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مساعدة..انظمة العقود

  1. #11
    عضو

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    شكرا وجزاكم الله خيرا


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  2. #12
    عضو

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    نماذج عقود

    السلام عليكم جميعا . ومشكورين على جهودكم لنشر العلم وجزاكم الله كل خيركأضافة متواضعة على موضوع نماذج العقود

    الملفات المرفقة الملفات المرفقة

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  3. #13
    جديد

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    الاخ mahmoud 2 بارك الله فيك كنت ابحث عنه طويلا


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  4. #14
    عضو

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    جزاك الله خيرا


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  5. #15

  6. #16
    عضو فعال

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    في العقود الهندسية هناك صيغة عقود ونماذج دولية ولا تختلف كتيرامن دولة لأخرى
    والصيغ التي ذكرها الزميل Cost Engineer تعتمد على استراتيجية العقد المتبعه حتى يتم اختيار النموذج المناسب منها. اود ان اذكر بان هناك خلط بين المواضيع التاليه:
    - نماذج العقود
    - إستراتيجيات التعاقد
    - صيغة العقود
    - أساليب التعاقد

    ولكل منها طريقة مختلفة ولكن هناك من يخلط بين المسميات المذكورة ويقصد بها معنى واحد.


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    أخوكم/ مهندس المشاريع


    رحمك الله يا أبانا
    عدد قطر الأمطار... وعدد ورق الأشجار... ومثاقيل ماء البحار
    رحمك الله ماتعاقب عليه الليل والنهار... والله إن العين لتدمع... وإن القلب ليحزن... وإنا على فراقك يا أبانا لمحزونون

  7. #17

  8. #18
    عضو متميز

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    جميع انواع العقود

    Contract Types
    Two principal types of contracts: cost and fixed

    Unit Price:  Simple purchase order
     Fixed price per unit of goods or service
    Cost-Plus-Award-Fee (CPAF): (from the Frame Book)
    • An award pool is created. The level of award is determined by an award committee.
    • Buyers have more flexibility than CPIF. Subjective judgments can be used to determine rewards (such as a contractor's attitude).
    • Type of contract is gaining with popularity.
    • Downside: administrative cost is high due to award committee.
    The following contracts are ordered in increasing risk to the seller and decreasing risk to the buyer:
    Cost-Plus-Percentage of Cost (CPPC):
    • Seller is reimbursed for allowable costs of performing the contract and receives as profit an agreed upon percentage of the costs.
    • No limit on the seller's profit. If the seller's cost increases, so does the profit.
    • Most undesirable type of contract from buyer's standpoint.
    • Prohibited for federal government use. Used in private industry, particularly construction projects.
    • Susceptible to abuse. No motivation for seller to decrease costs.
    The buyer bears 100% of the risk.
    • The buyer project manager must pay particular attention to the control of the labor and material costs so that the seller does not purposely increase these costs.
    • Bottom line: no limit on seller's profit!
    Cost-Plus-Fixed Fee (CPFF):• Seller is reimbursed for allowable costs of performing the contract and receives as profit a fixed fee payment based on the percentage of the estimated costs.
    • The fixed fee does not vary with actual costs unless the scope of work changes.
    • Susceptible to abuse in that there is a ceiling on profit, but no motivation to decrease costs.
    • Primarily used in research projects where the effort required to achieve success is uncertain until well after the contract is signed.
    • Bottom line: limit on profit but no incentive to control costs.

    Cost-Plus-Incentive Fee (CPIF):• Seller is paid for allowable performance costs along with a predetermined fee and an incentive bonus.
    • If the final costs are less than the expected costs, both the buyer and seller benefit by the cost savings based on a pre-negotiated sharing formula.
    • The sharing formula reflects the degree of uncertainty faced by each party.
    • Primarily used when contracts involve a long performance period with a substantial amount of hardware development and test requirements.
     Risk is shared by both buyer and seller. • Bottom line: provides incentive to seller to reduce costs by increasing profit potential.

    Fixed Price-Plus-Incentive Fee (FPI):• Most complex type of contract.
    • Consists of target cost, target profit, target price, ceiling price, and share ratio.
    • For every dollar the seller can reduce costs below the target cost, the savings will be shared by the seller and buyer based on the share ratio.
    • The share ratio is a negotiated formula which reflects the degree of uncertainty faced by each party. • If the costs exceed the ceiling price, the seller receives no profit. Regardless of the actual costs, the buyer pays no more than the ceiling price.
     Risk is shared by both buyer and seller, but risk is usually higher for seller. • Usually used when contracts are for a substantial sum and involve a long production time.
    • Bottom line: provides incentive to decrease costs which in turn increases profits. If costs exceed a ceiling, then contractor is penalized.

    Firm-Fixed Price (FFP):• Seller agrees to perform a service or furnish supplies at the established contract price.
    • Will also be called lump sum.
     Seller bears the greatest degree of risk. • Seller is motivated to decrease costs by producing efficiently.
    • Best specifications are available and costs are relatively certain.
    • Common type of contract. (Used by IBM)

    Examples of Contract TypesCPPC: Cost-Plus-Percentage of Cost Estimated cost: $1,000K
     Percentage: 10% ($100K)
     Estimated total price: $1,100K (Estimated cost + 10%*Estimated cost)
     If cost increases to $1,100K the total price would be $1,100K plus 10% of the actual costs = $1,210K.

    CPFF: Cost-Plus-Fixed Fee Estimated cost: $1,000K
     Percentage: 10% ($100K)
     Estimated total price: $1,100K (Estimated cost + 10%*Estimated cost)
     If cost increases to $1,100K the total price would be $1,100K plus 10% of the original estimated costs = $1,200K.


    CPIF: Cost-Plus-Incentive Fee Estimated cost: $1,000K
     Predetermined fee: $100K
     Sharing formula: 85/15 (buyer absorbs 85% of the uncertainty and the seller absorbs 15% of the risk)
     Actual cost: $800K
     Savings: $200K
     Seller gets: $800K + $100K + $30K = $930K (Actual cost + Fee + 15%*Savings)
     Buyer saves: $170K

    FPI: Fixed Price-Plus-Incentive Fee Target cost: $1,000K
     Target profit: $100K (Seller's fee)
     Target price: $1,100K
     Ceiling price: $1,200K (The maximum payout to the seller)
     Share ratio: 70/30

    Example A: Actual cost: $800K
     Savings: $200K (Target cost - Actual cost)
     Seller gets: $800K + $100K + 60K = $960K (Actual cost + fee + 30%*savings)
     Buyer saves: $140K
    Example B: Actual cost: $1,300K
     Seller gets: $1,200K (no profit and a $100K loss on costs)
     Buyer loses: $100K (the payout is $100K over Target price = Ceiling Price)

    FFP: (Lump Sum) Firm-Fixed Price Price: $1,000K
    Example A: Actual cost: $700K
     Seller makes a profit of $300K (Price - Actual Cost)
    Example B: Final cost $1,100K
     Seller loses $100K on contract



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    التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة nagopc ; 2007-02-04 الساعة 02:35 AM
    معماري: هشام محمد سمير

    ارجو عدم ارسال اي شكر حتي لا يضيع وقت الباحث في تصفح صفحات تخلو من المادة العلمية

  9. #19
    عضو فعال

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    شكرا أخي الكريم , وجزاك الله خيرا


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  10. #20
    عضو فعال

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    مجهود مشكور


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    عبد الله فهد

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