC-2A/S2
        1. Usage Based on its size and purpose we can see that the 2600 series falls into the access layer of the Cisco layered network topology. Multiservices have become quite desirable for reducing communications network infrastructure cost while at the same time enhancing application functionality. Using the QoS features built into the Cisco IOS software small branch offices and participate is voice-enabled desktop applications and desktop video.
          Using the modular features the 2600 can serve as a dial services concentrator for remote office and remote user access by supporting up to 36 high-speed asynchronous ports using PPP, SLIP, ARA and Xremote protocols. As shown in Figure 2.64, this enables casual connection for these remote locations to the corporate WAN through the WAN interface cards available on the two 2600 models.
          The various WAN modules and WAN Interface Card slot options enable the 2600 series routers to be a serial device concentrator. Through the power of the Cisco IOS and optional support of upto 12 synchronous serial interfaces the 2600 protects legacy sysetm investment for SDLC, bisynch and asynch devices. Ideally, this ability in combination with the Ethernet LAN interfaces and integrated CSU/DSU and ISDN BRI WAN interface cards allows a network designer to provide a solution for connecting retail, financial and sales branch offices.
        2. Processor The 2600 series router has a Motorola MPC860 40 MHz CPU with a 20 MHz internal bus clock.
        3. Memory
    The system memory (DRAM) comes in two DIMM slots. The default memory size is 16MB with expansion to a total of 64 MB. Flash memory is incorporated on the processor board using a single SIMM slot supporting a default of 4 MB with expansion to 16 MB. The DRAM on the 2600 uses pooled DRAM memory. The DRAM is partitioned between processor and packet memory areas. The default 16 MB of DRAM is partitioned into 12 MB for processor and 4 MB for packet memory.
    Cisco IOS Release 11.3(2)XA and 11.3(3)T and higher. The Cisco IOS may be loaded into the router using the LAN interface and TFTP or using the auxiliary or console port using Ymodem or Xmodem protocols. This is valuable for remote dial-up restoration of a damaged IOS or for updating the stored configuration file.
      1. 2500 Series
    The 2500 series router platform from Cisco provides specific access layer functions for small offices or small business. The 2500 series comes in many different solution formats. These are:
      • Single LAN routers
      • Mission-Specific routers
      • Router/hub combinations
      • Dual LAN routers
      • Modular routers
    Additionally, the 2500 series comes in an access server offering for supporting remote dial-up access to enterprise networks The Cisco access servers are not discussed in this text. The console and auxiliary ports on the 2500 series use RJ-45 connectors. Any 2500 series model ordered comes with a cable kit to connect an RJ-45-to-RJ-45 using a roll-over console cable, an RJ-45-to-DB-25 male DCE adapter, an RJ-45-to-DB-25 female DTE adapter, and an RJ-45-to-DB-9 female DTE adapter for connecting PCs or modems to the these ports. The low-speed serial asynch-/synchronous ports on all the models support asynchronous connections up to 115.2 Kbps and synchronous connections up to 2 Mbps.
    The single LAN routers come in eight models. Each model has a different combination of non-upgradeable or non-field modifiable interfaces. The 2501 shown in Figure 2.65 provides a single Ethernet 10 Mbps port and two synchronous serial interfaces. The Ethernet uses a DB-9 AUI port which may require an external transceiver to connect to an RJ-45 LAN hub interface. The two serial ports use DB-60 connectors and all data rates up to 2 Mbps.
    The 2502 router pictured in Figure 2.65 has a token-ring LAN interface instead of an Ethernet AUI port. The token-ring interface uses DB-9 connection which may require a converter to an RJ-45 connector for connecting to a LAN hub. The token –ring interface is configurable as 4 or 16 Mbps data rates.
    The addition of a single ISDN BRI port on the is shown on the 2503 and 2504 routers in Figure 2.65. Note that the 2503/2504 is the same as the 2501/2502 with the exception of the ISDN BRI ports. The ISDN BRI ports have an internal ISDN Terminal Adapter. These ports must connect to an ISDN NT1 device for switched ISDN connectivity.
    Support for low-speed asynch-/synchronous serial lines is provided by the 2520/2521 platforms pictured in Figure 2.66. There are two low-speed connections with asynchronous data rates up to 115.2 Kbps and synchronous data rates up to 128 Kbps. Additionally, the LAN ports for Ethernet and Token-ring are also provided with an RJ-45 connection interface. Only one LAN interface is allowed to be configured and operative at any one time.


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  6. #56
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The 2520/2521 also provides a single ISDN BRI port. The 2520 Ethernet AUI or 10BaseT RJ-45/UTP adapter supports 10 Mbps and the 2521 token-ring DB-9 or RJ-45/UTP adapter supports 4 or 16 Mbps data rates.
    The last two models, pictured in Figure 2.67, in the single LAN category of the 2500 series routers provides for up to eight low-speed asynch-/synchronous and two high-speed communications interfaces, a single ISDN BRI and a single LAN interface. The 2522 provides for Ethernet at 10 Mbps using an AUI or a 10BaseT RJ-45 connection. The 2523 model supports the 4 or 16 Mbps token-ring speeds using either the DB-9 or RJ-45 UTP ports.
    Mission specific entry level routers in the 2500 series come in twelve unique offerings. The mission specific router models are configured with less memory than the single LAN models and execute IOS software images specifically designed for the CFRAD (CF), LAN FRAD (LF) and ISDN requirements. The special IOS images disable/enable unused ports through software. These mission specific routers give the single LAN router platforms the ability to act as frame relay access devices for connecting the location to frame relay networks without having to connect through a separate frame relay access piece of equipment. The CF models allow the router to also act as a frame relay switch for delivering information through frame relay networks. These models are however upgradeable to full functionality through full function IOS software and added memory.
    The mission-specific routers are the exact models of the single LAN routers however, through the software have limited functionality. The 2501CF/2502CF routers have their respective LAN ports disabled by the IOS software and only allows configuration of the two high speed serial interfaces. The 2501LF/2502LF have their LAN ports enabled along with the ability to send LAN traffic through frame relay networks directly.
    The 2503I/2504I provide for Ethernet and Token-Ring LAN connectivity respectively through ISDN BRI connections. The high speed serial connections available on the router are software disabled.
    The 2520CF, 2521CF, 2522CF and 2523CF routers all have their ISDN BRI ports disabled and their respective LAN interfaces also disabled. The low- and high-speed ports are enabled and functional.
    The 2520LF, 2521LF, 2522LF and 2523LF have all their LAN and WAN ports enabled however their ISDN BRI ports are disabled by the software.
    For locations where a single device to support both routing and LAN connectivity for workgroups and small offices the Cisco 2500 series router/hub combinations is available in six different formats. Each format supports only one LAN segment but has multiple ports available for connecting workstations or servers. The integrated hubs on these router platforms save the small business or small office equipment and software costs while providing a full LAN/WAN solution.
    The 2505, 2507, 2516 and 2518 router/hub offerings, diagrammed in Figures 2.68 and 2.69, provide a single segment Ethernet LAN environment.
    Caption; The 2505/2507 models of the Cisco 2500 series router.
    The 2505 supports up to eight Ethernet connections, the 2507 supports sixteen, the 2516 supports fourteen and the 2518 supports twenty-three Ethernet LAN connections to the hub. The router card of the 2518 connects to port 24 of the Ethernet hub allowing the 2518 to route LAN traffic over the WAN. The AUI port on the 2518 allows the 2518 to connect to an external Ethernet hub expanding the reach of the LAN segment. Both the 2516 and the 2518 have the ability to expand to five hubs using Lanoptics hub expansion units. Each platform has two high-speed serial interfaces. Only the 2505/2507 do not provide for an ISDN BRI interfaces.
    The 2517 and 2519 support toke-ring LAN segments. The 2517 model allows for eleven token-ring LAN connections to the hub while the 2519 supports up to twenty-three token-ring LAN segments to the hub. The hub interfaces can either be 4 or 16 Mbps but all the ports must be using the same data rate. The 2519 contains a token-ring ring-in/ring-out ports for cascading token-ring hub equipment thereby increasing the size of the token-ring segment. Additionally, the ring ports 1-12 may be defined as a separate token-ring segment from ports 13-24. Both the 2517 and 2519 have router cards with token-ring RJ-45 connectors. The router cards attach to port 12 of the 2517 and port 24 of the 2519 routers. This enables the routers to transport LAN traffic over a WAN. The 2517 allows a single port on the 11 available ports to connect to another hub using an RJ-45 cross-over cable expanding the token-ring segment. On the 2519 the ring-in/ring-out ports allow for the expansion of the segment. An expansion unit is found on the top of the 2517 and 2519 to expand the hub to five hubs using Lanoptics supplied hubs. Both of these models have a single ISDN BRI port for switched backup use or bandwidth on demand use in conjunction with two high speed serial ports.
    Small offices requiring more than one LAN are supported by the dual LAN router models. These are available in three different models. Figure 2.70 depicts the three dual LAN routers. All three models do not have ISDN BRI ports available. The 2513 supports one Ethernet 10 Mbps LAN segment and one toke-ring 4 or 16 Mbps LAN segments with two high-speed serial interfaces. The 2514 supports two Ethernet 10 Mbps LAN segments using AUI ports and the 2515 supports two Token-ring LAN segments at 4 or 16 Mbps using DB-9 connectors.


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  7. #57
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    User Info Menu

    The modular routers in the 2500 series give the network engineer the ability to change and adapt the 2500 series routers unlike the previous models mentioned. There are two types of modular 2500 series routers. The two modular router models shown in Figure 2.71 differentiate themselves by the LAN support
    . The 2524 connects Ethernet LANs while the 2525 provides Token Ring connections. Both allow up to three WAN modules configuring up to two synchronous serrial and one ISDN. The modules are available in the following configurations:
      • 2-wire, switched, 56-kbps DSU/CSU
      • 4-wire, 56/64-kbps DSU/CSU
      • Fractional T1/T1 DSU/CSU
      • Five-in-one synchronous serial
      • ISDN BRI
      • ISDN with integrated NT1 device
    The three available slots shown in Figure 2.71 on the 2524 and 2525 are used for the WAN interfaces. The WAN slot on the right of the unit is keyed to allow only the ISDN BRI interface cards be installed. Likewise, the ISDN BRI cannot be installed in the first two WAN slots starting on the left of the router. The 2-wire, Switched 56 Kbps DSU/CSU WAN module allows for 56 Kbps dial up connections through the plain old telephone service (POTS) using an RJ-11 connection. The module connects directly form the RJ-11 port on the module to the RJ-11 port on the wall for connecting to the public telephone network.
    The 4-wire 56/64 Kbps DSU/CSU WAN Module, Figure 2.71, for the 2524 and 2525 router provides dedicated leased line synchronous serial connections up to 64 Kbps using and RJ-48S connector directly to the wall plate connecting the line to the communications network.
    The fractional T1/T1 DSU/CSU WAN module, shown in Figure 2.71, uses an RJ-48C connector to the network. This module supporting a 1.544 Mbps line provides either Nx56 or Nx64 channels up to a total of 24 individual channels at each speed. Each channel is defined as if it were its own unique interface.
    The ISDN modules pictured in Figure 2.72 provide ISDN BRI connectivity using RJ-45 S/T connections. The ISDN BRI supports two B channels and one D channel. The two B channels together allow for a switched connection of 128 Kbps. The ISDN BRI module contains its own Terminal adapter and must be connected to an external NT1 device. The second ISDN BRI module has an integrated NT1 device and connects directly to the ISDN BRI port installed by the network provider.
    The five in one synchronous serial WAN module shown in Figure 2.73 enables the one interface to support the following electrical interface standards using the appropriate cables:
      • EIA/TIA-232
      • EIA/TIA-449
      • V.35
      • X.21
      • EIA-530
    The router side of the cable used has a DB-60 connector. The opposite end is headed with the appropriate interface required as specified by the line connection requirements.
        1. Usage The 2500 series has many different uses and in some ways can provide both distributed an access layer functions. For example, in Figure 2.73 a 2525 is used to connect a location to a frame relay network with a 56 Kbps switched dial backup line to another 2525 at a different location. Meanwhile a 2519 at a third sight connects a token ring LAN to a corporate center using a 256 Kbps line to a multiplexer attached to a 2424 with a Fractional T1 WAN module servicing all three remote sights and connecting them to a core router in the larger corporate backbone.
        2. Processor and Memory
    All the 2500 series router platforms use the Motorola 20 MHz 68030 processor. Each system comes with a minimum of 8 MB of flash memory. The minimum system memory provided with the routers is 4 MB of DRAM partitioned between shared and primary DRAM memory. The total amount of DRAM available on the 2500 series graduates from 4 to 8 to 16 MB. All configurations of DRAM are partitioned into 2 MB of shared memory. The remaining DRAM is used for primary DRAM resulting in 2, 6 and 14 MB of primary DRAM respectively. For completeness consult Appendix G on 2500 series router memory requirements and IOS software feature support.
      1. 1600 Series For small offices or offices with occasional connectivity requirements Cisco offers the 1600 series router platform. The 1600 series had four models. The 1601, 1602, 1603 and 1604. All the models come equipped with one Ethernet 10 Mbps port, a built-in WAN port and one WAN interface card expansion slot for added bandwidth and flexibility. The WAN ports support ISDN BRI, asynchronous serial up to 115.2 Kbps, synchronous serial connections up to 2.048 Mbps.
        The 1601 has a built-in serial WAN port for leased line connection rates up to 2.048 Mbps. The 1602 uses the built-in WAN port for a 56 Kbps 4-wire CSU/DSU interface thereby eliminating an external CSU/DSU device. The 1603 has a built in ISDN BRI S/T port with a Terminal Adapter requiring connectivity to an external NT1 device. The 1604 removes the external NT1 connection for the built in ISDN BRI port by including the NT1 device internally. IN addition, the n1604 includes an ISDN-S port which allows the router to connect to an ISDN telephone or fax on the second B channel of the same ISDN line. Figure 2.75 illustrates the front of all the 1600 routers and the rear views of the four individual offerings. The expansion slot of the 1603 and 1604 is not available for a second ISDN port. However, the 1601 and 1602 can mix and match all the available WAN module for the expansion slot.
        There are three WAN interface expansion modules available with the 1600 series routers. Figure 2.76 diagrams their interface plates. The serial WAN interface expansion module provides EIA/TIA-232, V.35, X.21, EIA/TIA-499, and EIA-530 standard interfaces with support for 115.2 Kbps asynchronous and up to 2.048 Mbps synchronous connections. The proper cable must be installed to support the various interface requirements for successful operation. The ISDN BRI S/T supports two B channels and one D Channel for data only. The ISDN BRI U with a built in NT1 allows connectivity to the a switched ISDN network without the use of an external NT1 device.
        1. Usage The 1600 series routers are an ideal low cost solution for small remote sales offices or telecommuters with need for high-speed connectivity or casual connectivity to a single Ethernet LAN segment with IP/IPX or AppleTalk communication requirements. The 1600 series is the quintessential access layer router as shown in Figure 2.77.
        2. Processor and Memory
        The 1600 series uses the Motorola 68360 33 MHz processor. Each unit comes with a base of 4 MB of flash which is expandable to 12 MB. Flash expansion can go from 4 to 6MB or 4 to 8 MB or 4 to 12 MB. The DRAM comes with a bas e of 2 MB of memory expandable to a maximum of 18 MB.
      2. 700M Family of Access Routers
    The Cisco 700M family is an ISDN multiprotocol access router. The 700M family supports ISDN basic rate interface (BRI) of 56, 64 or 128 Kbps remote access connections. The Cisco 700M family of access routers comes in two series: the 760 and 770. The 760 series has one Ethernet 10Mbps LAN interface and an ISDN BRI port. The 770 series includes a built in 4-port 10 Mbps Ethernet hub, ISDN BRI along with a call connect/disconnect switch on the format of the router to allow the user to manually connect or disconnect the ISDN BRI data linen connection.
    The 760/770 series is broken further down into four models. Their features and functions are:
      • 761M/771M (h5906/ h8503)
    Shown in Figure 2.78, these models require an external Network Termination 1 (NT1) device for connectivity. It is based on the Intel 25 MHz 386 processor and comes with 1.5MB expandable to 2 MB over DRAM. The on-board NVRAM is 16 KB with a 1 MB flash memory. It can support up ton 1500 users and is available worldwide.
      • 762M/772M (h5905/h8504)
    Shown in Figure 2.79, these models include an internal Network Termination 1 (NT1) device for connectivity. Additionally, these models have a second BRI port for external ISDN device connectivity or a second ISDN BRI line. It is based on the Intel 25 MHz 386 processor and comes with 1.5MB expandable to 2 MB over DRAM. The on-board NVRAM is 16 KB with a 1 MB flash memory. It can support up ton 1500 users and is available in North America only.
      • 765M/775M (h5789/h8502)
    Shown in Figure 2.80, these models require an external Network Termination 1 (NT1) device for connectivity. It also includes two analog POTS RJ-11 ports for attaching phones, fax machines and modems to share the ISDN BRI simultaneously with data. This model also supports provider supplemental services over ISDN such as: call waiting, cancel call-waiting, call retrieve, call hold, 3-way call conferencing, and call transfer. It is based on the Intel 386 processor and comes with 1.5MB expandable to 2 MB over DRAM. The on-board NVRAM is 16 KB with a 1 MB flash memory. It can support up to 1500 users and is available worldwide.
      • 766M/776M (h5788/h7861)
    Shown in Figure 2.81, these models include an internal Network Termination 1 (NT1) device for connectivity. Additionally, these models have a second BRI port for external ISDN device connectivity or a second ISDN BRI line. It also includes two analog POTS RJ-11 ports for attaching phones, fax machines and modems to share the ISDN BRI simultaneously with data. This model also supports provider supplemental services over ISDN such as: call waiting, cancel call-waiting, call retrieve, call hold, 3-way call conferencing, and call transfer. It is based on the Intel 386 processor and comes with 1.5MB expandable to 2 MB over DRAM. The on-board NVRAM is 16 KB with a 1 MB flash memory. It can support up ton 1500 users and is available North America only.


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  8. #58
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    The 700M family can act as the DHCP server for the LAN attached devices assigning the remote locations IP addresses to the attached workstations. The 700M family can also have its IP or IPX addresses assigned from the provider or central site network connection using Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MPPP). The ISDN BRI connection can dial-on demand dynamically when it senses "interesting" traffic as defined by the remote location network administrator. This feature is useful when one ISDN BRI B channel connects to one location and traffic is generated for a second location. The second B channel can be activated for the life of the interesting traffic and then terminated. Also useful is setting FTP traffic as interesting to the router when transferring large file to another location by bringing up the second B channel to increase bandwidth.
    In typical configurations there are many LAN workstation requiring access to another remote location. In many instances the 700M is used as a connection to the Internet. Internet service providers (ISPs) typically provide only one Internet address for the location. The 700M uses a many-into-one feature called Port and Address Translation (PAT) to over come this single address restriction. PAT is also used as a firewall function allowing to protect unknown resources from accessing the remote locaiton and privileging internal devices to access the Internet. The access can include web browsing, e-mail or file transfer to devices on the remote LAN network.
    As described the 700M family is an access router. It's typical use is for occasional connectivity requirements from a remote location to another location. The location may be another remote office, the Internet or a central office location.


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  9. #59
    عضو فعال

    User Info Menu

    هناك برنامج وهو موجود في المنتدى اسمه RouterSim CCNA و هو يحاكي بناء الشبكات على أرض الواقع. و هناك softwereاسمه Opnet أعم يستخدم standersاخرىمثل ieee,cisco لكن لازم تسجل فيه بالواقع أنا استخدمته وفي بالموقع نسخة أكاديمية و فيها تجارب على مستويات مكتب،منطقة ،العالم ... www.opnet.com اختار منهuniversity program على يسار الصفحة وبعدين بتسجل في New Users: Register & Download ثم يبعثلك الموقع بتفاصيل تنزيل البرنامج .
    ملا حظة :حجم البرنامج حوالي 45Mb.
    انشاء الله تستفيدوا منه ،و لازال عندي بعض المعلومات عن الcisco سأقوم بتحميلها لاحقاً ان شاء الله.
    و السلام ختام


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  10. #60

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